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perversion, and those who were acquainted with the controversy, looked with contempt at a meagre reprint of the tritest arguments that had ever been refuted, whose only novelty was the fantastic glitter of the style, lead set in Bristol diamonds. But when the Doctor mistook contempt for terror, and his friends exulteď over silence as if defeat, it was necessary to disprove the pretensions of the system, and it has been most triumphantly effected.

Any one of the pamphlets at the head of this article, is more than an answer to Dr. Drummond's flippant, but meagre production. Mr. Carson's, perhaps the most elaborate, possesses all the point and energy for which his other writings are conspicuous, and also some of the occasional deviations from taste, into which a writer so vehement is liable to fall. He has exhibited very considerable skill in developing the sophistry of Dr. Drummond, and substituting in its place, plain scriptural and unpretending truth. Mr. Bagot has taken up the different texts perverted by the Doctor, and restored them to their genuine meaning with considerable skill and force, and closes his pamphlet with a review of some of the Fathers of the Church to the time of Justin Martyr. Mr. Hardy, whose little Work we regard as decidedly the most original, takes up the Unitarian's Creed, submits it to Scriptural and rational enquiry, and points out its gross inconsistency with itself, with common sense, and the plainest dictates of Scripture. We think this pamphlet reflects great credit on its author, not merely for the industry and talent that can thus manifest themselves under the pressure of a laborious profession, but for the deep and practical views of religion that mark its pages. The last pamphlet we have mentioned, No IV. in our list, is a good-humoured Essay by a layman, who disclaims any scholarship, and brings only common sense and the English Bible to the controversy. It ridicules very pleasantly the Doctor's affectations, but it also points out his more important errors than those against taste, with considerable acumen and scriptural knowledge.

We have to add, that we are pleased in looking through these pamphlets to see the spirit that has actuated their authors. They write indeed like men who are in earnest; like men who feel the unutterable importance of the subject that has called them out; and they do not bandy false and deceitful compliments with error and its advocates; but we think their spirit is that of Christian men, anxious for the salvation of their opponents, and breathing_love* even when condemning error. We have heard that Dr. Drummond's pamphlet is widely circulated at a cheap rate through the north of Ireland. We would regret to believe that the taste of our sturdy countrymen is such as to relish such spiritual food, the crambe repetita of Unitarian tables. But we think the advocates of the truth should be on the alert, and meet these insidious attempts of Unitarianism with a promptitude and an energy suitable to the occasion.

* Mr. Carson has been attacked on this head by an anonymous writer in a pamphlet purporting to be animadversions on his reply. The author proves nothing but his belief in his own and Dr. Drummond's infallibility. We certainly regret some strong expressions in Mr. Carson's work; but we think if fairly examined, they do not justify this anonymous writer's censure.

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A Brief Notice of some ancient Coins and Medals, as illustrating the Progress of Christianity. By the Rev. R. R. Walsh, LL. D. M.R.I. A. late Chaplain to the British Embassy and Residence at Constantiuople. London: 1827. pp. 36.

This very beautiful and interesting. little work is dedicated to Lord Strangford, our late Embassador to the Porte. It reflects great credit on the talents and piety of Mr. Walsh, who has made his residence at Constantinople subservient to the interests of religion and science. The subject of this little work, which, we rejoice to hear, the learned author is now extending, is to bring into notice, in connexion with the progress of Christianity, some medals not only little known, but treated by professed medalists with contempt. Mr. Walsh has proved that this contempt is most unreasonable by the interesting matter he has accumulated on the subject. He commences with a specimen of the Hebrew medals or amulets that are occasionally to be found impressed with a profile of the Redeemer, and an Hebrew inscription on the reverse! Mr. Walsh has thrown much light on these curious for geries, shall we call them, in a learned essay contained in the volumes of the Royal Irish, Academy, from which his present notice does not seem to differ, except that he speaks positively as to the meaning of an Aleph on the obverse, which he interprets to mark the date, the year after the resurrection. We hesitate, however, to admit this, as we would have thought the Christians far better otherwise employed than in striking medals at that period. Mr. Walsh since extends his inquiries to John Zemisces in the 10th century, beyond which time he says, till the destruction of the lower empire, the coins that have been found are very irregnlar and imperfect: One of the most curious is that of Diocletian to celebrate the de struction of Christianity, which has on its reverse Jupiter the thunderer, bran, dishing his thunderbolt,, and striking a prostrate figure, representing the persecuted Church. This coin is in the collection of the king of France. We regret that our notice of this book is ne cessarily imperfect, but hope to bring it fully on the appearance of the promised new edition before our readers.

