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Early Trade to India Discovery of the monsoons-Por-

tuguese Discoveries—Passage of Cape of Good Hope

- Voyage of Vasco de Gama-Voyage of Cabral-Se-

cond Voyage of Gama--Of the Albuquerques-Soarez

-Almeida-Albuquerque-Conquest of Goa-Of Ma-

lacca-Extent of Portuguese Empire in the East-

Defence of Diu-Of Goa-Voyages of the Dutch-

Their Trade and Settlements-The French................ 49


Early Voyages of the English-Land-trade-Travels of

Fitch-First Company Established-Voyage of Lan-

caster-Of Middleton-Of Sharpey-Second Voyage

of Middleton-Of Hippon and Floris—Nature of the

English Trade-Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe-Rivalry

between the Dutch and English-Depression of the

Portuguese-Massacre of Amboyna..........................



Courten's Association-Settlement at Madras-At Bala-

sore-Union of Companies--Defence of the Factory

at Surat-Disobedience of their Servants --Conflict

with the Native Powers, and Abandonment of Bengal

-Rival Company-Union of the Two Companies-

Organization of the Company at Home and in India-

Privileges obtained in Bengal........



French Settlements in India-M. de Labourdonnais-

M. Dupleix-Taking of Madras—Treaty broken by

Dupleix-Attempt on Fort St. David-Siege of Pon-



Kingdom of Tanjore-Taking of Devi Cottah-Affairs of

the Carnatic-Robert Clive-His Defence of Arcot-

Further Successes of Clive-Defeats of the French-

Treaty between the French and English-Treatment

of Dupleix-Further Operations of the English-Ill.

treatment of Bussy.......................



Sübahdâry of Bengal-Aliverdi Khân-Suraj-ud-dowlah

-Capture of Calcutta—The Black Hole-Destruction

of the Pirate Angria-Expedition to Bengal


Retaking of Calcutta-Capture of Hooghly-Attack on

the Sùbahdâr's Camp-Capture of Chandernagore-

Conspiracy against the Sùbahdar-Case of Omichund

-Battle of Plassy - Death of Suraj-ud-dowlah - of




War in the Carnatic-Relief of Trichinopoly-Arrival of

Count Lally-Capture of Fort St. David-Invasion of

Tanjore-Siege of Madras—Capture of Masulipatam

-Mutiny in French Army-Arrival of Coote-Cap-

ture of Wandewash and Carangoly-Battle of Wande-

wash-Siege and Capture of Pondicherry-Destruc-

tion of the French Power in India-Fate of Lally ..... 77

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Interference with Native States - Expedition to the

Persian Gulf-Capture of Isle of Bourbon - Naval

Disasters - Capture of Isle of France-Of Java-

Decoity-Renewal of Company's Charter.................. 156


Origin of Nepalese War-Plan of the War-Failure at

Kalunga_Capture of that Fort- Failure at Jytak-

Operations of Gen. Ochterlony-Of the third Division

-Of the fourth Division-Surrender of Malân-Inva-

sion of Nepal - Treaty of Peace........

................................ 159


Maratta Affairs-Murder of Gangadhar Sastri-Attack

on Bhopal-State of things at Maratta Courts-The

Pindarries—They ravage the British Territory-Pre-

parations for destroying them-Attack on the Resi.

dency of Poona– New Treaty with Sindia - British

Troops attacked by the Cholera Morbus-Attack on

Residency at Nagpur.........

................. 161



Lord Mornington Governor-general-Intrigues of Tip-

poo-Arrangement with the Nizâm-Fruitless At-

tempts to treat with Tippoo-Invasion of Mysore-

Siege and Capture of Seringapatam-Death and Cha-

racter of Tippoo-Settlement of Mysore-Dhoondia... 135


Settlement of Tanjore-Of Surat-Of the Carnatic-Pate

of Vizir Ally of Oude-Embassy to Persia-Settle-

ment of Oude-Expedition to Egypt-Disunion be-

tween the Governor-general and Court of Directors-

College of Fort William.....................

