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not a wise monarch. Instead of seeking to attach the well-known Blackmail of the Scottish Highto himself a man of Sevajee's talents and charac- landers, was a tribute paid for forbearance ; it was ter by honours and attention, he tried to humble a fourth part of the revenues of a country, and as him by making him feel his supposed insignificance. long as it was regularly paid, that country was free Accordingly, when he was about to enter Delhi, an from Maratta depredations. Additional forces were officer of inferior rank was sent to meet him. In now sent into the Deckan against Sevaj who at the imperial presence, when he had made his length (1672) ventured to give battle to a Mogul obeisance and offered his presents, no further army, and defeated it. This was the first regular notice was taken of him, and he was placed among engagement ever fought between the Moguls and the officers of the third rank. Unable to control the Marattas, and its unexpected success had the his feelings, he stepped back and fell down in a usual effect of elevating the courage of the one

When he recovered, he called on them to party and depressing that of the other. The war take his life as they had taken away his honour, now languished for some years, as Aurungzîb had and retired without taking leave or receiving the ample employment elsewhere. usual dress of honour. The emperor, who was not A war with the north-eastern tribes of the prepared for this spirited conduct, ordered him to Afghâns first occupied him. This lasted for two be closely watched. Sevajee, whose only thoughts years, and ended in the unsatisfactory manner in were now how to make his escape, began by asking which contests with these tribes usually terminated. permission to send away his Marattas, as the When this was concluded a religious insurrection climate of Delhi, he said, did not agree with them. called his troops to the field (1676). There was a This was readily granted, as it seemed to leave sect named Sâdhs or Satnamees, a kind of Hindoo him quite at the emperor's mercy. He next took quakers, as they have been termed. They worto his bed, pretending sickness, and by means of shipped only one God, enjoined the practice of the Hindoo physicians who attended him he kept truth, self-denial, temperance, and continence, and up a communication with those whom he had sent prohibited the use of opium and spirituous liquors. away. He also adopted the practice of sending As one of these men was engaged in the cultivation large quantities of provisions and sweetmeats to of his land not far from Delhi, a dispute arose bethe devotees of both religions; and when his tween him and the Peon or man who looked after guards had thus become accustomed to the passage the government share of the crop. Each party of large baskets, he one night, leaving a servant to was joined by his friends, and the revenue-officers occupy his bed, got into one himself, and placed his had the worst of it. The people of the country son in another, and thus passed out unperceived. joined the Sâdhs ; troops were sent against them, A horse was prepared, which he mounted, taking but they were routed, and the Mohammedans began his son behind him, and then made his way to to fancy that magic arts rendered them invincible. Muttra. Leaving his son there with a friend, he They even reported that the Sâdhs were led by a shaved off his hair and whiskers, and assumed the woman mounted on an enchanted wooden horse. disguise of a Hindoo devotee, and, after wandering The Rajpoot Zemindars, near Delhi, now began to about for the space of nine months, he at length join the insurgents, and Aurungzib found it necescontrived to reach the Deckan (1666). In this sary to send a considerable force against them; to country the imperial arms had not been successful counteract their magic arts, he directed his solagainst Bejapoor, and the consequence was, that diers to wear prayers and amulets on their persons. Sevajee not merely obtained forgiveness and peace In the engagement which ensued, the insurgents from the emperor, but even another jagheer, and were totally routed. his title of rajah was confirmed. He then turned his arms against the kings of Golconda and Bejapoor, and forced them to agree to pay him an annual tribute.

