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presence of a minister of religion, the truly great | with months bearing Persian names, and comemperor Akber breathed his last (Oct. 13, 1605), mencing from the vernal equinox nearest to his in the fiftieth year of his reign.

accession. With respect to the Hindoos, his reguAkber was in person strong-built and handsome, lations were more of a political cast. He forbade and very fair, owing to his northern origin. In his the trial by ordeal, the burning of widows against youth he indulged in wine and good living, but their will, and marriage before the age of puberty. afterwards become sober and abstemious. He He allowed Hindoo widows to marry a second time, delighted in the chase, especially where there was contrary to the preceding usage. He abolished alí hazard and danger, as in that of the tiger and the taxes on Hindoo pilgrims, as, in his tolerant eyes, elephant. He was fond of making long journeys every one had a right to serve the Deity in the on horseback, and would even sometimes walk manner most agreeable to his own views. He also thirty or forty miles a day. His valour was abolished the Jezeeah, or poll-tax, which, in all chivalrous, like that of Alexander the Great ; yet Mohammedan states, is imposed on those whom the he was not fond of war for its own sake, and car- Moslems term infidels. It was the aim of Akber ried it on chiefly from an idea that he had a right to make all his subjects equal, and from the very to restore the limits of the empire. In temper, commencement of his reign he had employed Akber was mild and magnanimous, humane and Hindoos and Mussulmans alike in his service. generous. He was fond of religious and philoso- These innovations of the emperor naturally gave phical disquisitions, and was most perfectly tolerant great offence to the bigoted Moslems. His reliof all who differed from him in opinion.

gious system was besides of too pure and spiritual Akber was a reformer in religion, in the reve- à character to make much progress, and it died nue, and in the army.

away on the death of its founder. It, however, had The religious views to which Akber seems to some effect in promoting the progress of liberal have finally come were either pure deism, or a inquiry in India. Mohammedanism so modified as to differ little In the revenue department of the government, from that system. The way in which he proceeded Akber made great improvements in the mode of was to examine and hear the arguments in favour assessing and collecting the land-tax. As this is of every form of religion. His assistants in these intimately connected with the village-system of inquiries were two brothers, named Feizi and India, this is perhaps the best place for giving a Abûl-Fazl, sons of a man who had taught law and view of that ancient and celebrated institution. divinity at Agra ; but who had been obliged to The property in the soil in India, from the most leave that place on account of the freedom of his remote ages, seems not, as in some countries, to religious sentiments, which had drawn on him per- have lain in the sovereign, or, as in others, in the secution. Feizi was the first Mussulman who occupant; but to have been a joint-possession, a applied himself to Hindoo literature. He learned certain portion of the produce belonging to the the Sanscrit language, and by himself or by others former and all the remainder to the latter, whose under his direction, translations were made of the title to his share was as indefeasible as that of the two great epic poems, of one of the Vedas, and of sovereign to his portion. But these proprietors did several other works. Akber was also anxious to not stand singly; union in the East is of absolute have versions made from the Greek, and a Portu- necessity for mutual defence and protection. The guese priest, who is called Padre Farâbatûm, was land, therefore, was in certain determinate and well. invited to come from Goa, and instruct some youths, limited proportions, and all the proprietors belongwho were then to be employed in making transla- ing to it were collected into one town or village, tions from the Greek language. Feizi himself was generally about the centre of the land. Each, accorddirected to translate the Gospels.

ingly, formed a little republic in itself, and the agThe other brother, Abûl-Fazl, though also a gregate of these republics formed the state ; and man of letters, and author of the Akbernâmeh, or whether this last was ruled by a Hindoo or a MoHistory of Akber, which is still extant, was a hammedan prince was a matter of comparative statesman and a general. Akber raised him to the unimportance to the village-republic, which had office of vizir, and we have seen his unhappy fate. only to render to it its share of the annual pro

