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JAN. 1, 1870.
OUR ENGLISH CORRESPONDENCE.
Whitelock;" and “The Correspondence of James LONDON, November 15, 1869. VI., of Scotland with Sir Robert Cecil and others Our theological, university, political, and to some in England during the Reign of Elizabeth.” He degree literary worlds are flaming with excitement edited for the Berkshire Ashmolean Society, “ Arch(a mere fire of straw whose flames are fierce but bishop Laud's Benefactions to Berkshire." He very ephemeral) in consequence of the appoint- edited for the Parker Society, “ The Works of Roment of Dr. Temple to the See of Exeter. A clergy- ger Hutchinson,” and (together with the Rev. T. inan of unquestionable talents, sincere piety, unu- Perowne) “ The Correspondence of Archbishop sual energy, industry, and patience, combined with Parker." He edited for some years “The Gentlemany attractive qualities, and the successful mas- man's Magazine," with conspicuous ability. He ter of Rugby School, he would seem to be in a par- was a frequent contributor to the “ Edinburgh Reticular manner fitted for the mitre. But he con- view." He in a measure re-created the Society of tributed a paper, in which the theological micro- Antiquaries, and revived it from a drooping condiscope discovers unorthodox views, to the “ Essays tion into a very flourishing state ; several very and Reviews," and as he has never made public important papers in the “ Archæologia" are from his declaration that his feathers differed from those of pen. His edition of a “Calendar of the State Pathe birds with whom he took that flight into the pers of the Reign of Charles I." is in every respect realms of Rationalism, it is insisted he must belong commendable. The prefaces to these volumes are to the same species. The opposition to this ap- very valuable commentaries upon the periods of pointment brought such strange people side by side English history therein treated. His wife (who -Lord Shaftesbury and Dr. Pusey, for instance—the gave him efficient assistance in the preparation of repellant proved greater than the cohesive forces, the excellent indexes to the “Calendar”) died & and shattered the front which was to be presented few years before him. He expired suddenly of a to the ministry. But in England no army, however disease of the heart. formidable it may appear, is dangerous to the min. The University of Cambridge granted some time istry, for behind the latter are the people of Eng- since from the Worts Travelling Bachelors' Fund, land. Dr. Temple will, therefore, be consecrated money to Mr. E. H. Palmer, Fellow of St. John's Bishop of Exeter, and all the peals of ecclesiastical College, for the purpose of enabling him to prosethunder will prove as innocuous as the introit on the cute some researches in the Peninsula of Sinai. He organ which shall herald his entrance into the joined the Sinai Survey Expedition and has prechancel to receive the holy office.
sented an interesting report from which I extract Two obscure, but earnest and useful laborers in the following paragraphs : “While at Cairo, I enthe field of letters have passed away as quietly as deavored to make myself acquainted with the rules they lived. Alexander Ramsay was born the 27th which determine the value of Arabic manuscript, of October, 1794, and in such humble circumstances sculpture, and painting, or at least the delineathat he was apprenticed betimes to a printer to tion of living creatures being prohibited to Mo. learn the trade. He rose in time to be reader of hamedans by their religion, they have no other proof sheets, and then he began to write in newspa- field for the exercise of their talents for fine art than pers. He made the acquaintance of Mr. Charles that afforded by moral decoration and writiug or Knight, who speaks of him in these words : “ Alex- illumination. Caliography has, therefore, been ander Ramsay has been for five and thirty years cultivated by them to an extent which can scarcely my friend and fellow laborer. He has worked with be conceived in this country. The rules which me in every undertaking in which I have been en-govern this science are, though more precise, gaged from the second volume of the · British Al- founded upon as exact æsthetio principles as those manac and Companion' for 1830, to that of 1864. . of fine art criticism in Europe. This fact has been He has taste and knowledge and readiness of re- completely overlooked by European Orientalists, source well adapted for original composition in the and the comparative value of many of the manuaccustomed progress and occasional exigencies of scripts in our libraries, consequently little, if at all periodical works.” He continued to work on the understood. It was impossible during so short a * British Almanac and Companion' to the very last. stay at Cairo to make any extensive purchases of He was assistant editor of the “ Penny Magazine ;" MSS., and I therefore determined to restrict myself of the “ Penny Cyclopædia ;” of the “English Cy- to making a selection of printed works which should clopædia ;'' of a cheap edition of the "Paston Let- sapply the chief deficiencies which I knew to exist ters” (2 vols. 1840); and of "Hudibras” (Knight's in the University Library. I have procured a vumMonthly Volumes, 1846); and he was the author ber of standard works selected especially for the of “Shakspeare in Germany," which first appeared purpose of illustrating the literature, history, and iu “ Knight's Pictorial Shakspeare," and was, after theology of the East. These I shall hand over with revision, published in a separate form in 1866, and a descriptive catalogue to the Syndicate of the has been republished, if am not mistaken, in Ger- University Library. The subjects of my investigamany. Mr. Ramsay was long ill with a painful tions while with the surveying party were : 1. The disorder. He died on the 28th of October, 75 years Nomenclature of the Country ; 2. The Traditions ; and one day old.