A period of tranquillity succeeded, during which Sevajee formed civil and military regulations for

CHAPTER XIII. his dominions. The collecting and managing of the revenues was committed exclusively to Bra- AURUNGZîl continued-Aurungzib's Bigotry-Further Promins, and measures were devised to preserve the gress of Sevajee-His Death-Sambajee-Aurungzîb in cultivators from oppression, and the government

the Deckan-End of the Kingdoms of Golconda and Bejafrom fraud. The army was raised and paid by the

pûr-Capture and Death of Sambajee-Rajah Râm-Dif

ference of the Mogul and the Maratta Troops-Siege of prince; the pay was high, but all plunder was to belong to the state. The officers were in regular

Gingee-Aurungzib's Change of Operations-His Partial

Success-His Death and Character. gradation, from heads of ten up to heads of five thousand. These held no jagheers, but, like their The attentive reader must have observed the men, received pay from the government.

absence of illiberality and intolerance by which The object of Ăurungzîb in giving such favour- the Mohammedan monarchs of India, especially able terms to Sevajee had been to throw him off the house of Timûr, had been so honourably dishis guard, and thus to get him once more into his tinguished. . They had constantly intermarried power. But the Maratta was too wary to be thus with the Hindoo royal families, and the Rajpoot caught, and the emperor was obliged to declare rajahs had held high commands in their armies. open war against him ; a measure of which Sevajee But Aurungzîb, who was bigoted and narrowspeedily made him repent. He surprised the fort minded, was of course intolerant, and even from of Singhar, plundered Surat once more, and spread the beginning of his reign he gave proofs of this his ravages over the province of Candésh. It is on

unkingly spirit. Thus, instead of the solar year, this occasion that we first hear of the Chout, after- which had deen in use in India from the time of wards so famous in Maratta history. This, like | Akber, he directed the Mohammedan lunar. year

A. D, 1677–80.

WAR WITH RAJPOOTS-DEATH OF SEVAJEE.

39

to be employed, because the former was, he said, The war with the Rajpoots was continued to the the invention of idolaters, and he persisted in it, mutual injury of both parties, and Aurungzîb was heedless of all remonstrances and of its disagree- / glad to bring it to a close by a treaty honourable to ment with the course of the seasons. He made the Rana of Oudipoor, and in which no mention was sundry other changes, all indicative of his aversion made of the Jezeeah. But the former amity and to the Hindoos and their religion. At the present confidence was never restored, and war prevailed time he went still further, and he revived the tax more or less between them during the remainder named the Jezeeah, which Akber had abolished, of the reign of Aurungzîb. and levied it with the utmost rigour. The imposi- We now return to Sevajee. The death of the tion of it now caused great murmurs and com- king of Bejapoor (1672), and the weakness and plaints in Delhi, but the people were awed into confusion that thence arose in that state, facilitated submission. It, however, completely alienated the the progress of his arms, and in the course of the Rajpoots from the throne, and in the Deckan it two following years he reduced the remainder of made every Hindoo an open or secret partizan of the Côncan and a large tract above the Ghâts. He the Maratta chief, who was the zealous upholder of then (1674) had himself crowned again with great the Hindoo creed (1677).

solemnity and magnificence, and he changed the Shortly after the imposition of the Jezeeah, Persian titles of his officers into Sanscrit ones. At rajah Jeswunt Sing, who was commanding beyond the same time, to counteract the Moslem bigotry of the Indus, died, and his widow, with her two chil- Aurungzib, he manifested the utmost zeal for the dren, set out on her return home. As she did so Hindoo religion and all its observances. without having applied for permission, and even In the following year (1675), he ventured for the forced the passage of the Indus, Aurungzîb re- first time to cross the Nerbudda, and plunder the solved to seize her children, and surrounded her Mogul territory beyond it. Supposing then that camp with soldiers for the purpose. The Rajpoot he had thus struck terror into the Moguls, which leader, Durga Dâs, having obtained leave to send would keep them quiet, he thought he might venthe women and children home, the ranee and her ture on an act he had long meditated, namely, the children were placed among them in disguise. One recovery of his father's jagheer in Mysore, which of her female attendants remained in the camp to was now held by his younger brother, Vêncajee. personate her, and her sons were personated in With this view he formed an alliance with the like manner by children of their own age. Au- king of Golconda, and then set out with an army of rungzîb, whose suspicions were speedily awakened, 30,000 horse and 40,000 foot (1676). He passed sent off instant orders for the ranee and her chil- thé river Kistna at Cudupah, and, proceeding by dren to be brought into the citadel. The Rajpoots, Madras on the sea-coast, appeared before the to give the real ranee time to escape, refused strong hill-fort of Gingee, which was surrendered to compliance ; troops were sent against them, they him. He then besieged and took the fort of Vellore, defended themselves long and obstinately, till the and afterwards that of Arni and others. He had greater part of them were slain ; the supposed thus recovered the whole of the jagheer, when he ranee and her children were then seized, but the was called off to aid his ally against the Moguls and real ranee had reached Jodpoor, and was in the king of Bejapoor. It was, meantime, arranged safety.

