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clusive of the soldiers and their followers, is stated which however did no mischief, as the balls went at 200,000 persons. The army of Ahmed Shah over the enemies' heads. Their disciplined infantry was composed of 40,000 Afghâns and Persians, then advanced with charged bayonets on the Ro13,000 Indian horse, and 38,000 Indian infantry, hillas who were on the right, and routed them with of which the Rohillas were the only effective por- great slaughter, and then took the centre in flank, tion. He had about thirty pieces of cannon, and a which was at the same time assailed in front by good many wall-pieces.

the Bhâo and Wiswas Râo with the flower of the The Shầh encamped in the neighbourhood of the Maratta cavalry. Ahmed, seeing the peril of his Marattas, whose lines he did not venture to attack. centre, brought up the reserve, but the advantage Meantime, a body of about 12,000 Maratta cavalry still was on the side of the Marattas. He then had advanced from the lower Jumna and was cut- rallied all his men and made his whole line ad. ting off his supplies, and great distress began to be vance, and directed one division to wheel and take felt in his camp; but an active detachment came them in flank. This manoeuvre was successful. up with the freebooters and cut them to pieces, and “ All at once, as if by enchantment,” says the writer the Maratta camp was now in its turn straitened who was present," the whole Maratta army turned for provisions, as the enemy had got the command their backs and fled at full speed, leaving the field of the open country. Constant skirmishes took of battle covered with heaps of dead.” No quarter place, and the Marattas made some fruitless attacks was given, the pursuit continued for fifteen or on the Dûranee lines. Ahmed's allies were urgent twenty miles, the peasantry cut off those that with him to bring matters to issue by a general escaped the soldiers, and the whole number of the action ; but his reply was,“ This is a matter of war slain is said to have been 200,000. The Bhâo with which you are not acquainted. In other himself and Wiswat Râo were among the dead, affairs do as you please, but leave this to me." and every chief of note was either slain or wounded. He used also to say to them, “Do you sleep ; I The pêshwa did not survive the shock which the will take care that no harm befalls you.” In effect, tidings of this great defeat gave him. Dissensions he was indefatigable ; he omitted no precaution, broke out among the Maratta chiefs, and it was and he was on horseback nearly the whole day. some time before the Maratta power became again

At length the Bhâo, having endeavoured in vain formidable. to effect a peace through the mediation of Shuja- Ahmed Dûranee, after his victory, went on to ud-doula, resolved to conquer or perish in the field, Delhi, whence, after a short stay, he returned to rather than see his whole army die of starvation ; his own country, and never again concerned himand ere daybreak on the morning of the 6th of self with the affairs of India. These now began January, 1761, the whole Maratta army, placing to assume a new character ; for the people from their artillery in front, advanced to assail the hostile the far West, into whose hands the empire was deslines. Ahmed Shah, having had timely information, tined to come next, had just at this time begun to drew his troops up in front of his camp. The action establish themselves in Bengal. To relate the began by the discharge of the Maratta cannon, l formation of their empire is now our task.

A. D. 1418—97.

DISCOVERY OF THE ROUTE TO INDIA.

49

PART II.

BRITISH EMPIRE IN INDIA.

Italian traders, especially the Venetians, of whose CHAPTER I.

wealth and power it was the main support.

In the fifteenth century, the profits of the eastern Early trade to India—Discovery of the Monsoons--Portu- trade being manifestly so great, other nations began guese Discoveries—Passage of Cape of Good Hope-Voyage to long for a share in it, and to meditate on the of Vasco da Gama—Voyage of Cabral-Second Voyage of possibility of making a direct passage to India. The Gama-Of the Albuquerques --Soarez-Almeida-Albu- writings of the ancients, which were now becoming querque--Conquest of Goa--Of Malacca-Extent of Por

better known, informed men of the opinion which tuguese Empire in the East - Defence of Diu-Of Goa

had prevailed of the possibility of circumnavigating Voyages of the Dutch-Their Trade and Settlements

Africa ; and the knowledge of the globular form of The French.