3. The Inscriptions. The method pursued by me John Bruce was born in London in 1802, and was as follows: I accompanied the officers during trained partly in English private schools and partly ihe actual process of making the survey, and, taking in the Aberdeen Grammar School. He was bred to with me the most intelligent Bedouin that I could the law, but quitted it in his 37th year for more find belonging to the particular locality, I inquired congenial studies. Mediæval literature had froin the name of each place as its position was noted his youth fascinated him, and he had long been a down upon the map. I then made further inquiry zealous member of the Camden Society. Indeed, in the neighborhood from other Arabs, and never before he definitely deserted the law, he had accepted a name without independent and separate edited for the society “The Restoration of Edward testimony to corroborate the information I had at IV.” He subsequently edited for the same learned first received. Having in this manner satisfied my. company, "The Annals of Elizabeth ;" “ The Lei- self of the accuracy of my information, I proceeded cester Correspondence;" “Verney's Notes on the to inquire into the meaning and origin of the pames, Long Parliament;' “ Letters of Elizabeth and and set down against each one not only what I James VI;" "The Liber Famelicus of Sir James kpew to be the signification of the word, but the
JAN. 1, 1870.
meaning which my informant himself attached to discovery of “ Junins," so often announced, has at it. I found this method invaluable for testing the length, we have every reason to believe, been accuracy of my orthography; and, although the placed beyond doubt by the researches of the Hon. reasons given were not unfrequently trivial or even Edw. Twisleton, who has for the first time called in ridiculous, they served the purpose of corroborative the aid of a scientific expert in handwriting, the evidence. I propose to adopt the following method well-known Mr. Ch. Chabot. The results will shortly of publishing the results of my researches: 1. Con- be made public, together with fac-similes of the autributious to the Ordnance Survey Report upon the tographs of “Junius's” letters to Woodfall and Geo. various departments of the work entrusted to me; Grenville.' This led most people to expect an ori2. A volume containing a more detailed account of ginal contribution to the Junius' literature, from my researches, namely, a. Complete corpus of the a man of learning and ability such as we all know Sinaitio inscriptions with translations, a history of Mr. Twisleton to be. But on turning to Mr. Murthe entire question, and a dissertation upon their ray's quarterly list of forthcoming works, I find origin and value. b. An account of the Bedouin · The Handwriting of "Juvius,” professionally ininhabitants of Sipai, their history, manners, cus- vestigated by Mr. Charles Chabot, expert; with toms, and traditions. c. The history of Sinai as preface and collateral evidence, by the Hon. Edw. told by the Arab historians. d. A dissertation upon Twisleton, with fac-similes of all the letters of the nomenclature of Bible lands. 3. A popular “.Junius” to Mr. Grenville and Mr. Woodfall, and narrative of the Sinai expedition. As I am shortly 100 pages of letters of Sir Philip Francis,' 4to. So about to start for the Tih, or. Wilderness of the it comes back to a question of handwriting after Wanderings,' the publication of my larger work all, and a question to be settled by the testimony must necessarily be delayed until my return. In of experts-a kind of testimony which, whether that unknown desert, where monkish influence French or English, is notoriously distrusted by our has never yet penetrated, there must exist many courts. Experts by the dozen have tried their interesting traces and traditions of the wanderings hands on Junius, and some eight or ten claims, of the Children of Israel, and I confidently expect a plausible enough to the uninitiated, have already rich harvest of biblical and geographicai discover- been made out in this fashion. The art is simple
