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Octavo Series.

Vol. XIII.–No. 11.

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OCT. 1, 1869.

OUR ENGLISH CORRESPONDENCE, | language necessarily waned, receded, and at last

London, September 1, 1869. becadie merged into the domestic element of the MERRY England! I confess I am one of those Anglo-Saxon, retaining only such of its native livepeople who think this country well deserves her liness, and adaptability to metrical rhyme and old title. The French are more boisterous in their cadence, as enriched the earliest utterances of our gayety but I confess I prefer the quiet merriment of English poetry; in the muse, at once grave and the English, especially as it has an earnestness, sportive, at once courtly and popular, which inspired sincerity, and depth, the superficial nation across the lips of Chaucer." the channel do not possess. I wish you could see The meeting of the British Association has been England and the English in this vacation of the interesting. Sublime is perhaps an improper term year! Everybody is in the country, for no English to apply to a popular speech on astronomy, yet the man feels at home except in the country. I do not address Professor Stokes delivered on taking the believe you can find anywhere in the world a more chair filled the mind with thoughts almost painlovable country than England. You are familiar fully high. It was a review of the recent progress with Washington Irving's delightful pictures of made in astronomy. Where every sentence of an English rural scenes. To my eye the country is address is interesting, it is hard to select several still more lovable at present than it was in those paragraphs as more interesting than their neighnow distant days, for forty years assiduous wooing bors, therefore I quote the following, not as being has brought Nature still nearer Man. How the more interesting, but as presenting the method English love Nature with its manifestations : horses, and discoveries of later scientific research: “We dogs, rivers, ocean, trees, flowers, birds, cattle, are accustomed to apply to the stars the epithet poultry. There is no country in the world so ani- ' fixed.' When instead of days, the observations mated by birds as England. They start from every extend over months or years, it is found that the hedge, they chirrup in every tree, they rise from fixity is not quite absolute. 'How shall we deterevery field. We are all in the fields now. The mine whether any particular star is approaching to Geological Society is exploring the Channel Islands. or receding from our sun ? It is clear that astronomy The Archæological Society has just ended its pil. alone is powerless to aid us here, since such a mogrimages in the peighborhood of St. Albans. The tion would be unaccompanied by change of angular British Medical Association has given all our phy- position. Here the science of optics comes to our sicians and surgeons an excuse for breathing fresh aid in a remarkable manner. The pitch of a muair at Leeds. The British Association has drawn sical note depends, as we know, on the number of all our scientific men to Exeter. The proceedings vibrations which reach the ear in a given time, at all of these meetings are valuable and interesting, such as a second. Suppose now that a body, such but I am at great loss to know how to deal with as a bell, which is vibrating a given number of them, or whether to deal with them at all in these times per second, is at the same time moving from pages. I was strongly tempted to quote from Lord the observer, the air being calm. Since the succesLytton's (Sir Edward Lytton Bulwer's) speech at sive pulses of sound travel all with the same veloSt. Albans the remarks he made about the duty of city, but diverge from different centres-namely, the archæologist" to guard from oblivion the myths, the successive points in the bell's path at which the the traditions, the legends of former days, and crit bell was when those pnlses were first excited-it is ical and severe though his genius and its obliga- evident that the sound-waves will be somewhat tions must be, still it was to his care that we owed more spread out on the side from which the bell is the preservation of many a pure and sacred well-moving, and more crowded together on the side spring of poetry and romance, well-springs from towards which it is moving, than if the bell had which Spenser and Milton, Dryden, Gray, Words- been at rest. Consequently, the number of vibraworth and Scott had drawn each his own special tions per second which reach the ear of an observer stream of inspiration. The difference between situated in the former of these directions will be one race and another appears to be according to the somewhat smaller, and the number which reach an mental organization by which any given race could observer situated in the opposite direction somereceive ideas from a more civilized race by which what greater, than if the bell had been at rest. it was subdued, or with which it was brought into Hence, to the former the pitch will be somewhat contact. If it could not receive and incorporate lower, and to the latter somewhat higher, than the such ideas, it withered and faded away, just as the natural pitch of the bell. And the same thing will Red Indian withered and faded away beside the happen if the observer be in motion instead of the superior civilization of the American settlers. But bell, or if both be in motion; in fact, the effect England never seemed, from the earliest historical depends only on the relative motion of the observer records, to have been inhabited by any race which and the bell in the direction of a line joining the did not accept ideas of improved civilization from two-in other words, on the velocity of recession or its visitors or conquerors. The main reason approach of the observer and the bell. The present why the language of the Anglo-Saxon had survived state of optical science is such as to furnish us with the Norman invasion, and finally supplanted the lan- evidence (of a force which is perfectly overwhelmguage of the Conqueror, does not appear to me to ing), that light consists of a tremor or vibratory be very clearly stated by our historians. I believe movement propagated in an elastic medium filling the reason to be really this : the language that the planetary and stellar spaces, a medium which men spoke in after life was formed in the nursery ; thus fulfils for light an office similar to that of air it was learnt from the lips of the mother. The ad- for sound. In this theory, to difference of periodic venturers of Scandinavian origin who established time corresponds difference of refrangibility. Sup themselves in Normandy did not select their wives pose that we were in possession of a source of light in Scandanavia, but in France, and thus their chil. capable, like the bell in the analogous case of sound, dren learnt in the nursery the French language. of exciting in the æther, supposed at rest, vibraIn like manner when they conquered England those tions of a definite period, corresponding, therefore, who were still unmarried had the good taste to seek to light of a definite refrangibility? Then, just as in their wives among the Saxons, and thus the lan. the case of sound, if the source of light and the guage of the mothers naturally became that of the observer were receding from or approaching to each children, and being also the language of the ser- other with a velocity which was not insensibly vants employed in the household, the French small compared with the velocity of light, an ap