the earth, joined with the notion of India being From the most distant ages, as we have seen, the the most distant region of the East, led to the inproducts of India were conveyed to the West; but ference, that by steering boldly across the Atlantic the course was chiefly a land one, from the coast of one would be sure to reach the coast of India. Arabia Felix, or the head of the Persian Gulf, and This last, as is well known, was the idea of Columthe trade was almost entirely in the hands of the bus, and it led to the discovery of America. The Phoenicians. At length, when Alexander the Great former idea gradually unfolded itself to the Portuhad built the city named from himself in Egypt, guese, whose situation at the western extremity of and that country formed an independent kingdom, Europe, and their familiarity with the sea, and under the Ptolemies, the Indian trade began to enmity with the Moors of Africa, led them to extake a new direction, and vessels leaving the the western coast of that continent. Don vicinity of the modern Suez proceeded down the Henry, one of the sons of John I. by an English Red Sea, along the coast of Arabia, whence they princess, has the honour of being the originator of sometimes sailed across the mouth of the Per-Portuguese discovery. While governor of Ceuta, sian Gulf to the Indus, and thence round Cutch he had learned much from the Moors respecting and Gûzerât to the mouth of the Nerbudda, and the African nations to the south. This confirmed then occasionally along the coast of Malabar. When him in the idea he had conceived of pushing disthey had obtained their cargoes, they returned by covery southwards, for he had already sent out the same circuitous route, and the commodities, vessels which had succeeded in doubling Cape Non, being conveyed by land to Alexandria, were thence the previous limit of southern navigation, and coming distributed over the West. This, however, was not in view of Cape Bojador. On his return from the common course, for the ships of Egypt in ge- Ceuta, Don Henry fixed his abode at Sagrez, near neral went no further than the coast of Arabia, Cape St. Vincent, where he would always have the where they purchased the goods which Arabian or ocean in view; and to the end of his life (in 1463) Indian vessels had brought thither by the route he kept his thoughts directed on the one object of above described.

African discovery. In 1418, he sent out a vessel It seems strange that, in this long-continued in which was to attempt to double Cape Bojador. The tercourse with India, the phenomenon of the Mon- attempt proved a failure, in consequence of a soons, and their applicability to the purposes of storm ; but the island of Porto Santo was discoverd, trade, should never have engaged the thoughts of as that of Madeira was in a future voyage. It was any of the navigators. It was not till about the not till 1433 that Cape Bojador was passed, and as middle of the first century of our era, that a the sea beyond that promontory, contrary to expecmariner named Hippalus, observing the regularity tation, was found to be calm and tranquil, the prowith which the one blows for six months, from the gress of southern discovery was rapid. After the south-west, and the other for an equal period, from death of Don Henry it languished a little ; but it the north-east, drew the natural conclusion, that if had struck root too deeply ever to cease. a vessel were to sail with the former, from the speedily resumed, the river Congo and the Gold mouth of the Red Sea, she must be carried to some Coast were discovered, and in 1471 the Portuguese point on the coast of India, and that the other then monarch, Don John II., assumed the title of Lord would bring her back to the place from which she of Guinea. This prince, being now convinced that had started. He had the courage to put his theory there must be a termination of the African contiinto practice, and the event fully justified his anti- nent, resolved to make every effort to reach it, and cipations. The Indian trade now took a new course; thus to open a route to India. In 1486, he sent but Alexandria continued to be its great emporium. out three vessels, under the command of BartholoPolitical changes had no effect on it. The Roman mew Diaz, to make the attempt. Leaving the empire was succeeded by that of the Khalífehs, and Congo, Diaz proceeded southwards along the coast, this by that of the Mamlooks; but still it was from till a tempest came on which drove him out to sea Alexandria that the spices of the East were dis- in a southern direction. At the end of thirteen persed to the West, the great agents being the days the tempest ceased, and they then steered

It was

E

eastwards in order to recover the land. But to The court of Portugal resolved to lose no time their amazement, after proceeding for some days, in taking advantage of this brilliant discovery, and they still saw nothing before them but a wide early in the following year a fleet of thirteen ships, ocean. They then steered northwards, and soon carrying twelve hundred men, under the command fell in with the land. They had in effect, without of Alvarez Cabral, sailed from the Tagus. The being aware of it, passed the Cape in quest of circumstance of eight Franciscan friars being put which they had sailed. At the desire of Diaz they on board, and the admiral being instructed to waste went on eastwards till they reached what is now with fire and sword every country that would not named the Great Fish River. As they were re- listen to their preaching, shows that religious turning, to their great joy and surprise they fanaticism, even more than the spirit of commerce, discerned the long-sought promontory, to which actuated the councils of the Lusitanian monarch. Diaz gave the name of Cabo Tormentoso, or Stormy By keeping out to sea in order to avoid the Cape, but which appellation the king changed to coast of Africa, Cabral had the good fortune to that of Cape of Good Hope, its present name.

