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signified to the parties, whereupon they are solemnly betrothed, in presence of the elders and nearest connexions, and the marriage then takes place, according to the forins prescribed by law in each country.
The following is a List of the Congregations, Societies and Missions of the Church of the United Brethren, at the close of the first century, since its renewal.
IN EUROPE. In Upper Lusatia there are four congregations—2,135 members. * In Silesia–Thirteen congregations—4,156 members. In Great Britain-Twenty congregations—3,432 members. In Ireland—Six congregations-1,265 members.
IN NORTH AMERICA.
II. SOCIETIES. In Germany and Prussia-Fifteen societies—31,336 members. (Returns incomplete.)
In Switzerland and France~Seven societies—2,664 members. (Returns incomplete.)
In Denmark, Norwuy and Sweden-Twenty-two societies—42,300 menibers,
III. MISSIONS. In Greenland, since 1733—(Among the Natives on the Western Coast) Three congregations, eighteen missionaries, 966 converts.
On the Coust of Zubrudor, since 1770—(Among the Esquimaux Indians.) Three congregations, twenty-five missionaries, 607 converts.
In North America, since 1734—(Among the Delaware and Cherokee Indians.) Three congregations, seven missionaries, 180 converts.
In South America, since 1738—(Among the Negro population.) One station, eleven missionaries, 1,388 converts.
IN THE West Indies-(Among the negro slaves :) In the Danish West Indies-Seven stations, thirty-six missionaries, 8,250 converts.
In the British West Indies—Twelve stations, thirty-five missionaries, 16,447 converts.
IN SOUTH AFRICA, Since 1792–Three stations, thirty-six missionaries, 1,729 converts.
IN RUSSIAN ASIA, (Among the Calmucs.)- Island in the Wulgu, neur. Surepta–3 missionaries, 22 converts.
Recapitulations of numbers.-Members in communion, 16,125; In Societies, 79,184; Converts in Missions, 33,169.
• The number of members include the children and refer to the year 182
From the preceding accounts which have been chiefly taken from accredited histories of the Brethren's Church; it will be seen that they have been a singular people, and that many of the peculiarities which constitute their singularity, are those which should always characier. ize the church of Christ-a spirit of humilty and self-denial-and of active zeal in spreading the good news and glad tidings of salvation, wherever a door of utterance could be found.
We see that when they were in number very few and without a sure abode, and in the midst of great poverty, they undertook to preach the gospel to the most destitute, those who sat in darkness and saw no light; and it may be observed, that the Moravians, at least, are not obnoxious to the charge, perhaps justly made, by a late writer in this periodical -that where there was no refinement in a country, and where there was nothing left but the bare circumstance of enlightening the heathen, it seemed to be an object which alone had not sufficient charms to enlist the energies of most missionaries. For the bleak and inhospitable climale of “Greenland's icy mountains," where there was neither refinement nor comfort; amongst the negro slaves in the West Indies, and the christian slaves in Algiers, were the places where the Brethren first labored. They left little room to doubt of the purity of their motives, and of their singular disinterestedness. Some of them actually selling themselves for slaves, that they might thereby have an opportunity of preaching Christ to the oppressed African.
It was this peculiar trait of benevolence to the destitute, which characterized the Moravians, that first induced the compiler of these sketches to endeavor to bring their history more particularly to notice in our own church. Being impressed with the belief that we, as a church, have not, as we ought to have, that spirit of devotedness to the cause of our Master, which characterized the church in the days of the Apostles, that we seem to think that it is not required of us now, that we be followers together of such a man as Paul, that it would be considered as super-service to take for an example men, who were willing to spend and be spent in the service of Christ; believing that we have much peed of examining ourselves, whether we are rendering according to the benefits received, these sketches were designed to show that others, whom we justly considered as not having attained to that degree of clearness in doctrine, government and discipline, which we claim, have yet, in their missionary labors, set us an example worthy of our imitation. Shall we, who, in the good providence of God, have been delivered from the darkness of popery and prelacy, and who have received from our covenanting fathers such a clear exposition of the scriptures, as are contained in our confession of faith, we who have been enabled to reject the will-worship and ceremonies which the Moravians have fallen into, shall we not do more than others ?
Art. II. Slavery essentially immoral.