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OCT. 1, 1869.

preciable lowering or elevation of refrangibility OUR CONTINENTAL CORRESPONDENCE. would be produced, which would be capable of de

PARIB, August 29, 1869. tection by means of a spectroscope of high dispensive I HAVE not regularly reported the phases of the power. The velocity of light is so enormous, about controversy respecting the authenticity of the al185,000 miles per second, that it can readily be leged autographs of Pascal and Newton, which has imagined that any motion which we can experi- begotten a good deal of bad blood in the Academy mentally produce in a source of light, is at rest in of Sciences. The controversy was uninteresting. comparison. But the earth in its orbit round the I informed you it was at once shown to be materisun moves at the rate of about 18 miles per second; ally impossible that Pascal or Newton wrote the and in the motions of stars approaching, to or re- letters attributed to them. This evidence destroyed ceding from our sun, we might expect to meet with all interest in the discussion, except to people who velocities comparable with this. The orbital ve had their private animosities to gratify. The hislocity of the earth is, it is true, only about one-ten- tory of these forgeries, as far as is known, is as thousandth part of the velocity of light. Still, the follows: M, Chasles, the mathematician (who effect of such a velocity on the refrangibility of should not be confounded with M. Philarete light, which admits of being easily calculated, Chasles, Professor of the College of France), was prores pot to be so insensibly small as to elude all induced to give $5000 gold for these forgeries, he chance of detection, provided only the observations being persuaded they were authentic autographs. are conducted with extreme delicacy. But how Earnest efforts have been made to get from him shall we find in such distant objects as the stars the name of the person from whom he bought them, an analogue of the bell which we have assumed in and whose character seemed to him a sufficient the illustration drawn from sound? What evidence guarantee of their origin. M. Chasles's own charcan we ever obtain, even if an examination of their acter shields him from all imputation of wrong light should present us with rays of definite refran- doing. His worst enemies think hinu merely the gibility, of the existence in those remote bodies of dupe of some unprincipled intriguer. M. Chasles ponderable matter, vibrating in known periods not refuses to disclose the name of the vendor, and identical with those corresponding to the refrangi would seem that he is bound by plighted word bilities of the definite rays we observe? The answer not to disclose it. There is a general impression to this question will involve a reference to the that M. Libri is the vendor and the forger. splendid researches of Professor Kirchhoff. We Whether this impression is made from the known owe to him the inference from an extension of Pre- intimacy which subsists between M. Chasles and vost's theory of exchanges, that a glowing medium M. Libri, and the opinion current here that M. which emits bright light of any particular re- Libri is capable of committing any fraud, or frangibility, necessarily (at that temperature at from some indications found in the forged papers least) acts as an absorbing medium, extinguishing themselves, I am unable to say. M. Chasles relight of the same refrangibility. This inference led fuses to deny he got them from M. Libri, or raKirchhoff to make a careful comparison of the places ther refuses to answer any questions whatsoever of the dark lines of the solar spectrum, with those about them. M. Libri is