Beside his confidential discussions with Feizi duce. and Abûl-Fazl, Akber used to hold meetings on The village collects the revenue it has to pay to Fridays, which were attended by the learned men the crown and the sums required for local purof his court, and he often sent for Bramins and for poses; it maintains its own police, and it adminisMohammedan Sûfees, and heard them explain their ters justice in a variety of cases among its members. different tenets. He invited Catholic priests from For these and for other purposes various officers Goa, and caused them to dispute with the Moham- are required, and the following are therefore to be medan doctors in his presence. He manifested a found in a Hindoo village. great respect for Christianity, and it is not unlikely The Headman (called in the greater part of India that, had he known it in its purity, he would have Patil), is, as his name denotes, the head of the embraced it.

village, and is its representative in all transactions The creed of Akber was, as we have stated, a with the government. He apportions and collects kind of modified deism. He endeavoured to do the revenue, lets the lands that happen to have no away with some of the Mohammedan peculiarities, occupants, and acts in general as a magistrate. and most of the peculiar obligations of that religion, The Accountant, or Patwâri, keeps the records, such as circumcision, fasting, pilgrimage, and which contain an account of all the lands and their public worship he made to be optional. He dis- occupants. He also keeps the private accounts of couraged the study of the Arabic language, and for the villagers, and acts in general as a notary. The the lunar year, the months with Arabic names, and Watchman, or Pyk, &c., whose duty it is to attend the era of the Hijra, he introduced a solar year, to all the boundaries, both public and private, to AKBER’S REFORMS-JEHÂNGÎR.

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watch the crops, and to act under the headman as lands or assignments on the revenue for the paychief of police. In the performance of this duty he ment of the troops, which only led to fraud and has the aid of all his family; for all village offices oppression, Akber issued regular pay from the are hereditary in particular families.

treasury, and made previous musters necessary. Beside these three essential personages in a Though Akber was simple in his habits, his Hindoo village, there is the money-changer, who is court was most splendid, and the European traalso the silversmith, the priest, the astrologer, vellers who visited the court of his son, actually (either of which is also the schoolmaster), the dazzle us with their accounts of the magnificence smith, carpenter, worker in leather, potter, and which they beheld. On the great festivals of the barber ; and in most villages the tailor, the wash- vernal equinox and of the king's birthday, a rich erman, physician, musician, &c.; and in the south tent was pitched for the monarch, and the ground even the dancing-girl. All of these receive a around to the extent of two acres was covered with certain portion of the general produce for their carpets of silk and gold, and hangings of velvet maintenance.

embroidered with gold, and pearls, and precious The general term in India for the villagers is stones. The king was weighed in golden scales Ryots, and the persons who receive the govern- against gold, silver, perfumes, &c., which were ment share of the produce are known by the afterwards distributed among the spectators. The Persian name of Zemindâr. When the govern- nobility also displayed all their magnificence, and ment share of the produce of one or more villages diamonds and other jewels blazed on every side. is assigned for the payment of civil or military Richly caparisoned elephants, lions, tigers, and officers, it is named a Jagheer, and we must care- other wild beasts were led past the throne, where fully observe that it is only this portion that the were the king and his nobles “sparkling with Zemindâr can demand from the villagers.

diamonds like the firmament,” and the procession From this slight view of the village-system, we closed with a large body of cavalry arrayed in may now proceed to notice Akber's improvements. cloth of gold.

A survey was made of all the cultivable lands in the empire. They were then classed according to their fertility, and one third of the average produce was fixed as the government share. This demand however was regulated by circumstances ; land, for example, which had suffered from inun

CHAPTER X. dation, &c., paid only two fifths for the first year, and so went on increasing till the fifth year, when

JEHÂNGÎR-Prince Khusru-Nûr Jehân-Invasion of the

Deckan-Prince Shâh Jehân-Mohâbut Khân-Seizure of it paid the full charge. The share of the state being ascertained, it was then commuted for a

the Emperor-Heroism of Nûr Jehân-Death of Jehân

gîr. money-payment, an average being taken of prices for the preceding nineteen years. But if any one SELÎM on ascending the throne took the title of thought this too high, he had his option of paying Jehângîr, i. e. Conqueror of the World. He made in kind. The settlement was at first annual, but sundry good regulations ; among others, one strictly it was afterwards made for ten years, taking an prohibiting the use of wine, and regulating that of average of the payments of the preceding ten. opium. Another was of rather a curious nature.

