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hatred and abhorrence of party; and by opposing the union of Ireland with England, though a native of Great Britain, he was prevented for some time from becoming either provost or bishop. I was placed by him under Dr. Davenport, one of the kindest and best of tutors, in a college distinguished for the liberality, kindness, and generosity, that characterize the whole Irish nation; and I must ever remember, with much pleasure, the interest he took in promoting my studies. My oldest brother, my friend, my guide, and my teacher, was the cause of advising one of the best and tenderest of mothers, to whose uncommon affection I am indebted under Providence for all the blessings I now enjoy, to place me under the Rev. Mr. Hair. My dearest mother and the Rev. Mr. Parsable alone survive of all these kind friends, relations, and instructors; and may the Saviour of sinners long continue her to me as a comfort, and fit her for the enjoyment of that kingdom, where there is neither sin, nor sorrow, nor woe.

My first tutor in English, the Rev. Mr. Parsable, acted towards me on all occasions with the greatest friendship, and I am happy to have this opportunity of testifying my deep gratitude for his instructions. His sole aim through life has been the promotion of useful knowledge, and of kindliness of feeling in every situation which he has filled. May he be preserved in the enjoyment of undiminished health, to promote the happiness of his parishioners, until the Master of the harvest shall translate him from his present labours to reap the glories of an endless and all-perfect immortality.

(b) Robert d'Olivet, a relation of Calvin, was born at Noyon; and published at Neuchatel, in 1535, the first French Bible ever printed in Switzerland, and translated from the Hebrew and Greek, in consequence of the decree of the synod of the churches in the valleys of Piedmont. He was banished from Geneva, where he was tutor in a gentleman's family, in consequence of his defending the Lutherans against the attack of a Dominican friar, and withdrew to Neuchatel. He died at Ferrara, having, it is supposed, been poisoned at Rome, on account of his activity as a reformer and translator of the Scriptures, in 1536 or 1538. Calvin wrote, in French, at Neuchatel, 1536, the preface to the Old Testament, addressed to all the emperors, kings, princes, and nations, subject to the dominion of Christ. He wrote also the preface to the New. We behold, in the Life of Robert d'Olivet, of Calvin, of Cordier, and of Robert Stephens, how powerful an influence the translation of the Scriptures, printing, classical

literature, and education had on each other in advancing the cause of the reformation.

(c) Few men have displayed their sense of gratitude in their dedications more than Calvin. He dedicates his Commentary on the first of Thessalonians to Cordier, because he had been his instructor in Latin; his second epistle to the Corinthians to Wolmar, as his Greek tutor; the epistle to the Romans to Grynée, as his director and adviser in the method of writing commentaries; and the second of Thessalonians to his physician Textor, who had paid the greatest attention to his wife's health, and his own, without fee or reward. None can doubt Calvin's gratitude, after stating these facts; and he displays the utmost candour in bearing testimony to their assist


Wolmar was a native of Switzerland. He was an excellent Greek scholar, and Calvin and Beza were indebted to him for their knowledge of this language. He taught Latin and Greek at Bourges. Tubingen enjoyed his labours in Greek and civil law for more than twenty years. He wrote commentaries on the first two books of Homer's Iliad, and an elegant preface to Chalcondyla's Greek Grammar. He was an excellent teacher, and much beloved by his pupils. He died at Eisenach, 1561, aged sixty-four, of a paralytic affection; and his wife Margaret, who had been married to him twenty-seven years, died of grief the same day, and they were both buried in the same tomb. He was distinguished by his munificence to the poor and uncommon modesty.

(d) Calvin, April 4, 1532, published his Commentary on Seneca's Epistle on Clemency, when he was only twenty-two years and nine months old. The perverse, and amusingly erronious statements made by Varillas concerning this work are so numerous and altogether unfounded that we need not wonder at Bayle, when he says, they are calculated to make a person think of renouncing for ever the study of history.

(e) Margaret de Valois, queen of Navarre, distinguished for learning, piety, and a firm attachment to the reformation, was born 1495, and died, much esteemed, at Castle Odcs, December 2, 1549. She was of great use in affording protection to John le Comte, James le Fevre, to a relation of Melancthon, and many other reformers; as also in writing religious tracts, and counteracting in some measure the advice given to her brother Francis I., king of France, by his chancellor and counsellors against the friends of the reformation. Though she did not agree with the principles of Poquet, Quintin, and

Copin, leaders of the Libertines in Hainault and at Lisle, yet she was displeased with Calvin for attacking them, as she had received them into her household. Our reformer's letter, written to her on this occasion, is distinguished by a truly Christian boldness and independence, which is combined with due respect for the rank and piety of the queen. "Who would excuse me," he writes, " if, when I hear the truth of God assailed, I should remain silent? I do not believe you expect me to prevaricate in the defence of the gospel committed to my ministry for the purpose of pleasing yourself. May the Lord protect you by his shield, and direct you by his Spirit to pursue his vocation, even unto death, with a sincere zeal and prudence."

(f) James le Fevre, of Estaples in Picardy, was of small stature and low extraction, but distinguished for genius and learning. He received his education at Paris, and was useful in assisting to put an end to the barbarism of the schools. He took the degree of doctor in divinity. Briconnet, bishop of Meaux, patronised him; but he was compelled to go to Blois and Guienne to escape persecution, and finally to Nerac, where he died, 1537.