an Italian, who was at of bright lines produced by the incandescent gas or one time Professor at the College de France, and a vapor of known elements; and the coincidences member of the Institute, and is the author of sev. were in many cases so remarkable, as to establish eral able mathematical works, among others of a almost to a certainty the existence of several of the History of Mathematics." In 1848, shortly before known elements in the solar atmosphere, producing the Revolution occurred, he was suspected of abusby their absorbing action, the dark lines coinciding ing the freedom of the public libraries granted him, with the bright lines observed. Among other (what Frenchman could dare suspect a Professor elements may be mentioned in particular hydrogen, of the College de France and a meinber of the Inthe spectrum of which, when traversed by an elec- stitute whose patron was M. Guizot ?) to purloin tric discharge, shows a bright line or band exactly valuable manuscripts and books. The Revolution coinciding with the dark line C, and another with occurred. His protectors were in exile. An investhe line F. Now Mr. Huggins found that several tigation was ordered. He heard of it and fled from of the stars show in their spectra dark lines coin- France. A search warrant was issued. In his ciding in position with C and F, both present or lodgings a good deal of property belonging to the both absent. Kirchhoff's theory suggests that the public libraries was found. He was tried, though common cause is the existence of hydrogen in the absent, and sentenced to penal servitude. I must atmosphere of the sun and certain stars, and its add, in justice, that a good many persons of auexercise of an absorbing action on the light emitted thority believe M. Libri to be innocent of these from beneath. Now Mr. Huggins found that the accusations, which they consider to have been F line, the one selected for observation in the spec- trumped up to gratify rancor, which found the trom of Sirius, did not exactly coincide with the Revolution a convenient occasion to obtain satiscorresponding bright line of a hydrogen spark, faction. This opinion is beld by M. Prosper which latter agrees in position with the solar F, Merimée, M. Lacroix (Bibliophile Jacob), and I but was a little less refrangible, while preserving believe, by M. Guizot. I believe the majority of the same general appearance. What conclusion, the Academy of Sciences think the question of the then, are we to draw from the result ! Assuming anthenticity of the alleged autographs of Newton that the small difference of responsibility between and Pascal definitively settled, and that they are the solar F and that of Sirius is due to proper mo- ejected as forgeries. tion, Mr. Huggins concludes from his measures of The annual public meeting of the five academies the minute difference of position, that at the time which together form the Institute of France was of observation Sirius was receding from the earth held on the 14th. The day is inauspicious. Paris at the rate of 41.4 miles per second. A part of this is filled with provincials and foreigners who have was due to the motion of the earth; on deducting come to see the festival of the 15th. Workmen the orbital velocity of the earth, there remained are busy in all of our public squares preparing the 29.4 miles per second as the velocity with which decorations of the festival. The wall of the InstiSirius and our sun are mutually receding from each tute itself is invaded by gas-fitters laying pipes for other."

the illumination. Everybody is thinking of the FRANCIS BLANDFORD. splendors of the festival. Moreover, there is a

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OCT. 1, 1869.