.................. 139


Affairs of the Marattas–Treaty of Bassein-Commence-

ment of Maratta War-Sindia's French Troops-Cap-

ture of Ahmednugur, Baroach, and Alyghur-Battle

of Delhi-Delivery of the Emperor-Capture of Agra

--Battle of Laswaree-Of Assye-Capture of Asseer-

ghur-Battle of Argâm - Capture of Gawylghur-

Treaties with the Rajah of Berâr and Sindia

............ 142


War with Holkar-Col. Monson's Retreat -Siege of

Delhi-Battle of Deeg-Rout of Holkar-Capture of

Deeg-Siege of Bhurtpore--Conduct of Sindia-Re-

signation of the Marquis of Wellesley ........................ 146


Lord Cornwallis Governor-general a second time-His

System - His Death-Sir George Barlow Governor-

general - His Policy - Massacre at Vellore - Lord

Minto Governor-general-The Sikhs-Rise of Run-

jeet Sing-The Afghans–Embassies to Persia-Case

of Ruddy Râo, at Madras-Insurrection in Travan-

core-Mutiny of Officers of Madras Army ................... 150

Battle of Mahidpûr-Final Reduction of the Pindarries

-Pursuit of the Peishwa-Affair at Korijaon-Depo-

sition of Peishwa-Battle of Ashti-Deposition of Apa

Sahib-Surrender of Peishwa-Concluding Adventures

of Apa Sahib, and Cheetoo, the Pindarri--Settlement

of India-House of Palmer and Co.--King of Oude-

Departure of Lord Hastings-Bishop Middleton......... 165


Lord Amherst Governor-general—The Burman Empire

--War with the Burmese-Capture of Rangoon-Pro-

gress of the War - March for Prome--Reduction of

Donabew-Occupation of Prome-Reduction of Ara-

can-Successive Defeats of the Burmese-Conclusion

of Peace-Mutiny at Barrakpore-Affairs of Bhurtpore

-Capture and Demolition of the Fortress................... 168


Lord William Bentinck Governor-general-His Reforms

-Abolition of Suttee-Renewal of Company's Charter

-Opening of the China-trade-Favour shown to the

Indian Usurers-Disputes about Governor-general-

ship - Lord Auckland appointed-Disputed Succes-

sion in Oude-Deposition of Rajah of Sattara.............. 172

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Page 4, col. 2, line 29, for diameter read circumference.

6 chap. iii. line 6, dele the inhabitants of.






the Garrâh, or united stream of the rivers Beyah CHAPTER I.

and Sutlej, extends a wide sandy desert, like those

of Africa or Arabia, as far as the Aravalli hills, Situation of India-Its Divisions-Hindustan-The Deckan which run northwards from the western extremity Climate - Natural Productions - Animals

of the Vindhya range towards the city of Delhi. Minerals.

The whole of this tract, however, is not desert; its

south-eastern portion is remarkably fertile ; it conThe country which, following the ancients, we

tains many oases, and the region along the Indus, name India ·, lies in the eastern hemisphere, be

and watered by that stream, which overflows antween the eighth and the thirty-fourth degrees of nually like the Nile, is rich and well inhabited. To northern latitude, and the sixty-eighth and ninety: the south of the Sandy Desert lie the two peninsulas second degrees of eastern longitude. Its length of Cutch and Gûzerât ; and to the north, and exfrom north to south is about 1900, and

its greatest tending to the northern boundary of India, lies the breadth from west to east about 1500 miles. It is fertile region named the Punjab, i. e. Five-rivers, bounded on the north by the lofty range of the

from the five tributaries of the Indus, by which it Himalaya ? mountains, on the west by the river

is watered, Indus, on the east by the high lands eastwards of

Eastwards of the Aravalli range the country rises the Brahmapútra river, while its whole southern into an elevated plain, or table-land, to the height coast is washed by the waters of the Indian ocean.