The emperor's agent in this great reform, and In order that complaints should be certain to reach from whom it is named, was the

rajah Tôdar Mal, the royal ear, he caused a chain to be hung from a an eminent Hindoo, and, according to Abûl Fazl, part of the palace wall within the reach of every bigotedly devoted to his religion. But the tolerant one, and communicating with a set of golden bells in Akber saw his merits and heeded not his reli

his own apartment. The suitor had then only to gious opinions.

pull the chain, and the emperor was instantly aware Akber divided the empire into fifteen Sûbahs or

of his presence. provinces, twelve in Hindústân and three in the

Jehângîr had been about four months on the Deckan, which last were increased to six by his throne, when one night he was awakened with

Over each was placed a governor or intelligence that prince Khusru had fled from viceroy, named at first Sîpâh Sâlâr, but afterwards court with a few attendants, and taken the road to Sûbahdâr, with complete civil and military autho- Delhi. He instantly sent a party in pursuit of rity?. All the officers of the revenue were there him, and in the morning he set out in person with fore under him, as also were the Foujdars or mili- all the troops he could collect. The prince, meantary commanders of districts. An officer named time, went on collecting men and plundering the Dêwân, whose business was the superintendence of country, and by the time he reached the Purjâb, the finances of the province, was afterwards intro- whither he directed his course, he had drawn duced into the system. He was appointed by the together a force of 10,000 men. With these he crown, but was under the viceroy.

gave battle at Lahore to the advanced guard of his Instead of the preceding system of granting father's army, but met with a total defeat, and as

he was flying to Câbul he was taken, in consequence 7 At a later period, we believe, there was a division of the of the boat in which he was crossing the river Sabahs into smaller districts, over each of which was an

Jelûm having gone aground, and he was brought officer, named Nabob (properly Nawab), i.e. deputy, who

in chains to the emperor. Jehângîr, in whose was appointed by the Sûbahdâr, and who had the entire

bosom there was little room for mercy, spared, no civil and military power in his district. Such was the Nabob of the Carnatic, under the Sûbahdar of the Deckan.

doubt, the life of his son, but he exercised his barAbout the middle of the eighteenth century, the titles of barity on his unfortunate adherents, 700 of whom Sûbahdâr and Nabob were confounded, and we meet with the

he impaled along the road leading from one of the Nabobs of Oude and Bengal.

gates of Lahore, and he caused the prince to be

successors.

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carried on an elephant along the line, with a wife. Offended at the proposals made to him, he mace-bearer calling to him in a mocking tone to left off wearing arms, to indicate that he was no receive the salutations of his servants. He was longer in the royal service ; and when the viceroy, then conducted to his prison, where he passed three on coming to the part of the country where he days in tears without tasting food. In the spring resided, summoned him to his presence, he carried of the following year (1606), when Jehângîr visited a concealed dagger in his dress. The result was Câbul, he ordered the prince's chains to be taken that he stabbed the viceroy, and was himself cut off, and allowed him to walk in a garden within to pieces by the guards. His property was seized, thé citadel. But a conspiracy to release him and and Nûr Jehân was sent a prisoner to Delhi. Jeto assassinate the emperor being detected, no hângîr at once made her proposals of marriage ; farther indulgence was allowed.