(Concluded from page 325.) The Apostle did indeed give directions, pointing out the relative duties of master and servant, by which he recognized the relation 19 be lawful. It is here we presume, the mistake is made. The Apostle mentions, masters and servants. We know from profane history, that there was a system of slavery, similar to our own, then practised in the Roman Empire; and consequenily many infer that it must be servants held by that system, which the Apostle referred to; and they go to the Roman heathen statute book, insiead of the Bible, to undersiand the tenure by which they were held, and the laws that were to regulate the system. But when the Apostle gave directions regulating the conduct of master and servant, it must be such a servitude, as was recognised by God's laws. The servant's duty to his master must not come in competition with his duty to God. It can not disannual God's other general precepts, by which all are to be governed. It must not stop a man from entering legally into the marriage relation, which is the covenant of his God, and the first link in the chain of all social ties; which is broken, all others are severed. But sluves can make no contracts which are binding, consequently every male and female slave, who live as husband and wife, live in a state of concubinage, so far as civil law is concerned—But let this suffice to shew, that the servant's duty to his master must not come in collision with God's precepts.
The Apostle in writing to the different churches, was writing to people who had been admitted to church fellowship. They had already acceded to the terms of communion; we could not expect him to make any new terms; their slaves had already been disposed of according to the requisitions of the gospel, though they still retained them, or a portion of them in their employment; accordingly he instructs the masters to treat them with “justice and equality,” and to "forbear threatening" -threatening that they would again reduce them to their former state of bondage; as we presume they depended solely on the christian principles of their masters, for their protection. He does not say you shall not brand them with hot irons, or you shall not suspend them with a weight tied to their feet-when you apply the whip until it lacerates their naked bodies, or other barbarities, which were then used. The A posile would not have such barbarities as much as named amongst Christians, and which we know are practised in our own country, and which are necessary appendages to the system-When man is yoked to labor like the brute, like the brute he must be coerced, nay worse than the brute, for he will not work under the yoke so tamely. The Apostle exhorts the servants to discharge their duty with “ fidelity,” a very necessary advice to a people emerging from a heathen state. Servants might suppose that a religion, which breathed so much benevolence and love, and had such an equalizing tendency, made it no more necessary for them to labor-that the benevolence of their brethren in the church, should support them, or that they should have all things common.
There was another class of servants whom he addressed, who were actually slaves, who had heathen masters, those he exhorted to exercise christian-patience and to be diligent and faithful in their business, that the word of God might not be blasphemed. Not that they owed the Jabor in justice to their masters; nor was there any need to promulgate any new laws respecting slavery, for the fundamental principles of the christian religion utierly condemned it. It could not be maintained with. out sapping their foundation principles--supreme love to God, and love to our neighbors. The judicial law was full and explicit, giving directions regulating the Hebrew servitude. (Dent. xv. and 12, 13, 14, 15.) The moral part of this law is always binding-for as we have already
said, the standard of moral obligation, in respect of love to our neighbor, is certainly no lower under the Christian dispensation than under the Jewish.
When the Apostle gave directions for the discharge of other relative duties, did he recognize the absurd and wicked laws, by which these relations were governed in the Roman Empire? By no means. directions for the discharge of the relative duties of husband and wife, and parents and children; now we know that the wife was reckoned by the Roman laws the husband's slave; and he had the same authority over her as over his slaves. The father had as much authority over his children, as he had over his slaves, in some respects the father's authority over his child, was more absolute than over his slavc. A son could noi do business for himself in his father's lifetime, except his father first emancipated him, in a formal manner three different times; and a slave was made free by being but once emancipated. Now the Apostle did not consider it necessary to say any thing against any of these ab surdities, he intended we should go to the Bible for our instructions. Some of our pro-slavery friends seem to be of the opinion, that if the Apostle had preached the duty of ernancipation, it would have made such an uprour, that we certainly should have heard of it, and that the Apostle was awed from preaching this christian duty, because he was afraid of the displeasure of the despois, who were then in power. Now the Apostle was “no lame, time-serving priest.” He knew that, "the fear of man bringeth a snare.” He was not afraid to "lay the axe to the root of the tree,” to their idolatry, of which slavery is the legitimate offspring. Do we suppose that they would be more attached 10 their slaves than to their gods? The Apostle did not appear to be afraid to tell them, that "they were no gods, that were made with hands." Though alas! christians in our day seem to be more attached to their system of slavery, than to the luws of their God.