that Vencajee should hold the jagheer, paying half This insult to the family of such a man as the revenue to Sevajee, who, as the king of GolJeswunt Sing, together with the imposition of the conda had come to an arrangement with the Moguls, Jezeeah, made the Rajpoot rajahs resolve to unite proceeded homewards, and reached his capital after in defence of their rights. Their chief was the an absence of eighteen months (1678). Rana of Oudipoor 5. Aurungzîb marched in person Next year (1679) the king of Bejapoor became against him, and forced him to submission ; but the object of the attack of the Moguls under their he had hardly returned to the capital, when he ablest general, Dileer; and, the capital being hard learned that the Rana had violated the treaty. pressed, the government found it necessary to call Troops were now collected from all sides, and the in the aid of Sevajee. He agreed to give it; but, Rana was forced to seek shelter in the Aravalli not thinking himself strong enough to attack the mountains, while his country was ravaged in the besieging army, he sought to make a division by most fearful manner, Aurungzib's orders being to invading and ravaging with unusual severity the spare nothing, but to make the Rajpoots feel all Mogul territories. In one of these expeditions he the horrors of war. The Rajpoots, however, did was near being cut off, and escaped with great not suffer without revenge ; they cut off convoys, difficulty. He then, as the town was pressed very made night-attacks, and frequently gained impor- hard, began to cut off the supplies of the besiegers, tant advantages. Durga Dâs was even able to and did it so effectually, that Dileer found it neseduce, by promise of the crown, the emperor's cessary to raise the siege. Sevajee's reward for youngest son Akber from his allegiance, and that this aid was an increase of territory, and the cesprince was soon at the head of 70,000 men, on his sion of the royal rights over his jagheer in the march for Ajmeer, where his father was encamped Mysore. What his ulterior projects might have with not more than a thousand. But the sagacious been is unknown, for death carried him off in the folemperor soon saw reason to suppose that the lowing year (1680), in the fifty-third year of his age. greater part of Akber's troops had not revolted Like every founder of empire, Sevajee was a man willingly, and he quickly induced them to return to of great talent, activity, and energy. In these their allegiance. The Rajpoots then, fearing to en- qualities none of his successors ever equalled him. gage the whole Mogul army, retired, and Akber was Beginning his career, in effect, as a captain of banforced to fly to the protection of the Marattas (1681). ditti, he formed a state which became the greatest 5 The title Rana was peculiar to this rajah. Ranee (above)

Hindoo power that modern times have witnessed. is a princess.

This he effected, in a great measure, by taking

a

proper advantage of the errors into which bigotry, his ministers and seduced his troops. The king and over-refined policy led Aurungzîb. It is to held out in his fort for seven months, and then Sevajee's credit, that he never was wantonly cruel, surrendered, and thus that monarchy also was terand that he always sought to mitigate the horrors minated. The emperor finally seized on Shahjee's of war by humane regulations.