enough. To prove identity, pick out all the simiAs I gave a place to the Hon. Mrs. Norton's let- lar stroke or strokes ; to disprove it, the dissimilar. ter, I find room for the following : “Sir, the Hon. The very document on which M. Chabot has been Mrs. Norton complains in The Times' of this at work was submitted to this process more than morning that I have attached her name to an arti- forty years ago, and the argument based upon it was, cle in my little publication, 'The True Story of Lord so to speak, discounted at the time. It was the and Lady Byron, as Told by Lord Macaulay and subject of a conversation with Lord Bray brooke in Others.' As her letter in The Times' is so very 1837, reported in the ‘Diaries of a Lady of Quality' much more temperate in its tone than the one she (p. 283, sec. edit.). A Mrs. King (née Giles) readdressed to me a few days since, and which she ceived a copy of verses with an anonymous letter acknowledges to-day I took ‘no sort of notice of,' of four or five lines. The handwriting of the verses I shall be glad if you will allow me to explain the strikingly resembles the natural handwriting of facts of the case. The paper referred to is a review Francis, and the verses (a suspicious fact) were article which appeared in The Times' of August owned by him. The accompanying letter is in a 30, and nowhere in our little volume is it stated feigned hand, bearing a strong resemblance to the that the article was the production of Mrs. Norton; coarser specimens of Junius, especially to the Geo. but having seen in the Publishers' Circular' of Grenville letters, the authenticity of which is open the 15th September, as well as in various other to doubt. Of the exquisite penmanship of the letjournals, a positive statement to that effect, the ter to Garrick, and some other letters of undoubted editor merely added in a note to the article, the authenticity, there is not a trace. Lady Temple's words, "Said to have been written by the Hon. handwriting comes surprisingly near to these, and Mrs. Norton.' Your readers will thus perceive a strong claim for Earl Temple is based upon this that, so far from affirming this fact, the editor has similarity by the learned editor of the Grenville simply given, in a guarded way, a statement long Papers,' Mr. W. J. Smith. The anonymous letter publicly circulated and never contradicted until to Mrs. King was lithographed by her brother, and now. If this has given offence to Mrs. Norton I largely distributed. A copy is in the library of regret it, but I think your readers will agree that Cashiobury, pasted into Woodfall's Junius,' by the facts do not warrant her in charging me with the late Lord Essex, who, in common with almost being the author of an untruth; and certainly it all who personally knew Francis, discredited his never occurred to the editor of the volume that any claim. Lord Macaulay, who had seen the letter, great disgrace could attach to the suspicion of being does not so much as mention it among his proofs. the writer of a powerful article in your influential If it were worth while to recur to the unsatisfacjournal, much less that his cautious note should tory argument from handwriting, perhaps more have induced Mrs. Norton to stigmatize it as 'an might be made out of Lady Temple's, or out of the insalt,' which the editor 'would not have dared private letter, No. 6, in which there are three lines to offer to any gentlemav author. I am, etc. exactly resembling the handwriting of Hugh Boyd.
Jonn CAMDEN HOTTEN." The writer appears to have unguardedly broken There has long been doubt about the authorship into his natural hand. But Hugh Boyd's claim, of “ The Tin Trumpet.” It has recently been pub- though backed by an alleged avowal to Alman, lished in one of the handy volume series, and has been definitively dismissed." Horace Smith (one of the two brothers who wrote “Sir, having announced for publication a work “ Rejected Addresses'') is giveu by authority as the on the handwriting of Junius, I am not a little surauthor.
prised to find in your impression of to-day that a As the author of “Junius” is another one of correspondent attempts to forestall the work, by those vexed questions which have a general inter- an adverse criticism of the supposed principle on est, I think I may give place to the following cor- which it is founded. I trust, therefore, that I may respondence: “Sir, the following promising an. be permitted to request those who are interested in nouncement appeared under the head of · Intelli- the Junian question, to suspend their judgment gence' in the first number of the Academy :' "The till the work is actually published, and they have
JAN. 1, 1870.