Le Fevre clearly discerned the certain approach of the reformation, though he wanted courage to join its standard. "How shall I stand," he observed to the queen of Navarre, "before the bar of God! I, who have preached the gospel of his Son to so many, who have followed my doctrine, have met a thousand torments, nay, death itself, with constancywhile I, their teacher, fled-fled from persecution, and have lived to the age of 101, although death, even in its most appalling horrors, ought never to have excited even a shudder in my frame. Yet feeling and knowing this, I privately withdrew myself, and basely deserted the post assigned me by the Lord of glory." When the queen and her friends comforted the weeping patriarch by assurances of the forgiveness of his Saviour, who was prepared to bury in oblivion all his unfaithfulness; 66 Nothing," ," he added, "remains for me but to depart to God, as soon as I have made my will; nor ought I to delay; for I think God has called me. I appoint you my heir; I bequeath all my books to your chaplain; my clothes to the poor; and I commend the rest to God." What," said the queen, smiling, "shall I get by being your heir?""The office," he said, "of distribution to the poor." "Be it so," replied the queen; 66 and, I declare, this inheritance is more pleasing to me than if my brother, the king of France, had nominated me to all his possessions." The


countenance of the old man brightened, and he said, "Now, O queen, I require some rest; may you be all happy! meanwhile, farewell." He lay down on a couch, and fell into a gentle dose. One of the party, after a little time, went to awake him, but his spirit had departed.

(g) Gerard, and Arnold Roussel, of Picardy, William Farel of Dauphiny, James le Fevre, first preached the doctrines of the reformation in France, under the patronage of the Bishop of Meaux, in 1523, where the first Protestant church was established. They ordained Peter le Clerk over a congregation in Meaux amounting to 400. He was whipped, branded, and banished by the Roman Catholics, and, after preaching at Metz, was burnt. The other four ministers were banished.

(h) The Princess Renee, daughter of Lewis, was distinguished for her steady and cordial attachment to the reformation. She returned from Italy to France in 1560, after the death of her husband, the Duke of Ferrara, in 1559; and she openly professed the reformed doctrines at Montagris, where she died in 1575. She afforded protection to oppressed Protestants with noble heroism and perseverance against the persecution and superstition of the church of Rome.*

(i) Paul Fagius, in a letter to Calvin, from Cambridge, in 1550, thus writes:-"Few parishes in England have proper pastors, and most of them are sold to noblemen. Some clergymen hold three, four, or more parishes without doing ministerial duty, and substitute such as are unable to read English, and who, at heart, are mere papists. In some parishes no sermons have been preached for many years. The greater part of the fellows of colleges are violent papists, or dissolute Epicureans, who endeavour to entice the youth to their own systems. The Government refers the case of the church to the bishops, who declare they can make no alteration unless authorized by the public law of the kingdom. Any interpretations of the most luminous passages of the word of God are given, which either prudence or pride may suggest. Admonish the Duke of Somerset concerning the pillaging and betraying of the churches in this kingdom, that his majesty the king, whose proficiency in science and literature is astonishing, and who exerts all his power for restoring the truth as it is in Jesus, may hasten the reformation." Calvin was indefatigable in doing his utmost to rouse Archbishop Cranmer to appoint effective and evangelical ministers, to prevent

* See Dr. M'Crie's excellent History of the Progress and Suppression of the Reformation in Italy.

the open sale of livings, to introduce proper discipline, and to publish a clear and luminous confession concerning the various controversies. "To speak freely," our reformer writes, "I much fear, and this fear constantly recurs to my mind, that so many autumns will be passed in delaying, that the cold of a perpetual winter will succeed." How melancholy is it to reflect that the church of England, after the lapse of nearly three centuries, still continues in a state which requires the adoption of many of the reforms alluded to by Calvin. The affairs of the church are postponed from year to year; and while great efforts are making to introduce improvements into the state, nothing, or less than nothing, is attempted for placing the cause of the religion of Jesus upon a sure and lasting basis. How few clergymen visit their

parishioners from house to house for the purpose of knowing the actual state of those intrusted to their care! How few bishops visit every parish in their diocese for the purpose of making themselves personally acquainted with the character and exertions of the pastors over whom they are appointed! What heart-burnings are caused by the collection of tithes ! How few parishes have the advantage of electing their own clergymen! And shall it be said that it is of more importance to have the power of appointing a representative for parliament, than to be enabled to choose their own shepherd to lead them in the way of everlasting life? In what state is the religious education of the whole community? How many thousands, and tens of thousands, never enter the church from year to year! How many in the country are either totally indifferent about religion, or deists, or in a state of doubt and uncertainty ! The division between the church and the dissenters is not diminishing; and how is it possible for a religion of love to flourish where feuds, opposition, jealousy, or rooted dislike exist? Men may talk about Christianity until the earth itself shall be burned up, but it never can-it never will prosper in any country, among any people, unless true, disinterested love unite all classes-all denominations—all parties, in the bonds of Christian affection. Love, the new commandment, which our beloved Redeemer left as a legacy to his disciples, must either abound among us, or we are as sounding brass, or tinkling cymbal.

At a period like the present, when the most gigantic strides are making to communicate useful knowledge to all classes of the community, it is the bounden duty of every child of God to leave no means untried by which the doctrines of the gospel may be extensively disseminated in all their fulness, and

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