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How can he fairly subsist upon the common industry of mankind, without bearing a share thereof ? How can he well satisfy himself to dwell statelily, to feed daintily, to be finely clad, to maintain a pompous retinue, merely upon the sweat and toil of others, without himself rendering a compensation, or making some competent returns of care and pain, redounding to the good of his neighbour?

How can he justly claim, or reasonably expect from the world the respect agreeable to his rank, if he doth not by worthy performances conduce to the benefit of it? Can men be obliged to regard those from whom they receive no good ?

If no Gentleman be tied to serve the . public, or to yield help in sustaining the common burthens, and supplying the needs of mankind, then is the whole order merely a burthen, and an offence to the world ; a race of drones, a pack of cyphers in the commonwealth, standing for nothing, deserving no considera

tion or regard : and if any are bound, then all are; for why should the whole burthen lie on some, while others are exempted ?

It is indeed supposed, that all are bound thereto, seeing that all have recompenses publicly allowed to them upon such considerations ; divers respects and privileges peculiar to the order, grounded upon this supposition, that they deserve such advantages by conferring notable benefit to the public; the which indeed it were an arrogance to seek, and an iniquity to accept for doing nothing.

It is an insufferable pride for any man to pretend, or conceit himself to differ so much from his brethren, that he may

be allowed to live in ease and sloth, while the rest of mankind are subject to continual toil and trouble. Moreover,

3. A Gentleman is bound to be industrious for his own sake; it is a duty which he oweth to himself, to his honour, to his interest, to his welfare.

He can

not without industry continue like himself, or maintain the honour and repute becoming his quality and state, or secure himself from contempt and disgrace; for to be honourable and slothful are things inconsistent, seeing honour doth not grow, nor can subsist without undertaking worthy designs, constantly pursuing them, and happily achieving them ; it is the fruit and reward of such actions, which are not performed with ease.

External respect and a semblance of honour, for the sake of public order, may be due to an exterior rank or title: but to pay this, is not to honour the person, but his title; because it is supposed, that men of real worth and use do bear it; or, lest by refusing it to one, the whole order may seem disrespected: but yet true honour, or mental esteem, is not due upon such accounts; nor is it possible to render it unto any person who doth not by worthy qualities and good deeds appear to merit it.

Nor can a Gentleman, without industry, uphold his real interests against the attempts of envy, of treachery, of flattery, of sycophantry, of avarice, to which his condition is obnoxious: to preserve his wealth and estate, which are the supports of his quality, he must endure care and pains; otherwise he will by greedy harpies and crafty lurchers be rifled or cozened of his substance; it will of itself go to wreck, and be embezzled by negligence.

He cannot without industry guard his personal welfare from manifold inconveniences, molestations, and mischiefs ; idleness itself will be very troublesome and irksome to him. His time will lie upon his hands, as a pestering incumbrance. His mind will be infested with various distractions and distempers ; vain and sad thoughts, foul lusts, and unquiet passions, will spring up therein, as weeds in a neglected soil. His body will languish and become destitute of

health, of vigour, of activity, for want of due exercise. All the misehiefs which naturally do spring from sloth and stupidity, will seize upon him.

4. Thus, upon various accounts, a Gentleman is engaged to business, and concerned to exercise industry therein; we may add, that indeed the


nature of gentility, or the true notion of a Gentleman, doth imply so much.

For what, I pray, is a Gentleman, what properties hath he, what qualities are characteristical or peculiar to him, whereby he is distinguished from others, and raised above the vulgar ? Are they not especially two, courage and courtesy ? which he that wanteth is not otherwise than equivocally a Gentleman, as an image or a carcase is a man; without which gentility in a conspicuous degree is no more than a vain show, or an empty name: and these plainly do involve industry, do exclude slothfulness; for courage doth prompt boldly to under

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