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nisters would be excited, and they would be eager to give time for an answer to come from Calcutta. to grasp at this mode of providing for the younger They bound themselves by oath to secrecy, and to sons of the nobility and their other supporters, and preserve, at the hazard of their lives, any one of thus put the affairs of India into the hands of the them who should be sentenced to death by a court ignorant and the incapable.

martial; each was bound by a penalty of 5001. not The plan which he devised was as follows. At to accept of his commission again unless double all times (and even down to the present day) the batta was restored. Subscriptions, to which many manufacture and sale of salt in India has been a civilians contributed, were made for those who monopoly; it is such even in France. This mono- might be cashiered. Their hopes were now greatly poly was usually granted to some favourite of the raised by tidings of the approach of 50,000 or prince, who sold the salt at his own price to the more Marattas to Corah. Col. Smith was in connative traders. Clive then proposed that it should sequence ordered to encamp at Serajapûr with the be held by a joint-stock society composed of the whole of the second brigade, except the European governor, the members of council, and the prin- regiment which remained at Allahabâd on account cipal civil and military servants of the Company, of the heat. These shares were to be fifty-six in number, of In the month of March, Clive and Gen. Carnac which the governor was to hold five, the second in proceeded to Moorshedabâd to regulate various council and the general three each, ten members important matters.

important matters. Clive there received a letter of council and two colonels two each, one chaplain, from Mr. Verelst and the council, containing a fourteen senior merchants, and three lieut.-colonels remonstrance from the officers of the third brigade each two-thirds of a share ; the remaining nine on the subject of the batta. On the 28th April he shares were to be divided among a certain number had a letter from Sir R. Fletcher, informing him of factors, majors, surgeons, and others (twenty- that the officers of his brigade intended sending seven in all) in the proportion of a third of a share him their commissions at the end of the month. to each. A committee of four was to manage

the He also enclosed a letter from Sir R. Barker, intiaffairs of the society. A tax of thirty-five per mating that there was something of the same kind cent. on the sales was to be paid to the Company, meditated in the third brigade also. A quarrel and the selling prices at the different depôts was among the officers, it appears, had brought the fixed at from twelve to fifteen per cent. less than whole to light, and it was in consequence of this the average rates of the twenty preceding years. that they had now fixed the 1st May, instead of The whole capital of the association was thirty-two 1st June, for their resignation. lacs of sicca rupees, each member furnishing capi- In his reply to Col. Fletcher, Clive declared that tal according to his share.

any officer who offered to resign should be disA reform was also to be effected in the army; missed the service, and never be restored. The and here Clive experienced his greatest difficulty, knowledge which he soon obtained of the combinafor military men have a known horror of retrench- tion being general, did not alter his resolution, ment. After the battle of Plassy, Meer Jaffier though lie feared, lest the troops might support had granted double batta or camp-allowance to the their officers. He directed the council to write to English forces which he was to pay. Clive warned Madras for all the officers and cadets that could be them at the time that it could be only temporary, spared, and to apply to the free merchants to come and the Company would never continue it. His forward, and act as officers. At his desire, also, prediction was verified; for as soon as the Nabob the council resolved, that all commissions tendered assigned the Company certain districts for the ex- should be accepted, and those who tendered them penses of the army, orders were sent out to abolish be sent to Calcutta. the double batta. These orders were often re- Early in May, Clive and Carnac set out for peated, but always neglected, and when Clive was Mongheer, and finding, by a letter which he recoming out, the subject was strongly urged upon ceived from Sir R. Fletcher on the way, that the him by the Directors.