Emancipation was not so rare an occurrence, in the Roman Empire, that it needed to make such a great commotion-humane masters gave slaves greater facilities for obtaining their freedom, under the Roman government, than do our American slave-holders.
Cicero says, that * sober industrious slaves, at least such as became slaves from being captives in war, seldom remained in servitude above six years." There were laws in the Roman Empire at one time, probibiting persons from emancipating more than a portion of their slares; for the emancipation had been so great, previous to that time, that they became alarmed for the safety of their system, which shews that emancipation was not so very unpopular amongst the people. The Apostle's greatesi effort was direcied against idolatry, but he does not particularize every evil, which flowed out of that system. There were many crimes existing in the Roman Empire, which the Apostle did not in precise language reprove; yet to construe bis silence into an approval, would be as great a slander on his character, as to say he approved of slavery.
Did he approve of their gladiatorial show's ? because “they are not in the caialogue of crimes that he has mentioned and which were most barbarous spectacles of cruelty and murder. A duelist might say, that the Apostle approved of duelling, because there was more barbarity manifested in the gladiatorial shows than in duelling, and these shows were practised to a great extent in the Roman Empire in his days; but he did not express any disapprobation of them, on the contrary, he borrowed figures from them, to represent the christian's warfare ; " So fight I not, as one that beateth the air." Fathers in the Roman Empire exposed their chil. dren, when infants, in such a manner, that death was the consequence; and even when they came to the years of maturiiy, they put them to death by any punishment they saw proper to select. Deeds of this kind were of common occurrence. The Apostle in his catalogue of crimes, says nothing about those deeds of atrocity commilied by fathers. Did he therefore approve of them?
Nor would it do to say that in all cases, wherever God gave commandments, regulating transactions, that it was equivalent to an approval. Did God approve of Laban's pursuit after Jacob, in search of his gods, when he gave him directions how he should conduct himself on his interview with Jacob? There is no evidence, that he said one word to him respecting his idolatrous designs after his gods? Did he approve of Balaam's journey to Moab, with a view of cursing Israel? God even told Balaam to go with the messengers of Balak, and yet he highly disapproved of his mission, and the motives by which he was impelled ? And did not Christ say to Judas, “what thou doest do quickly ?"
Is it true, that Christ and his Apostles did not give slavery a rebuke? Did not Christ preach an emancipation sermon in Nazareth from this text? (See Luke iv. 18, 19.) “The spirit of the Lord God is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor, he hath sent me to hea! the broken-hearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, a d recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised, to preach the acceptable year of the Lord.” The great Jubilee trumpet was to be blown, but it may be said that this is all prefiguring spiritual maladies which are to be remedied by spiritual blessings. Grant, that these are principally intended, but notwithstanding, it is to be literally fulfilled. Christ's precepts and example, were as far removed from slave-holding, as the east is distant from the west. He showed a lender regard, both for the souls and bodies of men. He stooped to the humblest offices to teach us humility. The criterion by which his disciples were to be distinguished from the world, was their love one to another, and they were to do good to all men; and he prohibited any thing like a domineering spirit amongst his followers. He said, “whosoever would be chief, let him be servant," and gave himself as the example to be imitated.
If a person wanted authority, let him become more useful to his fellow men.
Now this is the very principle which runs through all God's institutions. God never gave authority to any individual, to lord it over his fellow men-for the exclusive benefit of himself. And he gave one rule, by which our whole intercourse with our fellow men is to be governed, which would root out slavery, were there not another text in the Bible to say one word on the subject, namely: "whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so lo them ; for this is the law and the prophets."
We will now examine whether slavery may not be legitimately included amongst the catalogues of crimes, given by the Apostles. “No covetous man, who is an idolater, hath any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God, nor extortioners, adulterers, disobedient to parents, proud, boasters, lovers of their ownselves, heady, high-minded, lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God, inventers of evil things, without natural affections, implacable, unmerciful, effeminate, hateful and hating one another, men-stealers, or (as Greek scholars say it should