of about 2000 feet above the level of the sea. On This region consists of two distinct parts, sepa

the south-east it is supported by hills proceeding rated by a mountain range. The northern portion from the Vindhya

ranges, north-east it slopes into is a large oblong plain, the southern a triangular the basin of the Ganges. It is now known by the peninsula ; the former is named Hindústân, the

name of Central India. The country thence eastlatter the Deckan 3; the mountain range which di

wards is the basin of the Ganges, including in it vides them is called the Vindhya mountains. They Bengal, which is not usually reckoned a part of commence near the peninsula of Güzerât, and run

Hindûstân. It may be regarded as one great and eastwards to the river Ganges. The only island of any magnitude on the coast of India is the great rises above the general level. This region appears

extensive plain, though in some places the land island of Ceylon, to the east of its southern ex

to have been the original seat of the civilization tremity. The portion of India which we denominate Hin

and power of India.

In the Deckan, on the west, the valley of the dûstân, comprises the following regions. Eastwards

river Nerbudda lies between the Vindhya and of the Indus, from its mouth to its junction with

another parallel range named the Injâdree or Sat

poora, south of which range is the valley of the 1 India is only the Latin name, the Greeks called it river Tapti. The land then rises into a table-land, 'Ivdekj sc. qñ or xúpa. It was derived from that of the

extending to the extreme point of the peninsula ; river named in Sanscrit Sindhu, i. e. river, of which the it is of varied and undulating surface, in general Persians made Hindhu, the Hebrews, ejecting n, as usual, fertile, but displaying at times tracts of sandy Hodu (Esther i. 1), and the Ionian Greeks dropping the

desert. This table-land is supported on the west aspirate 'Ivdós, and the people ’Ivdoi. The Sanscrit name of

and east by ranges named the Ghâts, of which the the country between the Himalaya and the Vindhya moun

western is the higher, and approaches nearer to tains is Yambudwîpa or Bharatakhanda. 2 Snow-mountains; from hima snow, and alaya abode.

the sea-coast. On either side of the peninsula Hence the Greeks named a part of the range Imaüs.

between the Ghâts and the sea, are strips of land 3 The South; in Sanscrit, Dakshina.

varying in breadth and in fertility. From that



part of Hindústân where the eastern end of the ordinary food of the people of Hindústân being Vindhya range sinks into the plain, an immense wheat, and that of the people of the Deckan the tract of forest stretches away southwards into the grains named Jowâr, the Dûrra of the Arabs Deckan, till it reaches the river Godaveri.

(Holcus sorgum), and Bajra, small grains which The rivers of India are numerous and copious. grow in bunches on rcedy stems. Mangos, melons, Those of Hindústân have their sources in the and all sorts of gourds, plantains, pine-apples, and Himalaya and Vindhya mountains. From the other sweet fruits grow in the greatest plenty. former descend the Indus and its five tributaries, Among the animals of India the elephant is the namely, the Jelûm, the Chenâb, the Râvi, the most famous. It was formerly employed much in Beyah, and the Sutlej *; the Jumnah, the Ganges, war, but now is only used for the carriage of bagthe Cusi, and the Brahmapútra, and their tribu- gage. Camels are also numerous in India, but the taries. The latter sends forth the Chumbul, the Indian horses are small, and of inferior quality ; Betwah, the Sôn, and others, all of which are they are only used for riding. The beast of draught received in the Jumnah and the Ganges. The rivers is the ox, which is used alike for the plough, the of the Deckan, inferior in magnitude to those of cart, and the carriage. Its colour is white, its Hindústân, pour their waters into the sea on either form is slender, and it can travel nearly as fast as coast of the peninsula, having their sources chiefly a horse. in the Vindhya and the western Ghâts. On the India does not produce the precious metals, but west coasts are the mouths of the Nerbudda and its iron has always been famous. Diamonds, and the Tapti, the only streams of magnitude on this other precious stones, are found there in great side ; on the east coast are those of the Mahanuddi, quantities. The finest pearls in the world are obthe Godâveri, the Kistna, the Palar, the Pannar, tained from the beds near the isle of Ceylon. Rockthe Caveri, and others of less dimensions.