mutineers were writing to Madras, to prevent the According to a plan proposed by Clive, the officers there from coming to Bengal, Clive wrote Company's troops had been regimented and formed to Calcutta, to direct all private letters for that into three brigades. Of these the first under Lieut.- presidency to be stopped, and to Sir R. Fletcher, colonel Sir Robert Fletcher was in garrison at to secure the assistance of the sergeants and of the Mongheer, the second under Col. R. Smith was at native officers. He had already sent forward such Allahabad to protect the emperor from the Ma- faithful officers as he could collect, and these, on rattas; the third was at Bankipore under Col. Sir coming to Mongheer, reproached the others with Robert Barker. An order was issued that, from their ingratitude to a man who had lately given so the 1st January, 1766, double batta to the Euro- large a sum to form a fund for their invalids and pean officers should cease, except to those of the widows. They said that Sir R. Fletcher had never second brigade, while it should be actually in the told them of this, and accused him of being the field; half batta was to be allowed to those at originator of the whole plan. On the 13th, the Patna and Mongheer when not on service, but European soldiers got under arms, to support their none to those at Calcutta. The reduction took officers ; but the appearance of Capt. Smith, with place' accordingly; but the officers at Mongheer | the Sepoy battalion, reduced them to order. When held secret meetings, at which a general resigna- Sir R. Fletcher addressed them and distributed tion of their commissions was agreed on; their money, they told him they had understood that he plans were communicated to the other brigades, was to head them ; but as that was not the case, and about 200 commissions of captains and subal- they would return to their duty. On the 15th terns were ready to be placed in the hands of the Clive arrived, and Sir R. Fletcher then owned commanding officer on the 1st June, though they that he had known of the plot since January, and were to offer to serve as volunteers till the 15th, that he had affected to approve of it, that nothing A, D, 1766-67.



of age.

might be done without his knowledge. Clive made port of invalided officers and soldiers of the Comno remark. He addressed the troops, mentioning pany's service, which still exists. his own donation, and he ordered double pay to the While Clive was engaged in quelling the mutiny, native troops for May and June.

the young Nabob died of a malignant fever. His In the camp at Serajepûr, though a battle was death, as is always the case, was ascribed to poison, expected every day, all the officers but two ten- and the guilt, without even the shadow of a proof, dered their resignation ; some immediately, others was laid on the English. He was succeeded by his after the 1st June. The former Col. Smith ordered brother, Syuf-ud-Dowlah, a youth of sixteen years to proceed at once to Calcutta. At Allahabad the officers of the European regiment declared that The profits of the salt monopoly having proved they would set out for Calcutta on the 20th May. much greater than had been expected, the ComAs Major Smith, who cominanded there, found that pany's duty was raised to fifty per cent., which it their men would support them, he sent for an old was calculated would yield 160,0001. a year. Clive, battalion of Sepoys which had long been under his having observed the ill effects of employing, as command; and these men, having accomplished had been done, European agents for the sale, it the march of 104 miles from Serajepûr in fifty-four was now determined that it should be sold at Calhours, arrived just as the officers were departing. cutta, or wliere it was made, to the native dealers, Major Smith then made them submit and apologise, and to them only, excluding Europeans altogether. and he sent only six of them to Calcutta, whither Clive, when this had been arranged, made a proCol. Smith also sent one-half of his officers.

posal for excluding every future governor from Owing to the firmness of Lord Clive, of Col. Smith, engaging in any way in trade, by giving him a per and others, and to the staunch fidelity of the Se- centage of ld on the revenues, and making him poys, the mutiny was now at an end. The principal bind himself by oath in a penalty of 150,0001. not leaders being under arrest and ordered to prepare to derive any advantage from his office, beyond for trial, consternation and repentance became this and his usual salary and perquisites. general. Some had been inveigled, some fright- But now letters came from the Directors, orderened, into the plot. Pardon was therefore extended ing the Society to be suppressed, and the trade to to many ; but they were obliged to sign a contract be thrown open and left entirely to the natives, but to serve three years, and not to retire without without any plan for compensating their servants. having given a year's notice. Six officers were For the fact was, that the proprietors at home were tried and found guilty of mutiny ; but owing to a so clamorous for an increase of dividend, that the defect in the Mutiny Act, not one was sentenced Directors feared to make any diminution of their to death. Sir R. Fletcher 5, who was the real author revenue. Clive, however, took upon him to act of the mutiny, was tried by court-martial, on the for what he deemed the real interests of the Comprosecution of Capt. Goddard and some other offi- pany. He confirmed the grant to the Society for cers, found guilty, and cashiered. The only civi. one year, after which it was to cease ; thus giving lians to whom the charge of aiding the officers the Directors time to devise some other plan for could be brought home, though there was no doubt remunerating their servants. of the guilt of many of high standing, were Mr. It was the earnest request of the Directors to Higginson, sub-secretary to the Council, and Mr. Clive, that he would remain another year in India; Grindal, of the secretary's office. These gentlemen but this the state of his health prohibited, and he were dismissed.

