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MAY 1, 1869,
OUR CONTINENTAL CORRESPONDENCE. themselves, so worthy of publication, remain in
Paris, December 31, 1868. portfolios. The thirteenth century elsewhere than The annual public meeting of the Academy of in Italy had early attracted Duke de Luynes's attenInscriptions and Belles-Lettres has been upusually tion. Desirous to fill what seemed to him a regretainteresting. M. Guigniaut, the Perpetual Secretary, ble void in the collection of the "Mémoires sur read an interesting sketch of the late Duke Albert l'Histoire de Franee,' published by our illustrious de Luynes's life and labors, of which you must let colleague M. Guizot, he persuaded M. Huillard Breme translate these passages : “ The study of an- holles, in 1841, to translate into French, Mathieu tiquities, as well of the East as of the West, to serve Paris's Latin “Great Chronicle.' In publishing it hu the history of nations as well as the history of art added an introduction, remarkable by the political was the ruling passion of the Duke de Luynes, the judgment of a judiciously liberal mind." I hope principal object of his studious life. Nevertheless you will not think this sketch of Duke de Lnynes's this inquisitive and practical mind, sensible to the contributions to literature out of place in these beautiful, but thirsting for truth, hunting ideas columns. under forms, but always attentive to facts, and even You may, however, read with greater interest to technical processes in works from man's hands, an extract from M. Egger's “ Memoir on the Revival could not fail, when the Middle Ages struck him by of Greek Studies in France.” He was to have read their peculiar character of grandeur, to fathom in the it at the annual public meeting of the Academy of first place by his own labors and by those he insti. Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres ; but time failed gated around him, the obscure sources of its annals. him. It is a curious chapter of literary history. He entered upon these studies in 1839. The Italian I should like to lay all of it before you, that you Middle Ages at first attracted him, for he was initiat- might see the obstacles which had to be overcome ed into them by the reading his travels had required, by the early teachers of Greek in days when the and he had more than most men been seduced by common phrase was Græcum est, non legitur, and a the sight of the monuments of architecture which monk declared from the pulpit, “A new langnage could receive as much light from history as they has been found, called Greek. You should carethrew on it. His first task was a thorough Bene- fully shun it. This language breeds all sorts of dictine's labor. He undertook to clear up the text heresies. I see in the hands of several people a of Matteo Giovenazzo's Diurnali' (so important for book written in this tongue. It is called the New the comprehension of Southern İtaly during the Testament; it is a book full of brambles and vipers. second moiety of the thirteenth century), by re- As for the Hebrew tongue, every one who learns it storing the chronological order which copyists had instantly becomes a Jew.” A Syndic of the Sordisarranged. As early as 1836, he intrusted to M. bonne exclaimed in open Parliament, that religion Baltard, then a pepsiover of the French Academy was destroyed if Greek was taught, and he obliged at Rome, now our colleague in the institute, to draw the learned Lefevre D'Etaples to fly from Paris, and the principal monuments of the Norman and Sua- take refuge at Strasburg, to save his life, which was bian princes, which still exist in the continental imperilled by his teaching Greek., Unfortunately provinces of the Kingdom of Naples. The object I have space only for the account M. Egger gives of of these two enterprises was soon revealed, whence, the first attempts of the professors and printers of in 1844, there was added to the admirable plates the sixteenth century to introduce the study of executed under the supervision of the young Greek into France : "Next to the refugee Greeks architect, a splendid publication entitled 'Recher- our first printers should be mentioned as promoters ches sur les Monumens et l'Histoire des Normands of Greek studies in France. It is interesting to et de la Maison de Souabe dans l'Italie Méridionale,' see how, after the first efforts of Ulrich Gering, and confided to the zeal and learning of M. Huillard after Antoine Verard's masterpieces (they were Brelolles, who was not to end his labors there. This familiar with the use only of Latin characters) the was the beginning of the immeuse work of diploma- art of printing gradually placed itself at the service tics and history prosecuted for sixteen years by the of Greek letters. This history has been sketched skilful archivist, encouraged every way by his noble with great learning, and a serious charm of narrapatron, and which appeared in 12 quarto volumes, tion by M. Rebitté. But, written at Besançon, this between 1852 and 1861. A volume of Latin chroni- book has not, in its details, that minute accuracy cles was added to it in 1856. The reign of the which no one can attain on this subject unless he Emperor Frederick II., the culminating point of the be intimately acquainted with practical printing, prolific and tragical struggle of the Empire and the and has in hand those precious incunables which Papacy, was placed in a full light by the contents are now so rare and so hard to get, and which pubof these volumes, which embraced a long series of lic libraries do not give to the curious without a the original acts of this emperor and of his sons, a great many proper but annoying precautions. To collection of Popes' letters, various documents, all guide me in these delicate researches I had, in the of which were analyzed in a French iutroduction, first place, the books of two learned printers, MM. doubly remarkable by the judiciousness of the Auguste Bernard and Ambroise Firmin Didot; the ideas and by the firmness of the style.