jagheer in the Mysore, and extended his dominion Sambajee was a prisoner at the time of his father's to the extremity of the peninsula. But the strength death, and, as the violence of his temper was which he thus acquired was only apparent, and the dreaded, ready credence was given to a report that commencement of the decline of the empire, as we Sevajee had appointed another of his sons, named shall see, really dates from this period. Rajah Râm, a boy only ten years old, to succeed. During all this time Sambajee remained inactive, Sambajee, however, gained the troops to his side, sunk in sloth and debauchery. While he was with and he entered Ráighar as the sovereign. He put a small party enjoying himself at one of his fathe mother of Rajah Râm to a cruel and lingering vourite residences in the Côncan, one of the Mogul death, imprisoned that prince and the Bramin mi- commanders made a sudden march with a select nisters of state, and cut off the heads of others, who body of troops, surrounded the house, found Samwere not of that privileged class. He resigned him- bajee in a state of intoxication, and made prisoners self altogether to the indulgence of his vicious in. both him and Calâsha, who was wounded in his clinations, giving his confidence and the conduct of defence. They were sent to the emperor, and as his affairs to Caloosha, a Bramin from Hindústân, Sambajee, when invited to become a Mussulman, who gained his influence over him by the smooth- replied in insulting and, in the ears of Aurungzîb, ness of his manners and the encouragement he gave impious language, he was put to death, contrary to to the prince's vices. He dissipated the treasures the emperor's usual practice, with circumstances left by his father, and then exasperated the people of studied cruelty. Calûsha suffered with him by raising the taxes. The troops, left in arrears, (1689). appropriated the plunder made in expeditions, and Thé Maratta chiefs, on the death of Sambajee, the regular troops of Sevajee thus became the ra- acknowledged his infant son Sâho as their rajah, pacious bands which the Marattas continued to be appointing his uncle Rajah Râm to be regent. A all through their history.

Mogul army then came and laid siege to Râighar, While Sambajee was thus relaxing the Maratta and, treachery having made them masters of it, the power, the emperor Aurungzîb, having formed a infant rajah fell into their hands (1690). It was treaty with the Rana of Oudipoor, entered the then resolved by the chiefs that Rajah Râm, as the Deckan with the intention of reducing the whole of last of the family, should retire to the strong forit beneath his dominion (1683). He halted for tress of Gingee in the Carnatic. He made his way some time at Burhampoor, engaged in financial ar- thither in disguise, and when there he assumed the rangements, above all, in enforcing the collection title of rajah. Aurungzib despatched Zulficar of the impolitic Jezeeah, and thence advanced to Khan, one of his ablest officers, with an army to Aurungabâd, whence (1684) he sent prince Moazzim reduce that fort and thus terminate the war ; but with a large army to ravage the Cồncan from one that general not finding his force sufficient called end to the other; and though the prince encoun- for reinforcements, which could not be sent at that tered no opposition, yet, from the nature of the time. He therefore employed his troops in levying country, he lost all his horses and bullocks, and his contributions on Tanjore and other countries to the men suffered severely from scarcity of supplies, south. and when he afterwards emerged from it, and en- It was now that the war between the Moguls and camped above the Ghâts, most of them perished by the Marattas really commenced. Rajah Râm sent an epidemic disease. The emperor now prepared two chiefs named Santagee and Danajee to make to assail Bejapoor; he himself proceeded to Ah- divisions in the Maratta country. To every chief mednugur, while prince Moazzim was to advance permission was given to levy chout and to plunder from the west, and Azim, his other son, with a large wherever he could ; numbers of the soldiers who army, from the east.

But Moazzim was now too had been employed by the Bejapoor and Golconda weak to advance, Azim was in consequence forced governments joined the Marattas, and the Deckan to retire, and meantime Sambajee ravaged the

from one end to the other was filled with rapines, country in the emperor's rear, and took and burned burnings, and destruction of every kind and form. Burhampoor.

Nothing could be more opposite than the appearGiving up for the present his designs against

ance of the Mogul and Maratta horsemen. The Bejapoor, Aurungzîb now directed the whole of former were mounted on large heavy horses with his force against the king of Golconda (1686). This capacious saddles and ample housings richly ornaprince had appointed to the office of prime minister mented. They wore wadded coats, over which they an able Bramin, named MudnaPunt,-a thing which

had plate or chain armour. They had little or no gave great offence to the bigoted Mussulmans, and

discipline; their camp was of huge extent ; they on the approach of the imperial army, Ibrahîm

were attended by their women and domestics, and Khân, the commander-in-chief, deserted with the

an immense body of traders and market-people greater part of his troops. Mudna Punt was killed in