discover Brazil in South America. In his passage Circumstances prevented the king from following round the Cape of Good Hope he encountered up this discovery of a route to India, and it was not fearful tempests, in which he lost four of his ships, till the reign of his successor, Emmanuel, that the on board of one of which was the intrepid Diaz, project was resumed. In 1497, Vasco da Gama, a who first had passed that formidable promontory. gentleman of the royal household, sailed from the Cabral reached Calicut with only six ships ; but Tagus with a squadron of three ships, with orders this force, and the account of the

power of Portugal to make every effort to reach the coast of India; given by some Hindoos whom Gama had carried and after a voyage of less than eleven months he away and Cabral had brought back, induced the arrived at Calicut on the coast of Malabar. The Samorim to treat him with respect, and he was particulars of this voyage require not to be narrated, allowed to establish a factory in Calicut. The they are so generally known ; and it has had the Moors, though they at first affected to be friendly good fortune to have been sung in enduring strains disposed, soon began to thwart the Portuguese, by the muse of the renowned but hapless Luis de and through their influence the native merchants Camoens.

delayed supplying them with the goods for which As Gama was proceeding along the east coast of they had contracted. The Samorim, when applied Africa, he found Mozambique, Quiloa, Melinda, and to, in a fit of impatience bade them to seize the all the other towns inhabited by Mohammedans, or cargo of one of the Moorish ships, but at the same as the Portuguese called them, Moors '; and as there time to pay its full value. Correa, the Portuguese happened to be in them some traders or others factor, a warm, impetuous man, and urged on by from the north coast of Africa, who knew the Por. his pretended friends among the Moors, pressed tuguese as the hereditary enemies of their race and Cabral to execute this project, and the Moors, to creed, they exerted themselves to stir up the hos- draw him on, began ostentatiously to lade a large tility of the natives against them. In this they vessel with the choicest spices, taking care to let succeeded every where but at Melinda, whose the Portuguese know the time appointed for her prince, on the contrary, became the steady friend of departure. Cabral, contrary to his better judgthe strangers, and supplied them with a pilot, who ment, yielded to the instances of Correa and of his carried them to Calicut. Here also Gama found men, and, sending his boats, began to transfer her the trade principally in the hands of the Moors, cargo to his own ships. The Moors ran instantly that is, the traders of Arabia and Egypt, who to the king, crying that the Christians had now naturally sought to prevent the commercial rivalry shown themselves to be what they always said they of the Europeans, and to destroy them if possible. were, mere pirates. He gave them permission to The sovereign himself, called the Samorim, a Hin- redress themselves ; and, joined by a number of doo in faith, looking only to the benefit of his the Nairs, as the military class is called in Malasubjects, was inclined to favour the strangers, who bar, they made an attack on the Portuguese fachad a faithful friend in a Moor of Tunis, named tory. Correa and fifty men were slain, the rest Monzaide who was settled at Calicut; but the escaped by jumping into the sea and swimming to Moors bribed to their side the Cutwal, or prime the ships. Cabral seized ten Moorish ships and minister of the Samorim, and through him the

burned them after he had taken out their cargoes ; prince himself, and plans were formed for the de- and then, getting in close to shore, he cannonaded struction of the Portuguese ; but Gama, having had the city till he had set it on fire in several places. timely information from Monzaide, frustrated them, He then weighed anchor, and, proceeding southand set sail on his return to Europe. He arrived wards, came to Cochin, the largest city on the coast in the port of Lisbon on the 29th of August, 1499, after Calicut. after an absence of arly two years and two months.