quitted its shores for ever in the end of January, We have just seen Clive's generosity to the 1767. He was once more received in England army mentioned. The following was the occasion. with every mark of respect; and, by a vote of the Meer Jaffier, who was always attached to Clive, Court of Proprietors, his jagheer was continued to and who could not but reflect on how differently he him or his heirs for another term of ten years had acted toward him, when dying, left him a after the present term should have expired. But legacy of five lacs of rupees. The money was in a storm was to succeed. Mr. Sulivan was now the hands of the present Nabob's mother, and chairman ; Mr. Johnstone and the other Indian some took on them to assert that it was a bribe, depredators were in England, and they stuck to not a legacy. But of this there was no proof, and Clive like bloodhounds, thirsting for vengeance. the probability is all on the other side. At all He had repeatedly, in Parliament, to explain and events Clive, who had given a solemn pledge that defend his various acts in India ; and at length, in he would not in any way benefit himself by his May, 1773, Col. Burgoyne, as chairman of a comgovernment of India, declined receiving it. When, mittee on Indian affairs, moved a resolution in the however, the double batta was to be taken from the House, that Lord Clive had received, at the time officers, it occurred to him that, by taking this of the deposition of Suraj-ud-Dowlah, various sums, money, he might be able to form a fund for the amounting to 234,0001., and that “in so doing hé advantage of themselves and their widows, he de- abused the power with which he was entrusted, to termined to accept it. The Company sanctioned the evil example of the servants of the public, and the project ; Nůjum-ud-Dowlah's successor, at to the dishonour and detriment of the state.” The Clive's desire, added three lacs more ; and thus

motion that he had received those sums was carwas formed the institution at Poplar, for the sup- ried; but for the latter part was substituted una

nimously, “ that he did at the same time render

great and meritorious services to his country.” 5 We shall meet this person again at Madras, selfish and A Mr. John Petrie, one of the ring

Though thus honourably acquitted, the fact of leaders, whom Clive sent home with a rope about his neck, having been accused preyed on his proud spirit. returned to Bengal some time after high in the civil ser- He was constitutionally melancholy; his liver had vice, through the influence of his friends, the Johnstones,

become diseased in India, and he was afflicted with probably to spite Clive.

gall-stones, his sufferings from which were so in

disobedient as ever,

tense that he had for many years been obliged to these terms, and yet shortly after a demand was have constant recourse to opium for relief. Toward made on the Nabob for fifty lacs of rupees; and as the end of November, 1774, he had a very severe no indulgence would be given, he was forced to attack; he had recourse to large doses of laudanum, borrow money at a most usurious rate, in order to and in a paroxysın of pain he terminated his discharge it. It was also stipulated that he should existence, on the 22nd of that month, having just repay the expenses of the siege of Pondicherry, completed the forty-ninth year of his age. ,

and to this he agreed, on condition of all the stores The name of Clive must ever stand prominent in taken there being given up to him. These, howBritish history, as that of the founder of an em- ever, the servants of the Company had appropire the most extraordinary that has ever appeared. priated to themselves; and on his complaint, they As a military man, though he had not the oppor- promised to allow him a certain sum for them in tunity of fighting great battles like Coote, his repu- his account. But their masters no sooner heard tation stands high, for all the military virtues were that he had gotten credit for this sum in their united in him ; he was, as his friend Lawrence de- books, than they ordered it to be recharged to him, clared, a born soldier. As a statesman, we think and thus he lost the stores altogether. he has been underrated ; his vision, it is said, was The only way the Nabob saw of getting money, clear, but not extensive. It seems to us that it was by forcing it from those who were supposed to was nearly as extensive, as it was possible for that have it.

