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36. For what shall it profit a man if he shall 533. gain the whole world, and lose HIS OWN LIFE*? Or what Mall a man give in exchange FOR HIS OWN LIFE!
Yet, although fuxã thus clearly means spia rit, and life ; or a cause of animal life; nevertheless, to the great astonishment of any one who carefully peruses the Septuagint, we find the same word used to denote a dead corpse.
Leviticus, ch, xix. ver. 28.
* It is a most judicious observation of Dr. Geddes, that where words and sentences either always, or at least ini similar circumstances, have the fame precise meaning, they should be rendered by a translator in the fame, or nearly the same, terms t. I therefore, with the more confidence, transate fuxù, in these verses, unifornily throughout; because that word here seems to have been uniformly used in the same sense. And cannot forbear, moreover, to observe, that if the rational and heavenly foul must not be imagined to be subject to annihilatim, although the spirit and life may perith, that this is a still further reason for adhering to such uniformity in this paltage of Scripture.
+ See Letter to the late Right Reverend tle Lord Bishop of London, p. 4 and 15. VOL. II. X
As in the former part of this Work * it has 529. been necessary to be somewhat particular in the mode of translating the Greek word 4TXH, Spirit; so perhaps I ought not to conclude these Observations, without remarking, that it seems to have a most peculiar kind of meaning annexed to it by the LXX, not only in the passage alluded to, but also in other parts of Scripture.
Even such an one as plainly leads us to infer, that they clearly intended to distinguish it from the Soul, properly so called ; and such as leaves room to suppose, that they conceived Man to be compounded of three natures,a Spirit,-a Soul,--and a Body. Consistently with this idea we find, after
530. wards, a remarkable expression of the apostle St. Paul, in his First Epistle to the Thessalonians, ch. v. ver. 23. which Dr. Macknight (whose very learned work fell into
* See Vol. I. p. 190.--and in the quarto edit. p. 122.
since the greater part of this book was printed) has transated thus : And may your whole perfon, the spirit, and the foul, and the body, be preserved unblameable ! observing most accurately, at the same time, that this passage has a great conformity to the opinion of the Pythagoreans, and Platonists, who divided the thinking part of man into spirit and foul, in consequence of a notion derived from the most ancient tradition.
But I must add, that there is still another most remarkable use of the word tigh by the LXX, which points out a far more extraordinary and accurate distinction, than merely the division mentioned by the ancient philosophers.
For although legis certainly means, in its usual sense, Spirit, of some sort or other, and life ; yet the LXX, in fome instances, use it with reference to what is in a state of deprivation of life.
With regard to the first, and more usual meaning, we find it written in the Law :
Leviticus, ch. xvii. ver. 11, 12, 14.
αυτά έσιν, και εγώ δέδωκα αυτό υμίν επί το
11. For the spirit (or life] of all flesh is its blood, and I have given it unto you upon the altar to make propitiation for your spirits [or lives]. For that blood maketh propitiation in the stead of the spirit (or life].
12. Δια τέτο έρηκα τοϊς υιούς Ισραήλ: 531. Πάσα ψυχη εξ υμών ε φάγειαι αίμα, και και προσηλύθος και προσκείμενος εν υμίν ε φάγέλαι αίμα.
12. For this reafon I have said to the fons of Ifrael, Not one living being of you shall eat blood ; not even any profelyte that dwelleth among ft you
mall eat blood.
14. Η γαρ ψυχή πάσης σαρκός αίμα αυτά έςιν. Και είπα τους υιούς Ισραήλ: Αίμα στάσης σαρκός και φάγεσθε, ότι η ψυχή πάσης σαρκός αίμα αυτό εςιν σας και εσθων αυτό, εξολεθρευθήσέlαι.