had time to master its contents. The writer of the Giles, 35 vols. There is, too, a Henry VIII.'s Primer, criticism assumes that the question in issue is pro- 1547, among the books to be sold. There is some posed to be settled by the testimony of experts ;' discussion in Dublin about the best monument to but if he had only waited to read the forthcoming be raised to his memory. Mr. J. T. Gilbert judipreface, he would have seen in it Mr. Chabot's ciously proposes the best form it might assume pointed request that his conclusions should not be would be the foundation of a Professor of the An. accepted as mere testimony, but that they shall be cient Irish Language. .. Mr. A. H. Layard judged of solely through the light of his objective has been made English Ambassador to Madrid, to proofs. Mr. Chabot has had the subject under the great regret of all persons who wished to have consideration since April last year, and his ability London beautified with taste and knowledge of art. and high character are so well known to many Mr. Charles Dickens is at work on a new members of the bar and to the public generally, novel, which will appear in numbers. The first that his deliberately formed opinion on any ordi- number will be published in March, simultaneonsly nary point of handwriting would carry with it in England and in the United States; Messrs. great weight, without proofs. But, in the Junian Fields, Osgood & Co. have secured advance sheets question, the time for bare authority, unproved for their hebdomadal, “Every Saturday.” assertions, and merely subjective statements has Mr. E. Griset is engaged in illustrating Capt. Bar. passed away. Mr. Chabot, indeed, himself, when ton's Tales of Hindu Devilry (which is in press). he entered upon his investigation, had formed no
Sir Wm. Muir has offered a prize of $500 opinion of the authorship of Junius, and it so hap.gold, and a prize of $250 gold, for the best Chrispens that he had not even ever read the 'Letters of tian treatises written in the Oordoo and Hindee Junius.' With him the whole inquiry has been languages. His object is the laudable one of placing a dry professional question of handwriting. But Christian works within reach of literary men who others may interpose in this matter who have speak these languages.
Although Sir written strongly on the question of authorship, Henry Bulwer has quitted England to spend the and, without any dishonest intention, their opinion winter in Spain, he is hard at work on a second on the handwriting is evidently liable to a bias. series of "Characters," which will contain Gen. de On general principles, therefore, it is desirable to La Fayette, Sir Robert Peel, and Lord Brougham. take the discussion out of the region of ignoble A popular edition of the first series is in press. personalities or reflections against any particular • Mrs. Ellis (whose works were republished in class of men ; and thus objective proofs should be the United States with so much success-Messrs. rigidly required of any one who meddles with the Burgess & Stringer affixed her name to a compilacontroversy. It is in this spirit that Mr. Chabot's tion by Mrs. Anna Cora Mowatt, “ Housekeeping investigation has been conducted, and the forth. Made Easy,” tv insure its sale), despite her years, coming publication, with its very numerous fac- is hard at work on a new book with this title, “The similes, has been conceived. It will be wise, there- Education of the Heart."
Dr. McCausfore, to wait a few weeks, till the results of Mr. land's “ Sermons in Stones" have been translated Chabot's investigation are fully made known to into modern Greek by Archbishop Daniel Petroalias the public.
EDWARD TWISLETON." of Argolis, and published at Athens. Many of your readers have heard Mr. Carlyle's Messrs. Bell & Valdy have in press the plays of complaint of the peculiar flea which he found in Shakspeare, as read by Charles Kemble, with par. the British Museum. Here is a similar complaint tial indications of the manner in which he read on the subject, which I take from “ The Booksel-them. I shonld think it rather a doubtful venture, ler:" " It is well known that a large number of per- for if I remember rightly Mrs. Siddons—the Sid. sons use the reading-room of the British Museum, dons-published a similar edition of Milton's Paranot for the purpose of study, but simply as a home. dise Lost with but indifferent success. They live there. The Trustees having recently Among other books in press, are Professor Grote's fitted up splendid lavatories for these gentlemen, Examination of the Utilitarian Philosophy (edited with towels and soap (not chained), it has been by Mr. J. B. Mayer); the Autobiography of Otto proposed that once a day soap should be distributed Corvin; Professor Pryme's Autobiographic Recolamongst them, and that under the reading desks lections (of the last 70 years: he was a professor beds might be arranged, which, with slight me- of Cambridge, for which University he sat in the chanical contrivances, could be made available for first three Reformed Parliaments; edited by his them at night. Now that the Museum is com- daughter); Rev. J. B. Wakeley's Wesley and the peting with the casual wards of our work-houses, Wesleyans (the definitive title has not yet been we would suggest in the interests of literature, that adopted); Rev. W. M. Hatcb's Life of the Third small-tooth combs also should be provided; for we Earl of Shaftesbury; Mr. W. S. Trench's (author find that “Hudson Turner's flea” is not yet extinct; of the Realities of Irish Life) lerne, or the Sacred and other small deer are, we hear, occasionally ob- Isle (it will be illustrated by Mr. A. Hayes, an served."