It has alwa

been the fortune of the colonizers

or conquerors of new countries to find allies ready 8 Hence we find our writers calling the Mohammedans of to their hand, in consequence of the tyranny or India, Moors. The Portuguese called the original nations of oppression of the predominant power among the India Gentios, i.e. Gentiles, and hence our Gentoos. From natives. Thus the Spaniards, in their invasion of the Portuguese tanque (from stagnum), a pond, we have Mexico, found zealous allies in the Tlascalans ; and made tank, as from casta a race, caste. They were also in

now the king of Cochin, an oppressed vassal of the the habit of putting their nasal tone (m) at the end of words

Samorim, became the warm friend of the Portuterminating in a vowel, and this we have changed into n. Thus they call Cape Kumârî Comarim, our Comarin, Samori

guese. Cabral, having supplied himself here with Samorim, &c. As their x sounds like our sh, we meet with

pepper, did not make any long stay, but went on to Abex for Habesh, or Abyssinia, Muxadabad for Moorsheda

Cananor, where he was also well received, and then bad, &c. They called the princes of Quiloa, and other towns proceeded on his homeward voyage. Before he on the coast of Africa, Xeques, i.e. Shejkhs.

arrived an additional squadron of three ships had

A. D. 1503–10.

ALMEIDA-ALBUQUERQUE.

51

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been sent out to reinforce him, under John da, chase peace by the delivery of a large quantity of Nova, who, finding a letter at San Blas on the coast pepper, and by opening his port to the Portuguese of Africa relating what had occurred and advising

But the capture of one of his ships him to proceed direct to Cochin, made sail at once by the Portuguese broke this peace, and, after a to that port. While there, he defeated a large fleet vain attempt to intimidate him, the Albuquerques sent against him by the Samorim. On his home- sailed for Europe, leaving Duarte Pacheco with a ward voyage, he discovered the island of St. Helena, | few hundred men for the defence of Cochin. as he had fallen in with Ascension Isle as he was The Samorim now resolved to make every effort going out.

to reduce the king of Cochin, and it is asserted In Portugal Cabral's expedition, owing to the that the army he assembled for this purpose numloss of life and of shipping in it, was in general re- bered 50,000 men. Two Milanese, who had degarded as a failure, and people began to think that serted to him, taught him, we are told, to cast brass it was a hazardous thing for a small kingdom like cannon and other European arts of war. The dePortugal to engage in hostilities, at the other end fence of the town was committed to Pacheco, for of the world, with a powerful monarch like the the natives lost all courage ; and seldom have more Samorim. But the king, like most monarchs, was skill and energy been displayed than during this bent on conquest and extent of empire ; the pope siege. All the attacks of the enemy were gallantly had lately by a bull divided as it were the world repelled, and the Samorim at last, having lost a between him and the king of Spain, giving to the great part of his force by war and sickness, found one all the countries to be discovered east, to the it necessary to raise the siege and retire. The deother those west of a certain line, his infallibility fence of Cochin, by demonstrating to the Portunot perceiving that they thus must meet at last ; guese their great superiority in arms over the finally, he reflected that he had allies in the princes Indians, tended greatly to foster their lust of conof Cochin and Cananor, and might gain others. quest. He therefore assumed the title of “ Lord of the Pacheco was succeeded by Lope Soarez, to whom Navigation, Conquest, and Commerce of Ethiopia, the Samorim sent very advantageous offers of peace.' Arabia, India, and Persia," and sent out a fleet of Soarez sailed to Calicut, and all was proceeding fifteen sail, under Vasco da Gama, to Cochin and satisfactorily, till he made a demand of the surrenCananor, and another of five vessels, under Vicente der of the two Milanese. At this the negotiator Sodra, to cruize against the Moors at the mouth of paused, requiring time to consult the Samorim; the Red Sea (1512).