latter, especially, was of great service to me by "More and more fascinated by the history of Italy placing at my disposal, in his incomparable library, in the eighteenth century, Duke de Luynes bad re- the most ancient publications of Greek typography solved to give a companion piece to the preceding in France. Allow me to pause for a few moments publications in a last work directed to the kings of to consider them with respectful pleasure, which the House of Anjou, which he himself determined to the least beginnings of objects destined to thrive write. In 1853 he intrusted to M. Charles Garnier always give. It is impossible to touch without the duty of drawing the sumptuous tombs of these emotion these coarse little volumes, in which our kings in the Neapolitan churches. He set to work ancestors spelled Greek, and which cost so much and collected everywhere the materials of the text labor and so much care to the masters of the Stewhich was to accompany M. Charles Garnier's mag- phens! Printers of Latin works were for a long nificent drawings copied by chromo-lithography. time obliged, when they met Greek words in an But the hopes founded on these copies never reached author-in Cicero, for instance-to leave the space fruition, and as other disappointments of an irre- blank. Then they tried to copy the Greek as well parable character saddened our colleague's soul, as they could ; but they did not always accurately the undertaking was abandoned. The drawings / decipher it. The first typographical copies of
MAY 1, 1869.
Greek are shapeless. For instance, on the fourth | ductions for the service of Greek letters, and they page of De Officiis' (Fuste and Schoiffer's edition set a useful example to provincial printers." 1445) it is hard to recognize the word xa@nxorta It would be fatiguing to repeat the whole litany in x=8xR. In 1491, Nicholas Perotto's “ Cornu of persons who received prizes from the Academy Copiæ" (a real treasury of the Latin language, of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres. I may mention which was several times reprinted, and which was that M. Leon Gauthier received the great Gobert the Latin text-book for more than twenty-five prize for his work, “Les Epopées Françaises," and years) gives, in Géring's edition, some Greek M. Jules Labarte received a first-class medal for words with & Greek-Latin alphabet, which is his excellent and curious "History of the Industrial printed accurately enough; nevertheless, the vowels Arts during the Middle Ages and at the Revival.” in it have not yet accents. The latter make their M. Naudet, who has for fifty years been an assiduous frst appearance with capital letters in 1805, in a member of this learned society, was, as usual, at his book by Laurent Valla, published by Josse Bade. post. The various publications confided to this soTo speak truly it was only in 1507 the first Greek ciety are pushed forward as rapidly as is compatible book printed in France made its appearance. This with accuracy and care, and we have reason to hope sas Liber Gnomagyricus.' It took its name from for several interesting volumes or parts of volumes the sentences which formed the best part of it. during the coming year. The publisher was a modest master named François A Havre newspaper publishes this characteristic Tissart; the printer was Giles de Gourmont. In letter from M. Alex. Dumas, Sr., addressed to its bis excellent book on G. Budé, M. Rebitté tells us editor: “Sir: One of your writers wishes to know in deta the tribulations poor Tissart met while why I have preferred to come to the second floor of attempting to give our schools a text-book, which Hotel Washington, rather than to retain the charmdid not in all contain more than three hundred and ing Chiatamonte Palace, given me by Garibaldi, ifty lines of Greek. What efforts he made! What by a decree published in the Moniteur' of the 7th resistance he met! What candor there is in the September, 1860, for services rendered the Italian Latin preface of Liber Gnomagyricus,' and in the cause. You might also ask me why I spent 65,000f. appeal he makes to the zeal and purse of students! in the Sicilian and Calabrian campaign, instead of This appeal, which Tissart addressed to his pupils investing them in French Threes, and securing my. in a tone of paternal affection, seems to have had self 3000f. income. I would reply to these two ques. effect; for in the very same year we see