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Administration of Justice.
To every electoral District, let two local Judges be appointed by the Crown; who in minor offences shall act alone, but in serious cases only with. a Jury. The Jury to consist of twelve electors, summoned by the Judge, and the prisoner shewing just cause, is allowed the right of challenge.
In causes requiring a Jury the Judge has no power contrary to their verdict, and the Judge must be on the electoral list or he cannot act.
Civil as well as criminal cases, are tried by the local judges; from them an appeal lies in certain instances whether civil or criminal, to the judges of the six nearest districts, (without a jury,) and afterwards to the Crown; or in civil suits to Parliament.
The judges to have a yearly salary from the State: they are removable only by the Crown whilst on the electoral list; and then a sum of money must be granted from the revenue of the country, to secure them a competence for life.
Justice is dispensed gratuitously, and all court or judge's fees are strictly forbidden; nor is any
person to act on behalf of the accuser or accused in civil or criminal cases for hire or reward, the legal profession having no existence in the national polity here recommended.
Statutes on Religion.
The State disclaims official connection with any religious creed or sect. It makes no appointments of an ecclesiastical character in any branch of the public service, or in any locality of the Kingdom. It gives no income or pecuniary aid to the ministers of religion; and it does not recognize any clergy as parochial, national, &c.
The religious sentiments of an individual, whatever they may be, do not prejudice his eligibility for employments of the state: nor on the other hand are they received as a qualification: and no exemption in favour of clergymen is made with regard to duties imperative on the constituency; indeed the state knows not the distinction of clergy and laity, but simply views all persons under the crown, as subjects.
The State guarantees every individual the quiet enjoyment of his religious principles and
worship; and molestation from whatever quarter is prosecuted under the criminal code as felony.
Any man is allowed to teach or preach on sacred topics, without license; and religious services may be held in any house or building without license but should this be used as a cloak to discuss politics, and organize political societies, open or secret, or should they be otherwise than spiritual exercises which are carried on, the parties engaged in them are chargable under the criminal code.
The State permits religious meetings in streets, market-places, fields, &c., providing there is no intrusion upon private property, and the public business, thoroughfare, &c. is not impeded : neither in case of annoyance in these situations can any redress be afforded.
Currency of the Realm.
Any person or number of persons giving security to the Government, may receive a license to issue notes of five shillings, ten shillings, fifteen shillings, twenty shillings, forty shillings value. &c. up to one Thousand, to the extent of two
thirds of the amount of security afforded to the Government.
Such banks to issue their notes for ten years, at the expiration of which a renewal of the license is requisite.
The security is never to consist of movable but always of fixed property as Houses, Lands, Mines, &c.
The Government is responsible to the Public, since it holds sufficient security; and has the first claim on the property to the full amount of the notes in circulation in case of failure.
The smaller circulating media to be of copper or any other durable substance being the produce of the Country: these are to express fractions of the five shilling notes, and to be issued by the Banks, and with the notes to form the only currency of the realm.
The Standard of value, though not the circulating medium, to be a certain weight of Gold, say an ounce, or more or less as may be thought most convenient, but there must be an agreement of the countries trading upon this system, to con
sider it of the same worth in their respective States as the standard of valuation.
Gold and Silver to be exchanged in commerce in bullion, or as articles of trade, never in coinage or as money.
The commercial medium to be always notes, secured by the Government on the immovable property of the country for ten years, and at the close of that period renewed or replaced by other notes of the same amount for a like term, and guarranteed in the same manner.
The smaller media less than the smallest note and being metallic or any substance the country may produce that is appropriate, are restricted to the internal trade of the kingdom; and are issued by the Banks on the same security as the notes.
The Government issues no coinage, but a certain and very limited number of the Gold piece forming the standard; which piece is to be in the District-Halls of the.Kingdom. This piece is to bear the image, titles, &c. of the reigning prince or sovereign, the use of it as currency to be chargable under the criminal code. The notes also as well as the coinage of the Banks are to