but the haughty Soarez would hear of no delay, Those who have formed their idea of the cha- and instantly began to cannonade the town. He racter of Vasco da Gama from the poem of Camoens, then, at the desire of the king of Cochin, destroyed or even from the narrative of his first voyage, will the town of Cranganor, after which he returned to be shocked by the account of the barbarities of Portugal. which he now was guilty. Having taken a large The views of the Portuguese monarch gradually Moorish ship off the coast of Arabia, he first plun- extending, the title of Viceroy of India, with a dered it, and then, shutting the crew up in the hold, suitable establishment military and ecclesiastic, set it on fire. When he came before Calicut, and was conferred on Francis Almeida, who replaced had opened negotiations, he placed on the deck fifty Soarez (1505). Shortly after his arrival, he received persons whom he had taken out of the vessels a splendid embassy from the Hindoo king of Bejậwhich he had captured, and, with an hour-glass in yanugur, offering his daughter in marriage to the his hand, told the Samorim's envoy, that if he did prince of Portugal; and, though the offer was not not receive satisfaction before the sand had run, accepted, a courteous and friendly answer was he would put them all to death ; and, as the reply returned. did not arrive within the limited time, he performed The Mamlûk sultan of Egypt, incensed at the his threat, and then cutting off the hands and feet daring conduct of the Portuguese, and the losses of his victims sent them on shore. He left Cali- sustained by his subjects, resolved, in conjunction cut, but was induced by an artful Bramin to return with the Moslem king of Gûzerât, to make a vigorin a single ship ; by which rash act he narrowly ous effort to extirpate them. An Egyptian fleet of escaped being captured. Having cruized about twelve sail was accordingly joined by that of the for some time, and taken some valuable ships, he king of Gûzerât, under his ablest general, Âiâz returned to Portugal. As soon as he was gone, the Sultânee (1508), and a furious attack was made by Samorim prepared to take vengeance on the king of the combined force on a part of the Portuguese Cochin. He invaded his territory at the head of fleet, commanded by the viceroy's son Lorenzo, off a large army, and, on his refusal to give up the the port of Chaul, to the south of Bombay. After susPortuguese and abandon their alliance, made a taining a fight for two successive days, the Portufurious assault on his capital, took it, and forced guese put to sea and escaped ; but, the ship of him to seek refuge in the adjacent sacred islet of Lorenzo Almeida having got entangled in some Vipeen.

fishing-stakes, he refused to leave her, and perished Three separate expeditions now sailed from fighting gallantly. On this occasion, the courPortugal (1503), under the brothers Alfonso and

teous Âiâz wrote a letter of consolation to the Francis Albuquerque and Antonio Saldanha. viceroy. Francis Albuquerque, who arrived first, having While Almeida was preparing to take vengeance met on the coast of Arabia the remainder of the for his son, Alfonso Albuquerque came out with a squadron of Sodra, who had perished in a storm, fleet and a commission to supersede him. Albuquerproceeded to Vipeen and relieved the king of que had first proceeded to the coast of Arabia, Cochin, who was now reduced to extremity. He where he reduced Muscat and other towns, and then, being joined by his brother, carried on the then sailed up the Persian Gulf, and made the war against the Samorim, whom he forced to pur- ' prince of the wealthy isle of Ormuz consent to pay

tribute. When he came to Cochin and showed his , of Malacca, which became one of their principal commission, Almeida, supported by his principal settlements (1511). officers, refused obedience to it, at least till he The port of Aden in Arabia, which would give should have avenged the death of his son. Albu- him the command of the Red Sea, next drew the querque urged, but in vain, that the royal orders attention of Albuquerque ; but two attempts which were imperative. Almeida sailed with a fleet of he made on that town proved failures. He then nineteen ships to attack the fleets of Egypt and resumed his plans on Ormuz, and sailing thither Güzerât. On his way he made an unprovoked with a force of 1500 European, and 600 native assault on the city of Dabul in the Côncan, plun- troops, he reduced its sovereign to submission, and dered and burned the town, and massacred the in- Ormuz also became a Portuguese possession. habitants without distinction. He found the con- Albuquerque had thus founded an empire for his federates lying at the isle of Diu, on the southern sovereign; but neglect and ingratitude were the coast of Gûzerât. Âiâz proposed to await the only rewards the monarchs of Portugal in those attack in the harbour ; but the Egyptian admiral days bestowed on their distinguished subjects. As would not consent, and in the action which ensued Albuquerque was returning to Goa, broken in health, victory remained with the Portuguese. Âiâz then he learned that his enemy Soarez was come out as sent proposals of peace, but Almeida insisted on his successor, that officers hostile to him were apthe Egyptian admiral being delivered up to him. pointed to the command of the ships and forts; and To this demand, Âiâz refused to yield, but offered all this had been done without sending him even a to restore his Christian captives; and Almeida was

letter. He was at first inclined to give ear to those obliged to be content with these terms. He then

who counselled him to maintain his power by force ; departed, and when he came to Cananor, with the but he immediately repelled the thought. He referocity then characteristic of the Portuguese in fused to take nourishment, dictated a brief but India, he massacred all his prisoners. It was with manly and pathetic letter to his worthless sovereign, great difficulty that he was induced to resign his and breathed his last within sight of Goa (1515). office. He finally sailed for Europe, and he fell in