A Collection of Religious History and Biography. William Oliphant, Edinburgh, and W. Curry, Jun. and Co. Dublin

By no means the least important mark of the present times, is the desire

the public have evinced for religious bistory and biography. We think this demand is in a great measure superseding the taste for fictitious narrative, and consider that in many instances this improvement in public opinion has been brought about by the establishment of Parochial and Sunday School Libraries. And we are sure that every one who has hitherto been instrumental in promoting such mediums of circulating useful knowledge has found his anticipations amply fulfilled in the benefits resulting therefrom. In furnishing out a Religious Lending Library, it would appear that large. or extensive works should not be so much sought for: few people of the middle or lower classes have time, even had they inclination, to read through 4tos and 8vos and hence the bad habit may be acquired of picking out from an index or table of contents what may best suit the fancy. If, therefore, condensed narratives can be procured, where the facts are well selected, where the views of the author are pious and his inferences honest and sound, such are the materials of which Lending Libraries ought to be composed. And it so happens that such works are now to be procured. Scotland has supplied us with what we desire to bring into demand in Ireland.

There is now before us a Collection of Religious History and Biogra phy, edited by William Oliphant, of Edinburgh, where in the small compass of an 18mo there is considerable judg ment shewn in the selection of characters and in the choice of materials to illustrate lives and principles. And in the history of the Church of Christ, the his tory of the Reformation, the history of the Waldenses, the lives of the early Christians and of the Reformers, of the harbingers of the Reformation, and of some of the Scottish Covenanters, we observe exhibited the same talents for condensed abridgment. We were particularly pleased with the life of Melancthon; and confess, though. mem. bers of a different Church, were glad to see in the life of James Nisbet, a Scottish Covenanter, the characters of those simple, pious, and suffering people, withdrawn from the distorted and unfair light in which Sir Walter Scott has placed them. The history of the Waldenses is remarkably well epitomized. We think we have not exceeded our editorial' bounds in calling the notice of our readers, whether as wishing to supply their family shelves, or as desirous to esta

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blish or encrease popular libraries, to those cheap and valuable publications.

A Synopsis of the various kinds of verse used in the odes of Horace, In a sheet. Milliken and 3on.

A Synopsis of the Metres used by the Greek Tragedians, illustrated by examples from the Hecuba,Medea,Phænissæ, and Orestes, edited by Porson. In a sheet. Milliken and Son.

We are glad to see that classical literature in all its branches is rising in our

country. We are sure that we do not overvalue the longs and shorts that occu py perhaps too large a proportion of the classical education of the sister country, but we must give the meed of our approbation to every attempt at facilitating the acquisition of every branch of Literature. Such we think these tables to be, and we recommend them to the students of the University, as well calculated to be useful, and highly creditable to the clas sical acquirements of the Author,

Questions in Divinity proposed in the year 1826, to Undergraduates in their second year, at the Annual College Examination of Trinity College, Cambridge; the subject on which they were required to be prepared being the Gospel of St. Matthew, in the original Greek.

I. 1. About what date was St. Matthew's Gospel written ?

2. In what language is it said by Papias and others to have been at first composed?

3. State any arguments to shew that it was written originally in Greek. What inference has been drawn on this point from the manner in which texts are quoted by St. Matthew from the Old Testament ? II.1. About what time, and where was the Septuagint version executed? 2. Who were the translators? 3. Give a general character of the work,

4. Mention the other principal Greek versions of the Old Testament, and give some account of Origen's labours upon them.

III.-1. By whom and when was the Vulgate Latin version executed?

2. From what language is the Old Testament translated in this version?

8. Give some account of the earlier Latin versions? IV.-1. Mention the leading critical editors of the Greek Testament in the order of their succession. From what edition is the commonly-received text taken ? V.-1. Give a brief statement of the events immediately preceding and following the birth of Christ, as related in the two first chapters of St. Matthew and the two first chapters of St. Luke, and explain any discrepancy that may appear to exist between the two narratives. What circumstances recorded by St. Luke seem to have taken place between the birth of Christ and the coming of the wise men ?