Irish artist); Professor Brehm's Natural History An appeal is made in the newspapers for votes of Birds (translated by Professor Rymer Jones, with by persons possessing them in the Infant Orphan colored plates from F. W. Keyl's drawings); Ihne's Asylum, to be given to Ernest Henry Darling, the Roman History (" translated and revised by the grandson of the editor of the “Cyclopædia Biblio- author"); Mr. Llewellyn Jewett's Grave Mounds graphica.” His father succeeded to the Theological and their Contents of the Celtic, Romano-British, Library in Little Queen Street (which was owned and Anglo-Saxon Periods (it will be profusely by the above-mentioned editor), but died prema- illustrated); Mr. Arber has in press reprints of turely, leaving six children so unprovided for ad- King James's Counterblaste to Tobacco (1604), and mission to an orphan asylum, seems a boon to one the Essayes of a Prentise in the Divine Art of Poeof them!
The late Dr. J. H. Todd's theo- sie (Edinburgh, 1585); Mr. Henry Green's Shakslogical library is announced to be sold at Dublin peare and the Emblem Writers (to be abundantly in a few weeks; while valuable, it embraces only illustrated). . Mr. Blanchard has begun, the well-known theological authors: The Benedic- in the “Gentleman's Magazine," a series of papers tine Fathers, 69 vols.; Baronii Annales Eccles. Li- under the title of “The Christian Vagabond," which brary of Anglo-Catholic Theology, 87 vols.; Library gives an account of his investigations into the conof the Fathers, 49 vols.; Patres Eccles. Anglic. ed. Idition of the poor on the Continent.
JAN, 1, 1870.
OUR CONTINENTAL CORRESPONDENCE.
Dess. I called attention to the article in these col. Paris, Nov. 1, 1869.
umns when it appeared. Towards the close of his My last letter unconsciously grew to such great life, Sainte-Beuve had rather sunk socially. I mean length I ended it abruptly, in fear your patience to say, he no longer moved in those higher intelmight have been exhausted. I should like to give lectual circles, where MM. Villemain, Victor Cousin, some further touches to the sketch I attempted to Guizot, and others were seen. Politics had some. trace of Sainte-Beuve. French literary men re- thing to do with it; but he was so much at variance proach bim for what they call his injustice to with these higher circles, his opinions on religion and Honoré de Balzac. I think the latter greatly over- morals were so diametrically opposed to the opinrated. In the first place, be lacks one excellence, ions held in them, he felt out of place in them. without which no author yet has attained immor- His associates became chiefly young literary men. tality-style. De Balzac has no style. Sainte- He courted them as guardians of his memory. He Beuve ridiculed him : “ He has written twenty or always paid attention to everybody who wielded a thirty volumes, and has not attained a style." I pen in France, that the chorus should sing his may add here, Sainte-Beuve did not share the en- praises with no discordant voices. I have several thusiasm of his countrymen for Michelet and Stend- times observed him stoop to win people, whose inhal. He thought "genius," applied to them and sults he should have braved. This infirmity is, to de Balzac, “ten times too large a word.” The however, common here. Victor Hugo carries this origin of the quarrel with de Balzac was the article fawning even further than Sainte-Beuve did. The on the novelist wbich appeared in the “ Revue des latter made a serious mistake when he became a Deux Mondes,” and has been republished in “ Les candidate for the Senate. This ambition grew to Portraits Contemporains.” Jales Sandeau has more be at last a sort of frenzy with him, and had two than once told me that he was with de Balzac causes. He felt as a sort of slur upon him that when this article of the “ Revue des Deux Mondes” MM. Nisard, Sylvestre de Sacy, Prosper Merimée, reached him. The great novelist, who reckoned on and de Sauloy should be promoted to the Senate an article which contained nothing but praise, and before him. The repeated postponement of his apwhich especially should be favorable, began to read pointment irritated him. He was nettled, too, as the article aloud. The first pages did not prove too these gentlemen, and Scribe, and Alfred de Vigny offensive, and he continued to read in quite a good were invited to Compiegne, while no invitation humor. But his countenance soon darkened; he came for him. He was looked upon with suspicions