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tensive Survey of the Branches of any Science. He must also be well acquainted with Words as well as Ideas in a proper Variety, that when his Disciple does not take in the Ideas in one Form of Expression, he may change the Phrafe into several Forms, till at last he hits the Understanding of his Scholar, and enlightens it in the just Idea of Truth.
BESIDES this, a Tutor should be a Person of a happy and condescending Temper, who has Patience to bear with a Slowness of Perception, or want of Sagacity in fome Learners. He should also have much Candour of Soul, to pafs a gentle Censure on their Impertinences, and to pity them in their Mistakes, and use every mild and engaging Method for infinuating Knowledge into those who are willing and diligent in seeking Truth, as well as reclaiming those who are wandering into Error. But of this I have spoken fomewhat already, in a Chapter of the former Part, and shall have Occasion to express something mcre of it shortly.
A VERY pretty and useful Way to lead a Perlon into the Knowledge of any particuTar Truth is, by Questions and Answers, which is the Socratical Method of Disputation, and therefore I refer the Reader to that Chapter or Section which treats .of it. On this Account Dialogues are used as a polite and pleasant Method of leading Gentlemen and
Ladies into some of the Sciences, who seek not the most accurate and methodical Treafure of Learning
But the most usual, and perhaps the most excellent Way of instructing Students in any
of the Sciences is, by reading Lectures, as Tutors in the Academy do to their Pupils.
The first Work is to choose a Book well written, which contains a short Scheme or Abstract of that Science ; or at least, it should not be a very copious and diffusive Treatise, Or if the Tutor knows not any such Book already written, he should draw up an Abstračt of that Science himself, containing the most substantial and important Parts of it, disposed in such a Method as he best
Let a Chapter or Section of this be read daily by the Learner, on which the Tutor should paraphrase in this Manner, viz.
He should explain both Words and Ideas more largely, and especially what is dark and difficult should be opened and illustrated, partly by various Forms of Speech, and partly by apt Similitudes and Examples. Where the Sense of the Author is dubious, it must also be fixed and determined.
Where the Arguments are strong and cogent, they should be inforced by some further Paraphrase, and the Truth of the Inferences should be made plainly to appear.
Where the Arguments are weak and in-
What is treated very concisely in the
Where the Tutor differs from the Au, ther which he reads, he should gently point out and confute bis Mistakes.
WHERE the Method and Order of the Book is just and happy, it should be pursued and commended: Where it is defe&tive and irregular, it should be corrected.
The most necessary, the most remarkable and useful Parts of that Treatise, or of that Science, should be peculiarly recommended to the Learners, and pressed upon them that they would retain it in Memory; and what is more unnecessary or superfluous should be diftinguished, least the Learner should spend too much Time in the more needless Parts of a Science.
The various Ends, Uses and Services of that Science, or of any Part of it, should be also declared and exemplified, as far as the Tutor hath Opportunity and Furniture to do it; particularly in Mathematicks and Natural Philofophy,
And if there be any thing remarkably beautiful or defeEtive in the Stile of the Writer, it is proper
for the Tutor to make a juft Remark upon it.
While he is reading and explaining any particular Treatise to his Pupils, he may compare the different Editions of the sanie Book, or different Writers upon the same Subject : He should inform them where that Subject is treated by other Authors, which they may peruse, and lead his Disciples thereby to a further Elucidation, Confirmation or Improvement of that Theme of Discourse in which he is instructing them.
It is alluring and agreeable to the Learner also, now and then to be entertained with some historical Remarks, or any Occurrences or useful Stories which the Tutor has mer with, relating to the several Parts of such a Science, provided he does not put off his Pupils merely with such Stories, and neglect to give them a solid and rational Information of the Theme in hand. Teachers should endeavour, as far as possible, to join Profit and Pleasure together, and mingle Delight with their Instructions; but at the same Time they must take heed that they do not merely amuse the Ears, and gratify the Fancy of their Disciples, without epriching their Minds.
In reading Lectures of Inftruction, let the Teacher be very solicitous that the Learners
take up his meaning, and therefore he thould frequently enquire, whether he expresses himself intelligibly, whether they understand his Sense, and take in all his ldeas, as be endeavours to convey them in his own Forms of Speech.
It is necessary that he who instructs others, should use the most proper Style for the Conveyance of his Ideas easily into the Minds of those who hear him: And though in teaching the Sciences a Person is not confined to the fame Rules by which we must govern our Langauge in Conversation, for he must necessarily make use of many Terms of Art and hard Words, yet he should never use them merely to shew his Learning, nor affect sounding Language without Neceffity, a Caution which we hall farther inculcate anon,
I THINK it very convenient and proper, if not absolutely necessary, that when a Tutor reads a following Lecture to his Pupils, he should run over the foregoing Lecture in Questions proposed to them, and by this Means acquaint himself with their daily Proficiency. *
• Note, This Precaution tho never to be neglected, is of especial Importance when a Pupil is entering on any new Branch of Learning, where it is absolutely necellery that the fundamental Definitions and Principles thould not only be clearly understood, but should be rendered very familiar to the Mind: And probably moft Tutors have found young Persons fadly bewildered, as they have gone on in their Lectures, for want of a little more Patience and Care in this Respect.