2. Mention any evidence in favour of the genuineness of the two first chapters of St. Matthew, which is founded upon expressions used in the following chapters.

VI.-I. Chap. ii. 1. Mayo. What is the character and office of the persons bearing this title in the East ? Mention any circumstances respect, ing them which are recorded by Herodotus.


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2. In what sense are the words payos and its derivatives used in later parts of the New Testament history?

3. What prophecy respecting the coming of the Messiah is found in the Old Testament, in which mention is made of the rising of a star? By whom and under what circumstances was it delivered?

4. Mention any later event in Jew ish history, which shews that the title of a star was generally considered as applying to the Messiah. VII.. What is the distinguishing title of that King Herod under whose reign Christ was born? How long after the birth of Christ did he live?

2. Give the names of his three sons, and the countries which they governed, and state any circumstances mentioned respecting each of them in the New Testament.

3. Who was the King Herod whose death is recorded in the Acts of the Apostles?

4. Who was Herod the tetrarch?

5. Explain the word τετραρχης, its origin, and later application. VIII.- Give some account of the means by which it has been attempted to reconcile the apparent discrepancies


in the statements given by St. Matthew and St, Luke of the genealogy

of Christ.

IX.-1. When and by whom was the city of Samaria built?

2. Give a brief account of its history, and of the origin and circumstances of the people called Samaritans in the New Testament.

3. Show by a map the situations of Jerusalem, Samaria, Galilee, Decapolis, Capernaum, Nazareth, Bethlehem, Cæsarea, Cæsarea Philippi. Whence did the latter place derive its name?

X.-I. State briefly the distinguishing characteristics of the sects called

Φαρισαῖοι, Σαδδουκαῖοι, Ερωdiavol, and the derivations of their


2. Chap. xvi. 22. ἀπὸ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων καὶ ἀρχιερέων καὶ γραμματέων. Explain the nature of the offices held by the persons here described.

3. Mention any different senses in which either of these three words is used in the New Testament.

4. Chap. ix. 18. ἄρχων εἰσελθὼν προσεκύνει ἀυτῷ. What is meant by ἄρχων? By what other name is the same office elsewhere designated ?

5. Explain the constitution and powers of the Jewish συνέδριον.

6. Why was Christ led away to Pilate, as soon as the Jewish rulers had determined that he was worthy of death?

XI. 1. Explain the meaning, and give the derivation of the following words, ἀγγαρεύω, ἀδημονέω, ἐπιούσιος, ἐσκυλμένοι, ἐκολοβῶθη


2. Give the different senses in

which the expression βασιλεῖα τῶν ovpavov is used, with examples. XII.—Chap. iii. 6. ἐβαπτίζοντο ἐν τῷ Ἰορδάνῃ.

1. What is the sense of βαπτιζ

εoat in earlier Greek writers.

2. Mention any instance of this word or its derivatives in the New Testament, where the rite understood by the word baptism is not intended.

3. Did any such rite exist among the Jews, before the preaching of John the Baptist ?

4. Chap. iii. 16. Καὶ βαπτισ

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θεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς — εἶδε τὸ πνεῦμα o τοῦ Θεοῦ καταβαῖνον. Do we read of any one else having witnessed the same appearance at the baptism of Christ? XIII.-1. What suppositions have been entertained respecting the person called Zacharias, the son of Barachias, whose death is mentioned by our Saviour, chap xxiii 35? Is any such person mentioned in the Old Testament?

2. What inference has been drawn from one of the suppositions respecting him as to the date of the writing of St. Matthew's Gospel?

XIV. 1. What was the Mosaic law respecting the marriage of a deceased brother's wife, and the offspring arising from such a marriage?

2. What appears to have been the principle and reason of it?

3. What difficulty is urged by the Sadducees respecting it in this Gospel?

4. What was the Mosaic law, and what the common practice of the Jews respecting divorce?

5. What did our Saviour teach on this point? XV.-Chap. xvii. 24. ὁι τὰ δίδραχμα λαμβάνοντες.

1. For what purpose was this money raised?

2. What was the value of the

δίδραχμον in Jewish money?
What in English?

