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For he says * : “ Henceforward the last “ horn of the goat (i. e. the liitle horn) con“ tinued mighty under the Romans till the

reign of Constantine the Great and his “ fons; and then, by the division of the " Roman empire between the Greek and “ Latin emperors, it separated from the La

tins, and became the Greek empire alone, “ but yet under the dominion of a Roman “ family; and at present it is mighty under the dominion of the Turks."

These last words lead us to perceive, that the little korn is then still, in the latter period of its existence, most distinctly a part of the He-Goat; and appertains properly to that emblem, and not to the fourth beast.

Our inquiry, therefore, will naturally be directed to discover, whether it did not also uniformly belong, from the very first, merely to that body; and to what was uniformly, and precisely, and uninterruptedly, described as appertaining to it, distinct from what appertained to any other emblem ? and, there, fore, whether it does not in reality describe a power which, from first to last, never had any connection whatever with the Roman power?

* In his Observations on the Prophecies, p. 122.


And I apprehend that indeed to have been 471. the very case. For; whereas the little horn of the fourth beafl seems certainly to prefigure the corruptions and mischiefs arising from the Roman power in the West, in the latter end : so this little horn of the He-Goat as clearly seems to prefigure the corruptions and mischief arising in the East, in the immediate kingdoms of the He-Goat, in the latter end; namely, those occasioned by Mahomet, and the Saracens, and Turks; and by the Mahometan rorruption of religion.

All this will, I trust, most fully appear, from a thorough and close investigation of the words of the Prophecy, as they stand in the Septuaginta

Daniel, ch. viii. ver. 8. 8. Και ο τράγος των αιγών έμεγαλύνθη έως σφόδρα και εν τω ισχύσαι αυτόν, συνείρίβη το κέρας αυτό το μέγα και ανέβη έτερα κέραια τέσσαρα υποκάτω αυτά είς τες τέσσαρας ανέμες τε έρανέ. .

8. And the He-Goat (the leader] of the goats, was rendered powerful to an exceeding Vol. II,



great degree indeed. And, at the very time when he was at his utmost strength, his great horn was utterly broken down. And there arose four other horns BENEATH it, towards the four winds of the heaven.

We well know, that nothing can be more precisely descriptive of the history of Alexander the Great, and of his four successors, than this one verse.

He was the Leader and Head of the Grecian power; and he magnified himself exceedingly indeed, and advanced to such do

minion and power as had never before been 472. possessed on earth : for, both the Persian em

pire, and the great Assyrian empire, were only a part of his; and he possessed dominions and territories unknown to those preceding Conquerors who had founded those empires. Nevertheless, when he was at his utmost strength, when he had just entered Great Babylon, triumphing for all his conquests, after a long triumphant march from the East Indies, (where he first of all men conquered,) he was utterly broken to pieces in an instant'; and all this vast dominion vanished away, and was loft for ever.


And instead thereof, ÚTOXQTW, far beneath it, arose four inferior horns, towards the four winds of heaven; the Macedonian, the Syrian, the Egyptian, and the Thracian kingdoms : all of which, taken together, comprehended but a small part of the Empire of the first

great horn, (the empire of Alexander,) ) and were no-ways worthy to be compared with it.

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Daniel, ch. viii. ver. 9. 9. Και εκ τ8 ενός αυτών εξήλθεν κέρας εν ισχυρών, και εμεγαλύνθη περισσως προς τον νότον, και προς ανατολήν, και προς την δύναμιν.

9. And out of one of them there came forth one [other] strong born, and [this] was rendered abundantly powerful towards the South and towards the East *, and [even] towards The Hof (or with regard to the congregation of the righteous).


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* Προς ανατολήν is left out in the Vatican copy. .

+ Tøv dúvanie. Aúvapuis fignifies, with the utmost propriety, copiæ, or exercitus ; an host of forces; or an army : and therefore may be tranflated (as it actually is in the next Terse, in our translation of the Bible,) the host of heaven ;

especially that



The meaning of this verse seems nearly to be as clear as the preceding, when candidly taken into consideration, without any preconceived prejudices.

Out of one of the four horns, (which indeed now appears to have been the Syrian empire, because out of the three others none ever arose,) out of this one of these horns, there was to come forth one [other] sirong horn;

especially as the article seems added to it on purpose to increase the energy of the expression. This word, then, leads us to infer, that the extraordinary power that should arise, should not only prevail fo as to obtain great dominion on the earth, and a vast extent of territory; but should prevail, moreover, spiritually, against the truth, and against righteousness; or against heavenly virtues. Which seems a much more obvious interpretation than to suppose dúa sophis, or the heavenly hoft, could mean merely the people of the Jews; or, as our translation has it, the pleasant land, or Judæa ; for that was included in Syria, the very region and empire where the power arose.

What I have mentioned above may therefore be deemed, without hesitation, to be the sense and right meaning of this expression, corresponding with the ideas of the LXX, whose translation I profess to follow in all thefe observations: and we can hardly doubt. but that they, who were fo well acquainted with the original, had good and sufficient reasons for rendering this passage of Scripture in this manner.

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