followed the camp. The Marattas, on the contrary, a tumult ; the king was obliged to fly to the hill-fort

were small, active, hardy men, mounted on the of Golconda, and Hyderabåd was taken and plun- horses of their country, small and active like themdered. Peace was then granted to the king on his

selves. Their usual food was a cake of millet, paying a large quantity of money. The troops were

with perhaps an onion. They were lightly clad ; next led against Bejapoor, which surrendered after their arms were a sword and matchlock, or a bama blockade, and that kingdom ceased to exist. Au

boo spear about fourteen feet long, which they rungzîb then treacherously broke the peace with managed with great dexterity. Their horses were the king of Golconda, having previously purchased admirably trained ; their saddle was a pad with a

;

A. D. 1697—1707.

LAST YEARS OF AURUNGZIB_HIS CHARACTER.

41

manner.

blanket folded over it. The Maratta slept on the Bài, assumed the regency for her son Sevajee, ground, with his spear stuck beside him, and the This, however, made no change in the war, and bridle of his horse tied to his arm, so that, on the Aurungzîb went on taking forts, and in the course slightest alarm, he could spring to horse. It of four or five years he became master of all the was the Maratta practice never to stand a charge principal ones, the defence of many of which had of the heavy Mogul cavalry, but to break and dis- been desperate. Still the war was as far from its perse before them. But when, wearied with the termination as ever. Zulficâr's troops were grafruitless chase, the assailants were returning with dually worn out with toils and casualties, the Matheir horses exhausted, the Marattas were on them rattas seemed to multiply daily, and, having made on all sides, cutting off stragglers, breaking into a desert of the Deckan, they spread their ravages their line, and harassing them in every possible into Mâlwa and Gůzerât. They gradually began

It was their especial delight to cut off to retake their forts; they hung about the emconvoys ; for here plunder, the object next to their peror's army, intercepted its supplies, cut off heart, was to be obtained, and if they found that detachments, and made it unsafe for any one to treasure was being conveyed nothing could exceed stir a yard from the camp. If the troops were led their perseverance and energy. They then sur- against them, they vanished ; and, when perhaps rounded the escort in such numbers that they wearied and worn out with marching in a wrong forced it to halt, and by cutting off all communica- direction they returned to camp, they heard of tions and supplies they speedily made it surrender. some distant town being taken and burned by the The men were then stripped of their horses and Marattas. The finances also had fallen into disother property, and dismissed ; the chiefs were kept order, and the emperor could not pay his troops till a ransom was paid.

with his accustomed regularity. The war too conSantajee and Donajee, by throwing themselves tinued with the Rajpûts, and it was also necessary between the royal army and Hindûstân, and thus to employ troops against the Jâts, a native people cutting off its supplies, seemed likely to endanger near Agra. Under these circumstances Aurungzîb its existence. Aurungzîb therefore resolved to proposed an accommodation to the Marattas; but bring the war to as speedy a close as possible. their terms, as they knew his situation, were exorWith this view he sent another army, under his son bitant. He then led his troops to Ahmednugur, prince Câmbakhsh, against Gingee. Zulficâr, dis- still harassed by the foe, and in that city, whence gusted at being placed under the command of the

twenty years before he had set forth elate with prince, listened to the overtures of the besieged ; hope to the conquest of the Deckan, he breathed the prince, on his side, equally disgusted at the real his last, in the eighty-ninth year of his age (1707), command being with Zulficâr, entered into commu- and the fiftieth of his reign. nication with Danajee, who had entered the Car- With all Aurungzîb's talents, it was in his reign natic with a body of 20,000 horse, and was greatly that the decline of the power of the house of Timûr, impeding the operations of the besiegers. The which afterwards advanced so rapidly, really comconsequence of the dissension between the imperial menced. Though this must have occurred in the generals was, that they were obliged to give up the ordinary course of affairs, much of it may be siege and retire to Vandiwash to await the orders ascribed to Aurungzib's personal character. Thus of the emperor (1697).