but she rejected with abhorrence the hand of the Meantime the emperor's second son, Purvîz, murderer of her husband. An ordinary despot who had been sent against the rana of Oudipûr, would on such an occasion bave employed viohad effected an accommodation with that prince; lence; but the passion of Jehângîr seems to have but the war was renewed in the next year. In the been extinguished by her repugnance, and he gave Deckan the contest with the Nizâm Shâhî line of up his suit and placed her among the attendants princes still continued ; and in 1600, Malik Amber, of his mother. their able minister, recovered Ahmednugur and During the space of about four years, Nûr Jehân forced the Moguls to retire.

remained an unnoticed dweller of the harem. She It was in the year 1611, the sixth year of his employed her leisure in painting and needlework, reign, that the marriage of the emperor with the in which she excelled, and her works were sold in celebrated Nûr Jehân, one of the most remarkable order to procure her such elegancies as she desired. women of the East, took place—an event which The fame of these works, it is said, reached the had a powerful influence on the whole of his sub- ears of the emperor, and revived his passion. Nûr sequent reign.

Jehan was no longer able to resist the temptations Ghyas-ud-dîn, the son of a man who had held a of empire ; their marriage was celebrated with high government situation at Teheran, in Persia, great pomp, and she received honours such as having fallen into poverty, resolved to seek his never had been possessed by a queen in India, her fortune in India. Accompanied by his wife, now name even being put on the coin of the realm. great with child, and his two sons, he set out for Her influence was unbounded ; her father was that country. On the way to Candahâr his wife made vizîr, her brothers were advanced to high was delivered of a daughter ; but such was the offices. She moderated the caprice and cruelty of degree of their distress, that they found it neces- the emperor's character ; she made him confine his sary to expose the new-born babe. They placed inebriety to the night and to his private apartit on the road by which the caravan was to proceedments ; she increased the magnificence, while she next day. As it passed along, a wealthy merchant diminished the expenses, of the court'. In a word, observed the babe, and struck with its beauty, heher influence, in the early years of her power, was took it up and resolved to rear it. The mother productive of almost unmixed good. Her father presented herself and became the nurse of her own proved one of the best and most

upright ministers child, and the merchant thus became acquainted that India had ever seen, and his son, who sucwith the family. He relieved their distress, and ceeded him, trod in his footprints. finding the father and his sons men of ability, he In the year following the emperor's marriage employed them in his business. In India he re- (1612), a great plan for reducing the Deckan was commended them to the emperor, Akber, who formed. Troops were simultaneously to advance gave them employments; and they gradually rose from Gûzerât and Berâr and attack Malik Amber, by their talents to higher posts.

But the celerity of that chief disconcerted the plan. The infant which had been exposed, and which | By desultory attacks of light cavalry, and by cutwas named Mhîr-un-Nissa, or, Sun of Women S, ting off its supplies, he so wearied the army of grew up a beautiful and accomplished woman. Güzerât, that it was obliged to commence its reShe used to accompany her mother sometimes in treat, which soon became a flight, and the other her visits to the ladies of Akber's harem, to which army on coming up, finding Amber's troops flushed she had access, and she there was seen by prince with victory, thought it prudent to retire. The Selîm, who became the captive of her charms. imperial arms were more successful in Mewâr, Her mother perceiving it, made the matter known under the guidance of the emperor's favourite son through one of the ladies to Akber, who remon- Khurrum. He reduced the rana of Oudipûr to strated with his son, and at the same time directed submission, and acting on the generous principles that Nûr Jehân should be married off without de- of his grandfather Akber, when the rana had perlay. She was accordingly united to a young Per- formed his homage he raised him in his arms, and sian named Shîr Afghân Khân, to whom Akber seated him at his side with every mark of kindgave a jaghîr in Bengal.

ness and respect. All his territory was restored to When Selîm came to the throne, he sent his him, and his son raised to a high rank among the foster-brother, Kûtb-ud-dîn, as viceroy to Bengal, Ômrahs of Jehângir. This conduct gained Khurwith directions to procure him the possession of rum great reputation, and as he had lately marNûr Jehan. It was hoped that the matter might ried the daughter of Asof Khân, the brother of be easily arranged with Shîr Khân ; but he proved Nûr Jehân, he also possessed the powerful supto be a man of honour, and he loved his beautiful port of the empress.