3. What was the value of the

στατήρ ?

4. What of the dŋvápiov? XVI.-Chap. xxiii. 5. πλarúvoval δὲ τὰ φυλακτήρια ἀυτῶν καὶ μεγαλύνουσι τὰ κράσπεδα τῶν ἱματίων αὑτῶν. Translate this passage, and explain the customs alluded to.

XVII.-Chap. xxvi. 17. tỷ dè πρúτη τῶν ἀζύμων. How many of these days were there? where did they begin, and where end? With what festival were they connected? XVIII.-Chap. xxviii. 1. Translate

Οψὲ δὲ σαββάτων, τῃ ἐπιφωσ‐ κούσῃ εἰς μίαν σαββάτων. — Explain the time marked by this expression. Give the different senses in which σαββατον and σαββατα are used respectively. XIX.-Where is the prophecy, quot

ed in this Gospel as from Jeremiah,

respecting the thirty pieces of silver. to be found? What reasons have been given to account for its being here attributed to a different author?

XX -Chap, viii. 20. ὁ υἱὸς του ἀνθρώπου.

1. Mention any persons to whom this title is addressed in the Old Testament. How is its application to them accounted for?

2. To whom is it given in the New Testament?

3. Quote any passages that show with what other titles it was understood to be synonymous.

4. In what sense is the expression οι υἱοὶ των ἀνθρώπων used in the

New Testament ?

XXI.-1. On what occasion did David enter the temple and eat the consecrated bread? (Chap. xii. 4.)

2. Give an account of the life of David, and the principal occurrences in it, recorded in the Old Testament.

XXII.-Translate (chapter ix. 16,) Οὐδεις δέ ἐπιβάλλει ἐπίβλημα ῥάκους ἀγνάφου ἐπὶ ἱματίῳ παλαιῷ αἴρει γὰρ τὸ πλήρωμα αυτοῦ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἱματίου, καὶ χεῖ


ρον σχίσμα γίνεται. To what substantive does άvτоrefer? What does aipei govern XXIII. Translate and explain (chap. xv. 5,) Ὑμεὶς δὲ λέγετε Ὃς ἄν εἴπῃ τῷ πατρὶ ἢ τῇ μητρί· Δῷρον, ὃ εἂν ἐξ ἐμοῦ ὠφεληθῇς. Καὶ οὐ μὴ τιμήσῃ, τον πατέρα αὑτοῦ ἤ τὴν μήτερα αὑτοῦ.

XXIV. What do you understand by the Inspiration" of the New Testament? Give some account of the different kinds and degrees of it which have been imagined. XXV.-Translate the following passage into Greek: "Behold, darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the people; but the Lord shall arise upon thee, and his glory shall be seen upon thee, and the Gentiles shall come to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising. Lift up thine eyes round about and see and all they gather themselves together, they come to thee: thy sons shall come from far, and thy daughters shall be nursed at thy side.'



Some of the German divines have lately made very free remarks on the state of theological learning in England, which they have been pleased to hold up to their countrymen, as far inferior to that of their own school, both in spirit and research. A German theological journal has well replied to these charges by simply inserting in its pages, the questions in divinity, proposed to undergraduates of Trinity College, Cambridge, at the annual College examinations, and asking how many of their learned doctors would return satisfactory and extempore answers to them. It must be remembered that these are independent of the Senate-house examinations or degrees, and that they are not proposed to those only who intend to study theology, but to every member of the College in his second year. As these papers are never printed in any of our theological

journals, we have inserted the questions in the preceding pages of our Magazine. It may be as well to state that it is Dr. Paulus, in his Sophronizon, who charges the English nation with their inferiority in theological studies.

Halle.-While so many useless books inundate the literary world from year to year, the appearance of works which promise to distinguish honourably our age should not pass unnoticed. We have now to announce the appearance of a work of distinguished merit and utility. As a new edition of Luther's collected works by Walch was required, Dr. Bretschneider, whose literary activity is well known, suggested an enlargement of the plan by giving a new, correct, and cheap edition of the works of all the Reformers. The enterprising publisher Schwetschke, immediately adopted the proposal, and the collection is announced

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