he pub- tions that I tore up the decree which gave me Chilished the ‘Batrachomyo Machia,' attributed to atamonte, in other words, 400,000., because I Homer, Hesiod's Works and Days,' and Chryso- thonght it unworthy of me to receive pay for the loras's 'Greek Grammar;' the latter, compared to services I might have rendered the Italian cause. the three preceding works, was almost a thick As for the 65,000f. with which I quitted Paris, they volume. A Hebrew grammar, followed by a Greek were destined to take my share in a general ven. alphabet and prayers in the latter language, ap- geance in which I had a particular vengeance to peared in 1508. The Italian, Jerome Aleander, wreak. Ferdinand I., King of Naples, had my father summoned by Louis XII. to teach Greek at Paris, imprisoned in the Brindisi Prisons. You know the printed here three of Plutarch's minor works in words of Scripture, “The sins of the fathers shall 1309. Vatable, his pupil, published at Gourmont's be visited on the children to the third and fourth printing office a second edition of Chrysoloras two i generation.' I did my best that Ferdinaud's fault, Fears afterwards. A small Greek-Latin lexicon by or rather crime, should be visited on the head of his Aleander appeared in 1512; in it Greek words ap- great-grandson; and I paid without regret 65,000f. peared for the first time with accents forming part for the pleasure of seeing the throne of the Bourbons of the letter-another memorable date in the slow of Naples fall in my presence. In fine, I did not progress of our rising typography. Another Hebrew remain at Chiatamonte, because I never stay exand Greek alphabet, published in 1514, was dedi. cept where I feel at home; and I remain with pleacated to Mary of England, Queen of France, the sure on the second floor of Hotel Washington, besecond wife of Louis XII. The dedication was made cause I pay my board with the money I earn, while, by four pretty Latin lines with quite a dainty turn; at the same time, by my mere presence, I give to the grammarian who wrote them doubtless intended the hotel a value it did not possess before I made to pay court to the young princess, who, it is not it my home. Believe me, etc., Alex. Dumas." unlikely, was capable of taking interest in such I give you to-day little else than translations, but I studies. The title alphabet must not be under- persuade myself you will find this not the least intestood literally. It usually designates something resting letter I have sent you. The book trade has more than the mere collection of letters, with their been dull enough. Everybody-publishers, bookFrench equivalents opposite. These alphabets, sellers, and public-has been preparing for the giftFhich were so often reprinted and rearranged in books season, which New Year's Day closes. G. S. the sixteenth century, are, so to say, small elementary manuals of grammar. They contain some
NOTES ON BOOKS AND BOOKSELLERS. exercises in parsing, some sacred or profane texts
" THE GENTLE LIFE SERIES” AND “THE BAYARD used as subjects of explanations in schools where Series.”—Under this designation Messrs. Scribner, the radiments of an ancient language were taught. Welford & Co., New York, furnish a list of works The first grammar, properly speaking, of the Greek which, for choice and interesting reading, is deserv. language written by a French man for the use of ing of the attention of every lover of healthful French schools appeared in 1521; it was entitled literature. While some of the works included in "Grammatica Isagogica.'
Its author was Jean this list are among the classics of our language, Cheradam. He reprinted Theodore Gaza's Greek all exhibit an elevation of tone and a refinement of Grammar in 1526, and published Aristophanes's taste which render them as attractive as they are 'Women at the Assembly in 1528. In this same useful, and equally fitted for the centre-table and year, Simon de Colines gave the world a complete the library. We know of no series of works which Sophocles,' which really began the series of scho- are likely to be of more service to thoughtful and larly editions of Greek texts in France. It was inquisitive youth. twenty years before Parisian printers were capable D. VAN NOSTRAND, New York, has removed from of making such an effort; but from this moment 192 Broadway to the commodious premises at 23 they cutinued to improve and multiply their pro- Murray Street, and 27 WSIT Street.