his religious bigotry and intolerance alienated the The war now assumed a desultory character. Hindoos at the very time that the Marattas, a naAt length Zulficâr, finding that he must either re- tive power, were rising into importance ; and hence duce Gingee or be removed from his command his overthrow of the Mohammedan states of the with disgrace, began to act with vigour, and ere Deckan did not add to his power. Then the natural long that fortress was taken. He had however coldness of his heart and his suspicious character previously given Rajah Râm the opportunity of put an end to all attachment on the part of his making his escape (1698).

ministers and officers, and even of his children, and Dissensions had now broken out among the little zeal was displayed in his service. Even, Marattas. Danajee, whose side was taken by the however, had he been an Akber, we doubt if the rajah, quarrelled with Santajee; and as the latter Mogul empire could have been upheld ; the power was unpopular with his troops, on account of his of the Marattas on one side, and the turn which efforts to maintain discipline, a conspiracy was or- affairs took in Persia and Câbul on the other, must ganized in his camp, and he was fallen on and have wrought its downfal, in spite of valour or slain. Rajah Råm, who had fixed his residence at wisdom in the sovereign. Sattâra, now took the field himself at the head of

It is Aurungzîb, and not Bâber or Akber, that the largest Maratta army that had yet been as- is the object of admiration to the Mussulmans of sembled, and ravaged the whole north of the India. His courage, his ability, and his craft, which Deckan. Aurungzîb, on his side, changed his plan they regard as wisdom, are the themes of their of operations. Hitherto he had used to remain praises ; but they are perplexed to find that stationary himself, and send detachments in dif

despite of them, his reign was a tissue of ill sucferent directions ; now he resolved to divide his cess, and that the empire dates its decline from it. whole army into two portions, and while he himself Aurungzîb, of whom numerous letters are exat the head of one should attack the Maratta for- tant, never expresses the slightest remorse for his tresses in succession, the other under Zulficar was treatment of his father. But he may have felt to engage their armies wherever they appeared in it, and he was haunted with the idea of a similar the field. In pursuance of this plan he quitted fate awaiting himself. He dreaded death and the Birmapûrî, where he had resided for some years, judgment to come, confessed that he had committed and led his forces against Sattara (1700), which numerous crimes, but sought to justify them with surrendered after a siege of some months; during the flimsy excuse that it had been all for the benefit which time Rajah Râm died, and his widow, Târa of his children. He concludes his last letter to prince Azim with these words : " Come what may, To effect his purpose he abolished all distinction I have launched my vessel on the waves. Farewell, of caste and of religion. Mussulman and Hindoo farewell, farewell.”

of high or low caste were admitted alike. A peculiar dress was to distinguish the Sikh, his clothes were to be blue; he was to allow the hair of his head and of all parts of his body to grow unchecked.

He was to be a soldier from his entrance into the CHAPTER XIV.

society, and always to carry steel about his person.

While the usual ceremonies and usages of religion BAHADUR Shân-Origin of the Sikhs-JEHÂNDAR SAÂH

were abolished and new ones substituted, HinThe Syuds- FUROKHSÎR-War in the Deckan--Against

dooism was not totally renounced ; Bramins were the Sikhs-MOHAMMED SHAH-Asof Jâh-Fall of the to be held in honour, and the flesh of kine was not Syuds—The Marattas-Bâlajee Wiswanat- Bajee Râo- to be eaten. Invasion of Hindûstân by the Marattas.

But still the Sikhs were unable to resist the im

perial arms. They were hunted down and massaBy his last will Aurungzîb directed that his empire cred, their forts were taken, and even Guru himshould be divided among his three sons ; but, regardless of it, A zîm, the second son, caused himself self, it is said, was obliged to take service with the

Moguls for a subsistence. The cruelties that were to be proclaimed emperor of India. Moazzim, exercised on them, however, only served to give who was in Câbul, assumed as the elder the crown, strength to their fanaticism. Under a chief named taking the title of Bahadur Shâh, and the two