threw down the “Revue" and exclaimed in his eyes by all the influential people of court, and the anger, “ He shall pay for that. I will run my pen Empress had an especial antipathy to him. The through his body." And he added, to crown his feeling was, “Sainte-Beuve could not be trusted." vengeance, “I will rewrite Volupté.'" This last He was with the Empire as he had been with a novel had just appeared. Fierce was the war de dozen different systems before, and only to betray Balzac waged on Sainte-Beuve, or Sainte Bevue them. Moreover, the second Empire, like the first (Saintess Blunderer), as he called him, borrowing Empire, was hostile to literary men—" mere ideolthe nickname Duchess d'Abrantes had given the ogists." It reckoned no success in its annals due critic. In those days Sainte-Beuve was still hunt- to mere intellect. It had restored France to ber ing for his style, and still wrestling with language. former position in Europe, marred Russia's designs He was then guilty of such expressions as “tran- in the East, created the kingdom of Italy, annexed quillized feet," "unfertile incubations," "scrawny Savoy and Nice, crushed anarchy, maintained by hair," "courteous declivities,” “man narrowly the turbulent population of Paris and Lyons, solely cabined but not shrunken ;” and de Balzac, with by the sword. It admitted no other wand potent his horse-laugh, borrowed from Rabelais, not only enough to govern men and lead nations to lofty ridicaled Sainte-Beuve, but made all Paris join destinies. It little dreamed (though on the morrow him. Sainte-Beuve characteristically waited until of the 2d December, 1851, Prince von Schwartzende Balzac was dead before he returned the attack, berg, congratulating Prince Louis Napoleon on a and never failed to give the dead povelist a wound, success, destined in seven years to be so fatal to especially in later years when Sainte-Beuve exer. Austria, had said : “ You can do auything with cised great authority in the literary world. Sainte- bayonets but sit upon them"), it little dreamed the Beave, to the hour of his death, chuckled over the Empire, defended by half a million bayonets, enblows with which he had avenged de Balzac's as- trenched in a city whose streets were laid out upon saults, and was fond of saying, “ He dealt me fre- the strictest principles of military engineering quent blows, but I think I paid him for all of striving for best attack and defence, should one day them." I do not know one of Sainte-Beuve's earlier tumble like a castle of cards at the breath of men friends (except Mme. Sand and Jules Sandeau) with with brains — those despised fellows who could whom he did not quarrel. He was intimate with make good speeches. In the last article SainteDobody, as he had been with Alfred de Vigny. Benve wrote he described the contempt felt and After the latter's death he attacked him with a expressed in all official circles for intellectual good deal of acrimony. He gives this account of influences. Sainte-Beuve keenly felt he was tabooed. the rupture of their relations : “I had brought But (I have said there were two causes which led out my judgment upon him; I should have been him to desire a seat in the Senate) Sainte-Beuve was happy to have it rectified, if need be, and to have poor. French publishers are unfair to authors. I received further light. Instead of doing this, he have been told he received, from the first publishers wrapped himself up more and more in himself- of his “ Causeries de Lundi,” MM. Garnier Frères, his communications and works became rarer and only one cent on each volume sold ! Sainte-Beuve
As he grew old, he entrenched himself had always been careless of money. As he grew more and more in his inviolability of angel and in reputation his expenses necessarily increased poet. He seemed to be really preserved in it. On (the public scarcely conceive the innumerable taxes the other hand, I, on the contrary, had once more levied on an eminent man), and Sainte-Beuve felt become, of humor and habit, more and more free and he was growing old. The six thousand dollars gold critical, and coldness with time took place between annexed to a seat in the Senate were necessary to us." Another old friend, with whom he kept on ex- Sainte-Beuve. His claims were pressed earnestly by cellent terms during his life, was M. Ampère. After Prince Napoleon and Princess Mathilde. M. Baroche, he died Sainte-Beuve treated him with great harsh- his old schoolmate, also seconded them, but this