Albuquerque was doubtless a man of considerable a scuffle with the natives in Saldanha bay, on the talent and energy, and is, perhaps, not altogether coast of Africa.

without claim to the title of Great bestowed on him Hitherto the Portuguese had made no attempt by his countrymen. It was certainly a splendid conto acquire territory in India, being content with ception to make a small nation of the West like being masters of the sea and having factories in Portugal mistress of the seas and of the commerce the cities of the coast. But Albuquerque, a man of of the eastern regions; and this conception was in lofty and aspiring views, resolved to be the founder fact realised, for, in all their conflicts with the of a Portuguese empire in the East. His first at- native powers, the Portuguese invariably came off tempt was on Calicut (1510); but, after performing victorious, and their empire continued to exist for prodigies of valour, the Portuguese were beaten off

an entire century. It was neither the arms of the with great loss, and Albuquerque himself was

monarchs of the East, nor the inferior abilities of carried to his ships stunned with blows, and left for Albuquerque's successors, that caused its downfal, dead. When he had recovered, acting under the but the decline of Portugal itself, and the

appear. advice of Timoza, one of those pirates with which

ance in the eastern seas of the other nations of that coast was so long infested, he proceeded to

Europe, whose side was almost always taken by the attack Goa, a town in an island of the coast be

native powers, who abhorred the Portuguese for longing to the kingdom of Bêjapûr. The town

their religious fanaticism and their barbarous surrendered on terms of security to commerce and cruelty, in both of which detestable qualities they private property, which were faithfully adhered to fully equalled their kinsmen of Spain. by Albuquerque, who now assumed the state of a The Portuguese dominion, according to the magsovereign prince. But the king of Bêjapûr, having nificent language of their historians, extended from collected a large army, was preparing to recover

the Cape of Good Hope to the frontiers of China, Goa, and as he succeeded in passing his troops over

along a coast 12,000 miles in extent. But this only into the island by night, Albuquerque found it ne

means that they had forts and factories at various cessary to evacuate the town, and get on board his points of this range of coast ; for they prudently ships. He retired to Cananor, but soon after, when

refrained from the acquisition of territory. They the king of Bêjapûr was engaged in a war with the

had various settlements on the east coast of Africa, rajah of Bejâyanugur, he made another attack and

Ormuz in the Persian Gulf, Goa and other places in obtained possession of the town, which he strongly they had factories in Ceylon,

they possessed Malacca,

India ; they were also on the Ganges in Bengal ; fortified, and made the chief seat of the Portuguese and their forts commanded Ternate, Tidore, and the power in the East. The aspiring mind of Albuquerque was now

other Spice Islands, which, by the way, were the directed to a far more distant conquest. The city

scenes of their greatest atrocities; and finally, the of Malacca, situated in the peninsula of that name,

emperor of China, for their services against a pirate, was the great emporium of the trade between India

allowed them to settle on the peninsular of Macao, and China and the eastern isles; and Albuquerque, opened a trade with the islands of Japan, from

near the city of Canton. They also discovered and using as a pretext some ill-treatment which an officer sent on discovery by Almeida was said to

which, however, their religious bigotry at length have received there, sailed 'thither with a force of caused their expulsion, and a massacre of their 800 Portuguese and 600 native troops, and he suc

native converts. Of this extensive empire all that ceeded in taking the town, where the booty acquired they retain, and only by sufferance, at the present is said to have been immense; but it was all lost in day is Mozambique, Goa, and Macao ! a storm which the fleet encountered off the coast

The most remarkable events in Portuguese hisof Sumatra. The Portuguese retained possession tory in the East, after the time of Albuquerque,

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