The Solid Earth: An Introduction to Global Geophysics

Couverture
Cambridge University Press, 29 juin 1990 - 472 pages
Geophysics is a broad subject that encompasses not only the physics of the Earth, but also the physics of the atmosphere and oceans. The heart of geophysics, however, is the theory of the solid Earth. The Solid Earth is a general introduction to the study of modern physics of the solid Earth, including the workings of both the Earth's surface and its deep interior. The book begins with a brief historical introduction to developments in geophysics. The next chapter discusses the important theory of plate tectonics, and is followed logically by a chapter on geomagnetism and palaeomagnetism. Subsequent chapters deal with the subjects of seismology, gravity, radioactivity and the age of the Earth and heat flow in the Earth. The book concludes with chapters on the physics of the oceanic and continental lithospheres. The emphasis throughout the discussion is on basic physical principles rather than instrumentation or data handling. Many helpful worked examples are given in the text, and, in addition, there are problems of various degrees of difficulty at the end of each chapter. Appendices explain more advanced mathematical topics and theories of seismology for mathematically inclined students.
 

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Table des matières

Introduction
1
Bibliography
3
Tectonics on a Sphere The Geometry of Plate Tectonics
4
22 A Flat Earth
8
23 Rotation Vectors and Rotation Poles
10
24 PresentDay Plate Motions
11
25 Plate Boundaries Can Change with Time
18
26 Triple Junctions
19
Heat
219
72 Conductive Heat Flow
220
73 Calculation of Simple Geotherms
226
Total Heat Loss from the Earth
233
75 Oceanic Heat Flow
237
76 Continental Heat Flow
243
77 The Adiabat and Melting in the Mantle
246
78 Convection in the Mantle
249

27 Absolute Plate Motions
24
Problems
26
Bibliography
30
Past Plate Motions
32
32 Dating the Oceanic Plates
41
33 Reconstruction of Past Plate Motions
51
Problems
72
Seismology Measuring the Interior
76
42 Earthquake Seismology
85
43 The Interior of the Earth
105
44 Refraction Seismology
119
45 Reflection Seismology
133
Problems
148
Bibliography
156
Gravity
160
53 Gravity of the Earth
163
54 The Shape of the Earth
164
55 Gravity Anomalies
166
56 Observed Gravity and Geoid Anomalies
176
57 Flexure of the Lithosphere and the Viscosity of the Mantle
180
Problems
187
Bibliography
189
Geochronology
191
62 General Theory
192
63 RubidiumStrontium
200
64 UraniumLead
202
65 ThoriumLead
205
67 ArgonArgon
206
68 SamariumNeodymium
207
69 Fission Track Dating
210
610 The Age of the Earth
213
Bibliography
217
79 Thermal Structure of the Core
254
710 Forces Acting on the Plates
260
Geotherms in the Continental Crust
263
Problems
271
Bibliography
274
The Oceanic Lithosphere Ridges Transforms Trenches and Oceanic Islands
278
82 Oceanic Lithosphere
284
83 Deep Structure of Midocean Ridges
293
84 Shallow Structure of Midocean Ridges
298
85 Transform Faults
308
86 Subduction Zones
320
87 Oceanic Islands
335
Problems
339
Bibliography
341
The Continental Lithosphere
350
92 The Growth of Continents
355
93 Sedimentary Basins and Continental Margins
378
94 Continental Rift Zones
398
95 The Archaean
405
Problems
409
Bibliography
411
Scalars Vectors and Differential Operators
419
Theory of Elasticity and Elastic Waves
425
Geometry of Ray Paths and Inversion of Earthquake Body Wave TimeDistance Curves
436
The LeastSquares Method
441
The Error Function
443
Units and Symbols
445
Numerical Data
452
Glossary
454
Index
463
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