want of unity in this annual meeting. Each paper of our newspapers, in the course of which he anread is on a widely different subject from its pre- nouces he will publish in November a work on decessor and successor. Add the dog days' heat education, and says : 'A very new literature is of a public meeting held in a narrow rotunda. The beginning in France, a literature which will break hall where the Institute holds its public meetings images, a literature all flame, genius, and animawas, I believe, the chapel of the College des Quatre tion." It is said M. Octave Feuillet's income Nations, and Mazarin, who built it, was buried from his works is $12,000 gold annually. He has, there. His funeral monument and tombstone are besides a sumptuous suite of rooms, in Fontainebleau in the Louvre (Museum of Modern French Sculp- Palace, fuel, etc. free, and a good salary as librature). M. Claude Bernard was president of the rian of the palace. M. Jules Simon is correctday. M. Charles Blanc read an “ Essay on the ing the proof-sheets of a Breton novel,“ La Peine de Æsthetics of Lines,” in which he protested against Mort ;" it will be preceded by a preface which will English landscape gardening, which has so properly be something of an autobiography. ... The French dethroned the French gardening all over the world. government will hereafter send every year on board He said: “When one wishes to make the plan of the man-of-war which carries the pupils of the an English garden, one has but to make his gardener Naval School [it sends a man-of-war with the gradrunk and to follow his reelings.” M. Baudril- duating pupils of the Naval School on a long vog. lart read a paper on the “ Luxury of Raiment in age to perfect their studies by practice.] Some paFrance during the Middle Ages," which was quitetural philosophers, naturalists or astronomers prointeresting. M. Camille Doucet read a short vided with the necessary books and instruments. poem describing a recent voyage he made in the The Academy of Sciences will give them the necessouth of France. M. Huillard Breholles was to sary instructions upon the researches to be made. have read an " Essay on the Political State of Italy The Academy has appointed Messrs. de Tessan, during the Middle Ages,” but the evening had Faye, Becquerel, Brongniart, Boussingault, and begun to advance too rapidly for this paper to be Milne Edwards to prepare these instructions. These read.

scientific men will study the marine fauna at great I take this curious paragraph from a weekly depths, the conditions in which endemic diseases are newspaper: " It is said the Empress has requested developed ; the temperature of the sea at its surface M. Alex. Dumas, Sr., to accompany her to the East and at different depths, in mid-ocean-near land-in as the historiographer of her travels. Dumas has the centre-side and edges of currents; the nature been the king of this style of writing, and were he of zodiacal light, etc. . . The “Staatsanzeiger" to take up his Toledo pen, he would still be king. (official gazette) of Stuttgard has published these But I cannot easily conceive Dumas, Sr., in the Em- interesting statistics of education in Würtemberg. press's retinue; besides, those who have suggested “This little kingdom of 1,778,000 souls possesses Dumas for this place, have not reflected upon a one university at Tubingen which has 97 professors grave inconvenience likely to result from it. In and 800 students, one agricultural college, several Egypt and everywhere else (Madrid and some cities agricultural schools, several vine and wine-making of Italy excepted), people feel the same enthusiasm schools, a polytechnic school, a building school and admiration for Dumas, Paris felt thirty years (Bouge werken schule), one art school, etc. In ago. In other words, were Dumas to travel with a 1868 there were 91 colleges (gelehrtenschulen) 83 crowned head, he himself would be the most con- technical schools (realschulen), in 9 towns there are spicuous crowned head. One must have seen this special schools which prepare children 6 years old state of feeling towards him, as we have seen it, to and upwards for these colleges and technical believe it. The triumphal arches, the huzzas, the schools, and 404 free schools—in all the foregoing flowers, the stares would all be for him. Once, on schools and colleges there were in 1868 no less than the deck of a steamboat on the Danube, a high-born 11,102 children, namely, 0.62 per cent. of the whole lady went up to him, knelt at his feet, and kissed population of Wurtemberg. There were, moreover, the hand which wrote 'Les Mousquetaires,' as 2431 primary schools with 3953 masters, 1492 trade Marguerite, in the cloister of her palace, kissed the schools (where girls are taught sewing, etc.) with closed lips of sleeping Alain Chartier, the gentle 1828 school mistresses. The total number of chilpoet. It would be necessary to bave everywhere dren in these two last sorts of schools is 57,046.... two cushions for the city's keys, one for the Sov- Prof. Bæhm, one of the most eminent medical men ereign, and one for the writer; and the Sovereign of Berlin, died a few days since under fearful cirmust have a lofty heart and a very noble soul not cumstances; while dissecting before a class of stuto feel jealous."