Bandu, of a more ferocious character than Guru brothers prepared to assert their claims by force Govind, they burst from their mountains, and overof arms. A bloody battle was fought to the south

ran the east of the Punjâb, destroying and massaof Agra, in which Azîm and his two elder sons were slain, and his youngest, an infant, made prisoner. cring in the most savage manner wherever they

came. They penetrated as far as Seharanpoor, to Bahadur then marched into the Deckan, where

the east of the Jumna, and then fixed themselves prince Cânbakhsh refused to submit to him, and in a battle near Hyderabad that prince was de- tains, whence they soon spread their ravages as far

in the country between the Sutlej and the mounfeated and slain. In order then to sow dissensions

as Delhi on the one side, and as Lahore on the among the Marattas, the emperor released Sâho

other. It was these last depredations that caused the rightful rajah, and promised to make peace

the emperor Bahadur to march in person against with him on favourable terms if he should succeed

them. He speedily routed them, and drove them in making good his title. The Marattas, as was

back to their hills, and having blockaded Bandu in anticipated, split into two parties, and as that of

a fortress, he hoped to end the war by his capture. Sâho seemed soon to be the stronger, Dâûd Khân

But he contrived to escape in a sally, one of his Panni, a Patan, who as Zulficâr's deputy was left

followers having personated him in order to attract to govern the Deckan, concluded a treaty with

the attention of the enemy. The emperor returned him, by which it was agreed that the chout should

to Lahore, where he died shortly after, in the fifth be paid him, but not be collected by the Marattas

year of his reign (1712); for he was an old man themselves.

when he came to the throne. As war was now to ensue with a power which

On the death of Bahâdur, there was, of course, had lately arisen in the Punjâb, Bahâdur resolved

as we may say, a contest for the crown. As his to bring the war with the Rajpûts to a close. He

eldest son, Jehândâr Shâh, was a man of no capacity, therefore conceded all their demands, and peace

the troops and nobility in general were in favour was concluded (1709).

of the second son, Azeem. But Zulficâr, judging it This new power was the religious sect of the

more for his advantage to have a puppet on the Sikhs®, who have since become of such importance throne, declared for Jehandâr, and Azeem was dein the history of India. This sect commenced about

feated and slain. Zulficâr was immediately made the end of the fifteenth century; its founder was a man of the name of Nânik, who taught, as others vizîr, and he treated with the utmost arrogance

and disdain the feeble prince whom he served, who before him had done, that all religious forms were had indeed forfeited all title to respect by promoting indifferent, and that the Moslem and the Hindoo

to high offices the low-born relatives of his favourite were alike in the sight of God. To this doctrine, mistress, who had been a public dancer. the latter would of course assent, but the fanatic Moslems would not admit of such enlarged charity, blood who were in his power.

Sehândâr had put to death all the princes of the and its teacher received the crown of martyrdom

But Furokhsîr, the

son of Azeem, who was in Bengal, threw himat their hands (1606). This impolitic cruelty con- self on the protection of two able men, Syuds, or verted the Sikhs from quiet religionists into enthu- descendants of the prophet, one of whom, Hussun siastic warriors. They took up arms under his son, Har Govind ; but the government proved too strong dallah, governor of Allahabad. With their aid he

Ally, was governor of Bahâr, and the other, Abfor them, and they were expelled from their seats in repelled a force that was sent against him, and then the neighbourhood of Lahore, and forced to take

advanced to the vicinity of Agra, where he was enrefuge in the mountains to the north. Here they countered by Jehândâr and Žulficâr at the head of remained, still at enmity with the Moslems, till the

70,000 men. The battle was long and bloody, and year 1675, when their chief, Guru Govind, the

Hussun was even left for dead on the field. But the grandson of Har Govind, conceived the idea of victory finally remained with Furokhsîr, and Jeforming them into a great religious and military hândâr fled in disguise to Delhi, whither Zulficâr republic.

led the remains of the troops. Zulficâr's father, 6 This is by some written Seiks. We believe the correct

Assad Khân, had meantime made the wretched empronunciation to be as our word seek.

peror a prisoner, and when Furokhsîr approached

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