have it. As Mortiz Ally, of Vellore, was believed of a practical man to be at that time. It certainly to have great treasure, he was the first object of did not penetrate vacancy, like that of Dupleix, attack. The English gave troops, and after a siege and aim at the impossible ; but his opinions on of three months the place was taken, but the most questions of Indian policy were sound and wealth which it contained was far below wliat had judicious. In private life Clive was amiable, and been anticipated. strongly attached to his family and friends. That The conquest of Tanjore was what Mohammed he was covetous of wealth is not to be denied ; but, Ally next proposed ; but in this the English would like another eminent person, if “unsatisfied in get- not give him their aid. As the king of Tanjore ting, in bestowing he was most princely 6." He was was an independent prince, they offered their meuntainted by the mean avarice that degraded Marl- diation, to which the Nabob yielded a most relucborough ; if he loved wealth, it was not for itself, tant consent. It was arranged that the rajah should but for the dignity, power, and influence it be- pay twenty-two lacs of rupees, in five instalments, stowed. His example, no doubt, was injurious, as arrears; four lacs as a present; and four anand produced many mean imitators ; but there was nually as tribute. When the Directors heard of this essential difference, that Clive thought of the this treaty, they expressed their opinion that the Company and his country first, and of himself last, present of four lacs ought to have been given to and gave way, without a pang, where their in- the Company for their good offices, and directed terests were at variance; while the gentlemen at that the twenty-two lacs should be paid to them, Calcutta and Madras seemed only concerned for and credit given for them to the Nabob in his their own gains, and heedless of all other interests.

On the 10th February, 1763, peace was signed between France and England. By the eleventh article of the treaty, all the factories which the

Deir subsequent acquisitions, were to be restored. They CHAPTER XII.

were not to keep troops, or erect fortifications in

any part of the dominions of the Sûbahdâr of Affairs in the Carnatic-Rajah of Tanjore-- Mohammed Bengal. Both crowns were to acknowledge Salabut

Issoof-Mound of the Caveri–The Northern Circars, Jung, as lawful Sûbahdâr of the Deckan, and Hyder Ally-His Early History--War with Hyder--Bat- Mohammed Ally, as lawful Nabob of the Carnatic. tle at Trinomalee-Siege of Amboor-Ill-success of the As the English were able to dictate in the forEnglish-Conclusion of Peace-Affairs of Bengal.

mation of this treaty, nothing could be more imafter the capture of Pondicherry, the English French government were guided by the judgment We now return to the coast of Coromandel, where, politic than the restoration of the French settle

ments in India. But while in this matter the power had become supreme. As the expenses of the war had been consider

of Bussy, the English ministry, as Lord Clive was able, and it had ostensively been carried on for the however, wrote to Lord Bute, and it was on his

in opposition, did not deign to ask his advice. He, advantage of Mohammed Ally, he was called on to repay them. Before the surrender of Pondicherry, inserted. It is a remarkable instance of the gene

suggestion that the article relating to Bengal was he had made an offer to pay at the rate of twenty: ral ignorance, with respect to Indian affairs in eight lacs of rupees a year; and, in case of that place being taken, if the Company would give him Europe, that Salabut Jung is spoken of as Sûbahthe aid of their forces, to make the renters and fore, he had been dethroned and imprisoned by his

dâr of the Deckan, though in 1761, two years beothers pay up, he would discharge the whole in brother, Nizâm Ally. The effect of the treaty was one year. Mr. Pigot wrote to him, agreeing to

to hasten his death ; for Nizâm Ally, who had been 6 Even before he got the jagheer he gave 50,0001., a sixth



hitherto restrained by dread of the French, seeing of his property, to his family and friends. A portion of it

he had nothing to apprehend from them, caused was devoted to the purchase of an annuity of 5001, a year

him to be murdered. for his old commander, Gen. Lawrence, and offered in so

The reader of Orme's interesting History must handsome a manner, that he could receive it without a

be familiar with the name of Mohammed Issoof. He had enlisted with Clive a little before the battle