Prince Khusru was still a prisoner, and any 8 She was afterwards named Nûr Mahâl, or Light of the Harem; and Nûr Jehân, or Light of the World, by which 9 She is said, but probably without reason, to have been last name we will henceforth designate her.

the inventor of otto of roses.

A. D. 1621-26.

SEIZURE OF THE EMPEROR.

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he was.

hopes that prince Purvîz might have had were ex- less, he found it necessary to continue his retreat tinguished, when the emperor, on sending Khurrum into the Deckan. He reached Telingana, after on a great expedition to the Deckan (1626), gave having been deserted by most of his troops, whence him the royal title-Shâh Jehân, i. e. King of the he proceeded to the sea-port of Masulipatâm, and World. In this expedition Shâh Jehân had the thence to Bengal, of which province and of Bahâr most complete success. Amber, deserted by his he made himself master, and he then sent some officers and his allies, was obliged to submit, and troops to endeavour to secure the city of Allahato restore Ahmednugur and all his other conquests. | bâd. The Deckan then remained tolerably quiet for about Meantime prince Purviz and Mohâbut Khân, four years, when (1621) Amber took up arms who had pursued him into the Deckan, were adagain, and recovered nearly the whole of the vancing to the relief of Allahabad. Shâh Jehân country. Shâh Jehân was ordered to march against crossed the Ganges to engage them ; but the people him ; but for some unexplained reason, he refused 2

of the country were opposed to him, they would to stir unless his brother Khusru was committed furnish him neither with provisions nor boats; his to his custody, and allowed to accompany him. The Bengal levies deserted, and when he gave battle he emperor consented, and Shâh Jehân then set out. was defeated, and forced to fly once more to the Acting with his usual vigour and ability, he brought Deckan. Here he was joined by Malik Amber; Amber to action, gave him a defeat, and made him but while he was engaged in some operations speedily come to terms of accommodation. Mean- against the fort of Burhanpûr, prince Purvîz and while, the emperor had so severe an attack of Mohâbut Khân reached the Nerbudda. His folasthma, a disease to which he was subject, that his lowers now deserted in greater numbers than ever, life was deemed to be in imminent danger. Prince and, quite disheartened, he wrote to beg forgivePurvîz hastened to court, but was instantly or- ness of his father. But ere anything could be ardered back to his government. Just at this time, ranged, extraordinary events occurred in the royal too, prince Khusru happened to die suddenly, and

court and camp. it is difficult not to suppose that his death was The emperor, after visiting Cashmire for two caused by his brother Shâh Jehân, in whose custody successive years, resolved to proceed in the third

Against this, however, it is alleged, that year (1625) to Câbul, where the Roushanîas still as no other crime stains the life of that prince, we gave occupation to his troops. As he was on his should not be hasty to charge him with one of such way thither, the empress, who secretly hated Momagnitude.

hâbut Khân, caused him to be summoned to court, At this very tiine, Shâh Jehân lost the powerful to answer charges of oppression and embezzlement support of the empress. She had married her in Bengal. Having made various excuses to no daughter by her first husband to the emperor's purpose, he at length set out, attended by a body of youngest son, Sheriâr, and aware, from the vigorous 5000 faithful Rajpûts. When he approached the character of Shâh Jehân, that she never could hope camp, he learned that he would not be admitted to maintain her influence when he should be on the into the emperor's presence, and seeing that his throne, she resolved to make every effort to alter ruin was resolved on, he determined to play a bold the succession. Her father, who used to restrain game, and not to be an unresisting victim. her, was lately dead, and her brother (the father- The imperial camp was now (1626) on the left in-law of Shâh Jehân), who succeeded him, was bank of the Jelûm, which was to be crossed by a merely the instrument of her will.

