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railroads through the four divisions of the Kingdom would be found advantageous-with branch roads, to a certain number of Districts, and the construction of any other public railroads should be strictly forbidden. Along them the general post is conveyed-delivering the letters throughout the line to the superintendents of the respective Districts. Where the sea intervenes, Government steamers carry the post to the continuance of the line on the opposite side.
Laws of Masters and Workmen.
The term of apprenticeship in all trades and callings, by sea and land, is fixed at five years. Workmen endeavouring to control the masters with regard to the number of apprentices, are finable at first, and if they persevere are punished with imprisonment and employers entering into any agreement with workmen on this subject, are visited in the same way.
All unions of masters to regulate the wages of workmen in any trade, &c. are charged as conspiracy, and punished at first with fine; afterwards with imprisonment-and all combinations of workmen to compel the masters to adhere to a certain scale of prices, or to certain
rules respecting the work are punished in the like manner as conspiracy.
Every master or firm, acting alone, can fix the rate of wages they choose to give the persons in their employ-and every workman acting alone and only for himself or family, can sell his labour at the rate he thinks proper, and upon what conditions he please; moreover, should any other workmen molest him in this inalienable right, the same is punished with fine for the first offence; and afterwards with imprisonment, from one year to life, according to the frequency and aggravation of the offence.
Disposal of Criminals.
No prisons of a permanent kind either in towns or in the country, are erected or used for convicts --and before trial, prisoners are confined in one or more strong rooms of the guard-house, which is to form one building with the District Hall-the trial must take place within a limited time, or by Habeas Corpus he is to be brought before the Judges of the six nearest Districts, and by them discharged.
Transportation beyond seas, or out of the kingdom, is in no case tolerated by the laws.
All convicts are by labour which the government provides, to cover the expence of board, clothes, and custody-should any surplus remain, a moiety goes to the public revenue, and the remainder is to form a fund for the benefit of prisoners who have finished the term of their impri
The safeguard of convicts is committed to a volunteer corps, from the armed constituency; who are to be relieved every year: the same individuals not being allowed to remain in this force longer than twelve months in ten years-they are to be remunerated from the earnings of the prisoners-the amount of the pay is fixed by Parliament.
The prisoners are to be employed in improving and fortifying the Coast-in clearing the beds of rivers in their embankment-and in rendering those navigable which are not so at present-in draining marshes--in cultivating moors and wastes -in making and repairing turn-pikes and railroads in the erection of public buildings-in quarries, mines, &c.-and the children and females to have suitable productive labour.
Temporary erections of wood are to be used for convicts of both sexes: and the buildings are
to be removed when the work in that part is completed to other scenes of labour.
Prisoners are in no case to be hired out to private parties—they must be always in the employ and under the control of the Government.
That which is criminal according to law and not felonious, is punished by fines, varying with the nature of the charge; and recovered under the Debtor's Act.
Felony. In case of murder, or attempted murder, where the person attacked sustains any grievous bodily harm-death is the award, to be carried into execution publicly, and in the shortest possible time after conviction.
Rape, Incest, and unnatural Crimes-from ten years imprisonment to life: if the life of the prosecutor in the former instance is endangered by circumstances of peculiar atrocity, the prisoners are tried on the capital charge.
Arson-involving a sacrifice of life, is capital; otherwise it is punished with imprisonment, from ten years to life.
Highway Robbery—without attempt on the life, ten years imprisonment and upwards according to circumstances.
Forgery from five, to ten years or longer, as the case may demand. ་ ་་
Letter stealing, and breaking open letters feloniously, ten years imprisonment to life.
Manslaughter-from five years imprisonment to life; the amount of provocation, the interval that elapses' between it and the assault, as also the weapons used, or the mode by which death was inflicted, are to be duly considered-sometimes it approaches very nearly to murder-in all cases it should be heavily visited. Prize-fighting, which is strictly forbidden, comes under this charge when death ensues.
Offences against the marriage act-upon conviction are visited with imprisonment of five or ten years.
Horse, Sheep, and Cattle Stealing-from five to ten years imprisonment.
Stealing in shops and private houses, and Pocket picking-five to ten years imprisonment. Swindling-five years imprisonment.
Molestation of Religious Worship-five years imprisonment.