A.D. 1765.



of Coverpauk, and he rose by his merit till he the rajah of Mysore, and he soon rose to command. came to be commander-in-chief of all the Sepoys Hyder, the younger son, spent his time till he was in the service of the presidency. He was a cool seven-and-twenty between hunting and voluptuous resolute man, and eminently faithful to the Com- living. He then joined his brother's corps as a pany. The chief scene of his exploits were Ma- volunteer in 1749, and distinguished himself so dura and Tinivelly, which countries, after the over- much at the siege of a Polygar's fort near Bangathrow of the French, he offered to take as a renter. lore, that he drew on himself the notice of Nunjeraj, But from their wasted condition he was, it would the commander, by whom he was speedily proseem, unable to raise any revenue; at least he had moted. paid no rent. Accordingly, in August, 1763, the The kingdom of Mysore was one of those Hindoo Nabob and Company sent a force to reduce him. states which rose on the fall of Bejâyanugur in the But he was not a man to fall without a struggle; 17th century. Its rajahs had consequently by this the month of October of the following year saw time sunk into imbecility, and as in the parallel him still unsubdued, after causing his assailants case of the Marattas, their power had passed into great loss of men and treasure. Treachery, how- the hands of their ministers. The holders of this ever, prevailed against him; a Frenchman named

power, at the present time, were two brothers Marchand, who was in his service, betrayed him named Deoraj and Nunjeraj, the latter of whom to the Nabob, who put him to death.

we have seen aiding the French at Trichinopoly, A dispute now arose between the Nabob and the and in whose service Hyder Ally was engaged. rajah of Tanjore respecting the Mound of the In 1755, Hyder was made foujdar of Dindigul, a Caveri. For the island of Seringham, as it is fortress built on a high rock in the middle of a named, which is formed by the branches of the plain lalf-way between Madura and Trichinopoly. -Caveri, runs very narrow toward, its eastern ex- He had before this time organised a regular band tremity, and the long strip thus formed, and which of freebooters, “ brave and faithful thieves," as is called the Mound, if not kept in constant repair, Wilks styles them, who were bound to deliver up would be swept away, and the remaining waters of to him one-half of all the plunder they acquired", the Caveri be carried into the Coleroon or northern and with the aid of a wily brahman named Koonde branch, and the lands of Tanjore thus be deprived Râo, he devised such a system of checks as made of the waters necessary for their cultivation. The it almost impossible for them to defraud him. Nabob now asserted that the Mound belonged to Having occasion to act against some refractory him of right, as it really did, but the rajah in- Polygars, he sent to court a flaming account of his sisted that he was bound to keep it in repair, and successes, and of the difficulties he had surmounted, this it was not the Nabob's intention to do, as he adding a formidable list of killed and wounded. plainly designed to let it be washed away. Tlie A messenger was despatched with rich presents for English were obliged to interfere, and it was the officers, and with money to give to each of arranged that the Mound should be repaired by the wounded men fourteen rupees a month till he the rajah.