salt is found in the Punjâb, and saltpetre is obThe climate of India is of course various, owing tained in great quantities in various places. to its extent and its difference of elevation; but it is in general hotter than that of any part of Europe. The annual quantity of rain that falls in India is far beyond that of any country in this continent. The rain is periodical, and is brought by the monsoon, or south-west wind from the Indian ocean. On the west coast and in Hindûstân the rainy

CHAPTER II. season is from May till October, the hottest part of the year, and it is introduced by tremendous

Early Inhabitants of India - Hindoos - Their Colonies

Religion - Sects — Morals - Transmigration of Soulsstorms. At that time the Ganges and other rivers

Buddhists-Jains-Sciences and Arts-Laws of Manuoverflow and flood the country, the greater part of

Castes--Government. Bengal, for example, becoming like one huge lake. Hence in the history we shall often find military In our inquiries into the history of any ancient operations interrupted by this season.

The height country, one of the first questions which presents of the Ghâts and of the table-land prevent the itself, and one which rarely can be answered satiseastern coast from feeling the early effects of the factorily is, who were its original inhabitants, and monsoon, and it is not till the month of October, whence did they come ? With respect to India, when the monsoon blows from the north-east, that this question cannot be answered more satisfactorily it receives its supply of rain.

than elsewhere. From its nature and position, it is The vegetable productions of India are nume- manifest that it must have been one of the earliest rous and valuable. The teak used in ship-building, abodes of the human race; and we appear to have the wonderful banyan-tree (Ficus Indicus), the some reason to think that here, as in so many cocoa, the various palms and acacias, the bamboo other parts of the world, its first occupants were which attains to such a prodigious size, and many an inferior race, who were invaded and overcome other useful trees, are abundant. Numerous mul- by a more highly endowed portion of our species. berries yield food to the silk-worm, the cotton-tree In the forests and dales of the Vindhya mounand cotton-shrub are every where to be seen, the tains, in the great forest district stretching from ebony, the sandal, and other ornamental woods Bahar in Hindûstân into the Deckan, and along its grow abundantly. India has also, from the most eastern coast, are still to be met tribes differing remote ages, been famed for its ginger, pepper, and essentially from the more cultivated inhabitants of other spices; the indigo derives its name from India. They are known by various names. In India ; it is the native country of the sugar-cane. the west of Bengal and Bahar they are called Côls,

Rice ranks among the most celebrated of the in the great forest and in the part of the Vindhya natural productions of India ; but it is an error to mountains adjoining it, they are named Gonds ; suppose that it is the principal food of the bulk of thence westwards in that chain, Bheels; and towards the people. Such it is, no doubt, in Bengal, part Gûzerât, Coolies. In the southern woods of the of Bahar, and the coast of the peninsula ; but rice Deckan they are known by the name of Côlarees, cannot be cultivated without abundance of mois- and a general name for them is Parias, that is, ture; and on the high lands of Central India and Mountaineers. They are of small but active forms, the Deckan, for example, it is only a luxury; the and dark complexion, with something of the negro

in their features. They go nearly naked, are armed

with bows and spears, and plunder wherever they 4 Hydaspes, Acesines, Hydraotes, Hyphasis, were the names given by Alexander's Greek followers to the four of

can. They have a superstition of their own, though these rivers which they saw; for they did not come to the

they worship one or two of the Hindoo gods. SpiSutlej. The Sanscrit names, from which three of those are

rituous liquors are sought by them with avidity ; formed, are Vitastâ, Chandrabhaga, Acrôvati, and Vipâså. they eat the flesh of oxen and of animals that have


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