dents he pricked a finger. He thought it a mere I must record the death of M. Theodore Anne, abrasion of the skin, and failed to cauterize it. Two a literary man who wrote books and plays and days afterwards his hand began toswell, and became contributed to newspapers, but who dever emerged enormous. The poison pervaded his whole system out of obscurity. He was originally an officer in and killed him. He retained his consciousness a cavalry regiment, from which he went into the nearly to the last, and saw his end approach with Garde Royale, and where he remained until the undisturbed firmness.

Marshal Pelissier's downfall of the Bourbon dynasty. While in mili- Memoirs are in press.

Among the literary tary service he wrote, with M. d'Artois, some men decorated with or promoted in the Legion of vaudevilles which were successful. When the Honor on the 15th August, I may mention Messrs. Revolution of 1830 occurred, he resigned his mili- Henri Meilhac, Ed. Gondinet (M. Halevy's associate tary commission and appealed to literature to give in furnishing M. Offenbach with“ Vooks”), Gustave him daily bread. He wrote many plays-vaude Lemoine (author of songs, vaudevilles, and a Paris villes, comedies, dramas-many novels, and several correspondent of “ L'Independance Belge”), Ed. graver works. Nothing he wrote survives, except mond Gondinet (author of many comedies, and of in the bibliographical manuals. He is said to have the funny farce, “Gavaut, Minard et Cie,” which was been over fond of the bottle, and to have drowned so successful at the Palais Royal Theatre, last a portion of his talents in wine. He lived to a good winter), Etienne Enault (author of very dull nor. old age, nevertheless, and I am told was in easy els), Prof. Michel Breal (a linguist), T. Ravaisson, circumstances of fortune all his life, though an ink (a well-known anthor and one of the librarians of bottle was his only patrimony.

Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal), Alfred des Essarts (an M. Michelet has written a political letter to one author and one of the librarians of Bibliothèque

OCT. 1. 1869.

Sainte Genevieve), Gust. Desnoireterres, Lemaout thrown upon their hands, or who have become pos(author of excellent works on botány), Bertrand sessed of good or rare books, upsalable in their de St. Germain (author of works on the history of own localities. There is no limit as to the number philosophy), Dupiney de Vorepierre (author of an of books, but a charge of twenty cents each is made encylopædia), Pastoureaux de Puynode (a writer on for the first five, and ten cents for each succeeding political economy), Bourguignat (a writer on palæ- one-the description, if possible, not to exceed one ontology), and Darcel (a writer on archæology). line ; and the prices should in every instance be M. Victorien Sardou was made officer. . Vis- appended. count Beugnot (grandson of the author of “Mé

INVOICES of goods intended for Messrs. Bangs, moires,” has married Mlle. Daru, grand-daughter of Merwin & Co's. Fall Parcel Sale should be furnished the author of the “ Histoire de Venise." .. M. not later than 5th October, at which date the printGustave Flaubert has placed the manuscript of his ing of the catalogue will begin. They announce new novel in MM. Michel Levy Frères' hands. It for sale during October an interesting collection of is said they give him $6000 gold for it. He sent | Bibliotheca Americana. up the manuscript in a small square oaken box with steel edges and lock. The oak is varnished;

Boston.—Messrs. A. Williams & Co. have dison the lid are two letters G. F. in black steel. The posed of their general book and periodical business hinges are made of steel. The box is lined with to Messrs. Crosby & Damrell. Mr. Crosby was late wadded gray silk, spangled with scarlet rose buds. of the firm of Crosby & Nichols. The manuscript of the new novel (whose title is Mason BROTHERS, New York. This well-known “L’Education Sentimentale) is in two volumes. rm has ceased to exist, the recent death of Mr. They are bound in gray silk; on the back of each Daniel G. Mason having led the remaining partners volume is the author's name in red letters; on the to retire from the business. Their entire list of side of each volume are the initials G. F. embroi- School and College Text-Books, except the “ Anadered in scarlet silk. The work is written on paper lytical Readers,” has been sold to Messrs. Sheldon made in imitation of paper of the olden time, & Co., and their Musical publications to Messrs. namely, very thick, slightly grained, and yet half Oliver Ditson & Co. glazed. The author has written his story in a most legible hand. The titles of the chapters are written