should be cured. The actual number of these was In 1765, Nizâm Ally, whom henceforth we shall sixty-seven, but on the inspection which took call the Nizâm, invaded the Carnatic at the head place Hyder mingled with them 700 men whose of a large army, and committed great ravages; limbs were well swathed and bandaged. These but he retired when he saw the forces of the Eng- passed muster with the rest, and Hyder drew the lish and the Nabob in the field. Clive, whose money for the whole, and he allowed the wounded power over the emperor was absolute, easily pro- men each seven rupees a month. Another trick cured a sunnud conferring the Carnatic on Mo- which he played the government was, making hammed Ally, independent of the Nizâm, and he what a native, who witnessed it, terms “ a circular also obtained a similar grant to the English of the muster," that is, making 10,000 men be counted four northern Circars. In March, 1766, General and passed as 18,000. Calliaud was sent with a force to take possession In this way Hyder went on augmenting his of these provinces : but the Nizâm threatened to wealth, and increasing the number of his adinvade the Carnatic; and the government at Ma-herents. Meantime Deoraj retired from public dras, who had an exaggerated idea of his power, cares, and left the whole burthen of them to Nunagreed to pay him a large annual tribute, and as jeraj, Hyder's patron. In 1758, the troops, havhe had given one of the Circars as a jagheer to his ing mutinied for payment of their arrears, Hyder brother Bazâlut Jung, not to claim it till after the came to his aid, and by carefully going through death of that prince, and very unwisely, for it was the accounts 8 (in which he was an adept), and well known that he was going to attack Mysore, thus reducing them, and by a partial payment he they agreed to support him with their troops. restored harmony. His rewards, in consequence,

The person who now wielded the power of were ample; among others, Bangalore and its disMysore was one of those adventurers who, by dint trict were given to him as a ja . In the beof courage and capacity, joined with freedom from ginning of the following year the Marattas made moral restraint, so frequently rise to empire in the an inroad, and when the army was ordered to East. His name was Hyder Ally Khân; he was march against them, most of the chiefs declared the younger son of a man who, from the rank of a that they could not obey on account of the arrears common peon, to which family misfortunes had due to the men. Hyder, who knew that the reduced liim, rose to that of a foujdar in the service of the Nabob of Sera. But misfortunes coming

7 Thus, in the confusion which ensued on the death of

Nasir Jung, in 1750 (see p. 66), they contrived to carry off on his master, he lost his life in his defence, leav

two camels laden with gold coin. ing a widow and two sons. Shabas, the elder of

8 Though Hyder could neither read nor write, he had the these sons, when he grew up, was recommended by

power of making long arithmetical calculations in his mind, his mother's brother to an officer in the service of

with great rapidity and correctness.


arrears were very small, offered to discharge them. and defeated. He was soon able to dictate terms He thus got the chief command, and most of the to the rajah, one of which was, the surrender of other commanders, who were of ancient families, Koonde Rao, whose life, however, he engaged to then resigned. He soon brought the Marattas to sparel. Districts were then assigned for the supterms, and, on his return to court, he was received port of the rajah and of Nunjeraj, and the fortuwith extraordinary honours, Nunjeraj, a thing un- nate Mussulman adventurer thus became in effect precedented, even rising at his approach and em- the sovereign of the Hindoo realm of Mysore. bracing him.