bridge of boats. Jehângîr intended to send the The great object of Nûr Jehân now was to keep army over before him, and then to pass the river the prince at a distance from his father, and as at his leisure. Mohâbut waited till the army was just at this time the Persians had taken Candahâr, over, and only the emperor with his attendants the recovery of it was proposed to him as an ob- and guards remaining. He then sent forward 2000 ject worthy of his fame and his talents. He at of his Rajpûts to seize the bridge, and advanced first assented, but seeing through the designs of the himself with the remainder to the emperor's quarempress and her party, after he had advanced some ters, which he surrounded. At the head of 200 way he halted, and refused to quit India unless chosen men he pushed forward to the imperial further securities were given him. Orders were tent, where he repelled the guards and forced his then sent to him to send the greater part of his way in. Jehângîr, on awaking, started up and troops to the capital to join prince Sheriâr, to seized his sword. Seeing Mohâbut, he called on whom the command of the expedition had been him to tell the meaning of such conduct; the latter transferred ; his principal officers also were or- prostrated himself, and expressed his regret that it dered to leave him, and join prince Sheriâr. The should be only thus that he could gain access to empress, moreover, to be sure of a good general in the royal presence. Jehângîr checked his indigcase of a civil war, summoned to court from his nation, and as Mohâbut observed that it was now government at Câbul Mohâbut Khân, one of the his usual time for appearing in public, and reablest generals of the tiine.

quested therefore that he would mount his horse Jehângîr, on his return from one of his usual visits and show himself, he tried, under the pretence of to Cashmire, fixed his court at Lahore (1622). dressing himself, to get into the women's apartments Messages passed between him and his son, but as in order to consult Nûr Jehân. But his design was there appeared to be no hopes of a reconciliation, seen through and prevented, and having dressed Shâh Jehân put his troops in motion and advanced himself where he was, he mounted one of his own toward Delhi. The emperor marched from La- horses. Mohâbut, however, thinking he would be hore ; an engagement took place between a part of in safer custody on an elephant, prevailed on him his forces and of those of the prince, after which to mount one of these animals, on which he placed the latter retired to Mâlwa, followed by the impe-beside him two armed Rajpûts. In this way he rial troops. As some of his generals proved faith- proceeded to the tents of Mohâbut.

Nûr Jehân did not lose her presence of mind on several, and drove others to the hills, where they this important occasion. Finding that all access to were seized and made slaves by the inhabitants, and the emperor was cut off, she put on a disguise, and Mohâbut himself was obliged to seek refuge in the entering a palankin of the commonest kind pro- | imperial tent. Next day the ringleaders were ceeded to the bridge. As the orders the soldiers punished; but the power of Mohâbut had received there had received were to allow every one that a shock from which it could hardly recover. came to pass over, but none to come from the Nûr Jehân now saw that the time for action was other side, she met with no obstruction, and reached arrived. Her agents collected men at various the royal camp in safety. There she inveighed points, and they came into the camp in parties of against her brother and the other chiefs as dastards, two and three, as if seeking for service. When she who had let their sovereign be made a captive be

had them thus at hand, she made Jehângîr profore their eyes ; and not confining herself to mere pose a muster of the troops of all the Jaghirdars; words, she began to make active preparations for and when she herself, as such, was required to furattempting his rescue.

nish her contingent, she affected great indignation In the morning, when all her preparations were at being thus treated as an ordinary subject. She complete, she put her troops in motion. At their asserted, however, that it should do her no dishead appeared the high-spirited Nûr Jehân herself, credit, and she made the men she had ready join seated in the howdah of a lofty elephant, with a it, as if to make it up to its full complement. When bow and two quivers full of arrows. As the Raj. Jehângîr was proceeding to review it, he advised pûts had burned the bridge, she was forced to Mohâbut, out of regard to his safety, not to accomattempt to cross at a dangerous ford lower down pany him ; and the latter, no longer able to comthe stream. But the whole plan miscarried. Owing mand, was obliged to consent.

