Biological Invasions: Theory and Practice

Couverture
Oxford University Press, UK, 6 févr. 1997 - 218 pages
This book deals with the ecological effect a species can have when it moves into an environment that it has not previously occupied (commonly referred to as an 'Invasion'). It is unique in presenting a clear and accessible introduction to a highly complex area - the modelling of biological invasions. The book presents the latest theories and models developed from studies into this crucial area. It includes data and examples from biological case studies showing how the models can be applied to the study of invasions, whether dealing with AIDS, the European rabbit, or prickly pear cactuses. - ;In nature, all organisms migrate or disperse to some extent, either by walking, swimming, flying, or being transported by wind or water. When a species succeeds in colonising an area that it has not previously inhabited, this is referred to as an `invasion'. Humans can precipitate biological invasions often spreading disease or pests by their travels around the world. Using the large amount of data that has been collected from studies worldwide, ranging from pest control to epidemiology, it has been possible to construct mathematical models that can predict which species will become an invader, what kind of habitat is susceptible to invasion by a particular species, and how fast an invasion will spread if it occurs. This book presents a clear and accessible introduction to this highly complex area. Included are data and examples from biological case studies showing how these models can be applied to the study of invasions, whether dealing with AIDS, the European rabbit, or prickly pear cactuses. -
 

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Table des matières

Introduction
1
Invasion of alien species
6
22 Birds
12
23 Insects
18
24 Plants
22
25 General features and classification of expansion patterns
26
measurement of range distance
30
Diffusion models and biological waves
35
the coalescing colony modelderivation of eqns512515
102
Invasion of competing species
104
62 The competition equation
105
63 Retreat of resident species
107
64 Competition between grey and red squirrels
109
Competition for open space
114
72 Competition for large open spaces
115
73 Disturbance and species diversity
122

32 Diffusion equation
36
33 Logistic equation
39
34 Skellams model
41
35 Fisher equation and travelling frontal wave
46
36 Travelling waves in general models
49
37 Match between theory and observation
51
derivation of diffusion equation
56
travelling wave solution and its speed
57
Travelling waves in heterogeneous environments
61
42 Travelling periodic wave
63
43 Condition for successful invasion
64
44 Speed of travelling periodic wave
66
45 Travelling irregular wave
69
46 Effects of environmental fragmentation on biological conservation
72
derivation of invasion condition eqn 44
77
Invasion by stratified diffusion
79
52 Scattered colony model
80
53 Coalescing colony model
85
European starling and house finch
93
55 Mechanistic models
96
range expansion of a later invading species an approximate solution
130
Invasion of predators
133
82 Travelling wave in preypredator system
134
83 Hostparasitoid systems and selforganized spatial structures
137
84 Retreat of travelling wave by sterile insect release
140
Epidemic models and propagation of infectious diseases
144
92 KermackMcKendrick model
149
93 Epidemics of measles
152
94 Spatial spread of the Black Death
158
95 The effects of epidemics on population demography
161
96 Evolution of myxoma virus in the European rabbit
162
threshold population for epidemic occurrencederivation of eqn 96
165
Invasion of rabies in Europe
166
102 Red fox and rabies
167
103 Spatial propagation
172
104 Control of expansion
180
speed of range expansion of rabies
184
References
186
Index
201
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