(1759.) Gratitude, of course, was not one of Hyder's vir- In 1761 Bazâlut Jung, for the sum of three lacs tues, and a scheme was soon concerted for the of rupees, made Hyder Nabob of Sera ; and it was overthrow of his patron. The troops, as was reduced by their united forces. Hyder continued arranged, came to Hyder and demanded their to extend his conquests, and in 1763 he made him. arrears of pay. He told them that he paid his self master of the realm of Bednore, in whose capiown men regularly, and that it was not to him tal he obtained a treasure which, he owned, chiefly that the others were to look. They then requested led to his subsequent greatness. An invasion of that he would obtain payment from Nunjeraj; and the Marattas occupied him during the next year, several applications were made, but to no purpose, and lie was obliged to purchase their departure by as there was really no money. They finally re- the payment of thirty-two lacs of rupees, and the quired that Hyder should go at their head and sit cession of some territory. In 1766 he made a in dhurna . at the house of Nunjeraj. With affected descent on the western coast, and conquered Malareluctance he complied; and the result was, that bar. While he was there the rajah died; and he „Nunjeraj, unable to satisfy them, told them that immediately sent orders for that prince's eldest the rajah had taken the direction of his own son to succeed, and he resumed the districts which affairs, and that he was retiring from public life. had been assigned for the support of the royal Some of the soldiers, as directed, then called out family, giving instead of them an annual pension. to remove the dhurna to the residence of the In 1767 the Nizâm and the Marattas made war rajah. This was done, and the rajah having re- on Hyder Ally. The latter, with their usual celequired Koonde Râo to be sent in to him, the brah- | brity, were the first to take the field. To impede min returned with a promise that the demands of their progress, Hyder laid waste the country in a the troops should be satisfied, provided Hyder fearful manner; but, unchecked by his measures, took an oath to renounce all connexion with the they still advanced, and reached Sera, where usurper Nunjeraj. With this hard condition, also, Hyder's brother-in-law surrendered to them the he was forced to comply, and he then was admitted fort and district, without even a show of fighting. to an audience. On coming out he tendered his Hyder, now alarmed, made proposals to the Mapersonal security to the troops for their arrears, rattas, and they retired on being well paid. and it was cheerfully accepted, and thus ended the The troops of the Nizâm, with an English force drama. Large assignments of revenue were made under Col. Joseph Smith, entered the territories of to him for that purpose, and thus more than half Mysore. Ere long, however, Smith saw reason to the rajalı’s dominions came under his control. believe that their ally was playing the English

Beside the Brahmin, his chief coadjutor in false, and that he was actually in treaty with this affair, had been a lady of the royal family, Hyder. He therefore kept his corps separate. As and she and Koonde Râo (who was now dewan) Col. Wood was advancing from Trichinopoly, he seeing that the power of Nunjeraj had fallen into put his troops in motion to join him, and on the the hands of a far abler man, conspired to over- way (Sept. 3) he was attacked by Hyder with a throw him. Taking advantage of the absence of large force. The action commenced at two, and the greater part of his troops, while he was en- ended at dusk, in the total defeat of the Mysoreans. camped with a small force under the walls of As the British troops were in great want of proSeringapatam, the capital, the Brahmin caused a visions, and feared another attack, they made a cannonade from all the works to be opened upon forced march of twenty-seven hours for Trinohim. Hyder was sending for his friend the Brali- malee, not halting for either refreshment or repose. min, when he learned the truth. He then retired Here they had hoped to find abundance of prowith his cavalry, leaving his family and his in- visions, but they were miserably disappointed ; and fantry behind. He was now thrown on the world, leaving the sick and wounded in the town, Smith and having been defeated by some troops led by had to move his troops about in quest of supplies, the Brahmin, he went unarmed and as a suppliant while the country was scoured by 40,000 of the to the abode of Nunjeraj. Being admitted, he enemy's cavalry. Hyder and the Nizâm (for they threw himself at his feet, imploring forgiveness, were now allies) deferred making an attack, until and ascribing all his misfortunes to his ingratitude the want of food should have reduced the strength to his benefactor, whom he entreated to resume of the English, but Smith was fortunate enough to his place at the head of the state. Nunjeraj, discover some large hoards of grain, and thus his though he knew him, was deceived. He gave him men were kept in a state of efficiency. On the his forces and the influence of his name ; by 22nd the enemy commenced a distant cannonade means of forged letters Hyder frightened Koonde on his left ; in order to turn their left, he made a Râo away from hiis army, which he then attacked movement from his right round a hill; the enemy

did the same, in order to intercept the English, 9 That is, without tasting food, from which the person against whom it is done, is also expected to abstain. It is 1 When the rajah and the ladies of the palace joined in usual for creditors, who cannot obtain payment, to get a entreaties for his life, Hyder replied, that he would not only

spare it, but keep him like a parroquet. He kept his word, guilt contracted; if the Brahmin should expire, it is of the but not as they understood it, for he confined him in an iron deepest die.

Brahmin to sit in dhurna at the door of the debtor for the


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