When Jehângîr to the depth of the stream most of the troops had reached the centre of the line, the troops closed to swim or to wade very deeply ; hence their powder in on him, and cut off the Rajpût horse who atwas all wetted, and being weighed down by their tended him, and as they were joined by their conarmour and their saturated garments, they could federates, the person of the king was now in comoffer but a feeble resistance to the Rajpûts, who plete safety. Mohâbut retired to some distance had the advantage of the ground, and who showered with his troops, and Nûr Jehân, as her brother arrows, balls, and rockets on them without ceasing. was in his hands, was obliged to come to terms with The elephant of Nûr Jehân was the principal ob- him. She stipulated, however, that he should give ject of attack ; showers of balls fell round her his services against Shâh Jehân, whom she was rehowdah, one of which wounded the infant daughter solved to crush. of Sheriâr, whom she held in her lap.

At length

This prince had advanced from the Deckan as her driver was killed, and her elephant being far as Ajmîr with only 1000 men. Here one of wounded in the trunk plunged into the deep water, his principal supporters died, and one half of his and was carried down the stream. After making

men having quitted him, he retired to Sind with many plunges he reached the shore, and her women the remainder. The state of his health alone preon coming up found the empress engaged in ex- vented him from seeking refuge in Persia, when tracting the arrow, and in binding up the wound of suddenly the aspect of his affairs began to brighten. the infant. Seeing that there was now no hope of He heard of the death of his brother Purvîz, and rescuing her husband by force, she resolved to further learned that Mohâbut, instead of pursuing share his captivity, and trust to fortune and her him, was himself pursued by the troops of the emown resources for his deliverance.

peror, with whom he had had a rupture. He Mohâbut now advanced to Attock, where he therefore hastened to the Deckan, and he there made Asof Khân and other leaders prisoners. was joined by Mohâbut and his troops. But his power was still insecure, as it depended on The emperor returned to Lahore, and thence set his Rajpûts, who, as Hindoos, were offensive to all out on his annual visit to Cashmire. While there the other troops. The emperor, too, schooled by he had a severe fit of the asthma, to which he was Nûr Jehân, entered on a course of dissimulation subject. As his life was considered to be in danin order to deceive him. He affected to rejoice at ger, it was resolved to remove him to Lahore, but being freed from his thraldom to Asof Khân, and he sank under the fatigues of the journey, and he even warned him to be on his guard against the expired before he had gone a third of the way plots of Nûr Jehân. By these means he com- (1627). pletely blinded Mohâbut, who now thought himself In the reign of Jehângîr (1616) Sir Thomas Roe quite secure with respect to the emperor. The came to India, as ambassador from James I. of object, meantime, of Nûr Jehân was, to get into England to the Mogul court. He remained there the army which attended the emperor as many for two years, being treated with much attention, persons as possible who were in her interest. As and admitted to the emperor's private drinkingthey now had reached Câbul, it was deemed neces- parties. It is chiefly from his narrative that we sary to increase the royal guard on account of the derive our knowledge of the splendour of the court Afghâns ; and as her partisans came and offered of Delhi under the monarchs of the house of their services, many of them were admitted into Timûr. it. The emperor being now allowed to go hunting Jehângîr issued an edict against the use of toon an elephant, but still guarded by Rajpûts, a bacco, which had been lately introduced into the quarrel one day took place between them and a east from America. It will be recollected that party of the Ahdîs, as a portion of the royal guards his British contemporary also had a strong aversion were named, in which many of the latter were to that plant. slain. Mohâbut, on being applied to for redress, gave an evasive answer. The whole body of the Ahdîs then fell on some of the Rajpûts, killed

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