Henry W. RAYMOND, son of the late editor of the in red ink and on each page are the initials G. F. “New York Times," has joined the editorial staff of : : . I may mention, in this connection, M. Barbey that paper. He is a graduate of Yale. d'Aurevilly writes his “copy” in ink of every TAB "Morning News,” a new one cent paper, has known color. One line is black, the next blue; just been issued at Washington, and presents a then comes green, then red, then violet. The cap- highly creditable appearance. ital letters are always a different color from the other letters.

The “ London Guardian” says that a manuscript One day a poet read a new play before the Reading in Lord Byron's own handwriting will be published, Committee of the French Comedy. It was unani- which will settle the question raised by Mrs. Stowe. mously refused. The poet went up to M. Samson, It is stated that Mrs. Beecher Stowe received the well-known actor, and said to him: “I have a £250 each froin “ Macmillan's" and the “Atlantic right to complain of you; you voted against my Monthly" for her article on "The True Story of Lady piece, and yet you slept all the time I was reading Byron's Life."--London Echo. it.” M. Samson wittily replied : “Sir, in literary matters, sleep is an opinion."

G. S.

M. Gustave Dore has already taken upwards of

five hundred sketches of life in London for the book NOTES ON BOOKS AND BOOKSELLERS. which he contemplates in conjunction with Mr. AnsounCEMENTS.-In sending in their lists of an- Blanchard Jerrold. Some striking prison interiors nouncements, publishers are requested to observe are among them; indeed, next to our river-side the following rules : I. To place the name of the life, Newgate seems to have taken a powerful hold firm, and address, at the head of the list. II. To on M. Doré's weird imagination. At present it is condense the titles of the works so that, if possible, believed the humbler phases of English society they will not occupy more space than one line. have chiefly engaged his pencil. “Typical LonIII. To send the titles of such works only as have don” is the title which has been suggested.Lond. not been actually published up to date of making Pub. Circ. up the list, but are in preparation. IV. To be care MR. HEPWORTH Dixon's work on the Tower of ful not to send the same titles twice over. V. To London is in the sixth edition. write the list legibly. It constantly happens that we receive lists without any name attached, and

DR. ALEXANDER Spiers, author of the excellent are therefore obliged to leave them out altogether, French-English Dictionary, published by Appleton and others are so badly written that the names of & Co., New York, and of other works, has died in authors, or titles of books, are unreadable. We Paris, aged sixty-one. cannot hold ourselves responsible for the insertion M. OFFENBACH's new opera will be called “ Les of any list, unless these rules are strictly observed. Brigands.” The libretto is written and most of the

Books Wanted.–Subscribers are reminded that, music composed. under this head, they have the privilege of adver Dickens' and Tennyson's friend, Mr. Edmund tising for such scarce books as they may want, and Lear, the artist, author of the " Book of Nonsense,” are unable to obtain in their immediate neighbor- is about to publish, in November, a new work, hood. The rate at which these are inserted is ten styled “ Journals of a Landscape Painter in Corcents per book. Each title must, if possible, not sica." This text will be enriched by forty full. occupy more space than one line. Catalogues page illustrations, and as many vignettes, drawn wanted, or books bearing upon specific subjects on wood, by the author. mentioned generally, and not by name, must be Dr. Bence Jones, Secretary of the Royal Institupaid for as regular advertisements.

tion of Great Britain, is writing a biography of MiBooks FOR SALE.—This department of the LITE-chael Faraday, the philosophic and practical man RARY GAZETTE is intended for the use of subscribers of science, long connected with that institutiou as who have overbought, who have had good booke Sir Humphrey Dari successor.

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