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chief object, to expel them as an article of safely, was the sole aim of a bridge ; but beverage.

Rennie and Telford have constructed One of the steam carriages, at the prize bridges worthy of the days of the Romans. trial on the Liverpool rail-road, rashed Hoards are formed to keep off the stream ; over the distance of a mile in one minute, excavations are made deep below the bed that is ten times the speed of what a few of the river, till solid earth for the piers is years since was considered good travelling. found; the water is expelled by the steamA similar increase of velocity, were it engine; piles forty feet long are driven practicable, would enable a carriage leaving by machinery into suitable foundations, Manchester for Liverpool to outstrip the plank is laid over, and on the whole are sun and stars, and thus see the heavenly placed squared blocks of granite; and when bodies move eastward, so that, if the land the pier rises above the water, and another were continued round the globe, the tra- requires to be built, the piles which formveller would at length leave the sun setting ed the protecting board are extracted by in the east and see it rise again in the west, the hydraulic machine of Bramah. Such and the same of the stars; or by condescend- was the way in which Waterloo Bridge ing to abate his speed, or taking a rather was constructed. lower latitude, where the degrees are longer, Bishop Sanderson says, in his preface to he might keep the sun always at noon, his once-celebrated prelections on “ the or always at morning or evening, as he “ Obligations of Conscience,” that he had pleased.

no intention of printing them; they had After the fire of London the walls of St. Jain for many years neglected, scattered in Paul's, eighty feet perpendicular, and five shreds in corners among waste papers ; feet thick, and the tower, two hundred but a bookseller wrote him word, that two feet high, though cracked and tottering, fair copies (written out perhaps by some stuck obstinately together, and their re- diligent students, to whom the lecturer had moval, stone by stone, was found tedious Jent his MSS. at the time of the delivery) and dangerous. Sir C. Wren wrought a were in his possession, which he was hole in the foundation of one of the pils strongly urged to print; but he would lars, and with eighteen pounds of gun- make no use of them without the author's powder cracked the whole angle of the consent. “ Landavi,” says the Bishop, tower, with two great arches which rested " immo amavi in homine, mihi pewitus upon it, and also two adjoining arches of ignoto, animi candorem; et ex eo genere the aisles, and all above them; and this it quibus fere unius lucri studium est, æqui seemed to do somewhat leisurely, crack- reverentiam.” He in consequence wrote ing the walls to the top, lifting the whole to the bookseller to send him one of his weight above nine inches, which falling, copies; which preventing the labour of made a heap of rains without scattering. transcription, he was induced to send the The powder lifted three thousand tons, work to press. This anecdote would have and saved the work of a thousand labour- delighted honest Isaac Walton, the bishop's ers. The fall of so great a 'weight from an biographer and pariegyrist, especially as height of two hundred feet gave a concus- the worthy bookseller was, like himself, a sion to the ground that the inhabitants Loudon tradesman. around took for an earthquake. During What a terrific picture does the following Wren's absence, his superintendent having passage (from Lardner's Cyclopædia, Hisdone some mischief with gunpowder, the cory of France,) exhibit of the death-bed of whole neighbourhood united in petitioning A man devoted to the pomps and vanities of that no more should be used. Wren the world, and who is “ at ease in his posyielded to their solicitations, and resolved sessions.” “ A fatal malady had seized on to try the effect of that ancient engine the Cardinal Mazarin, whilst engaged in the battering ram. He took a strong mast, conferences of the treaty, and worn by armed with iron in two places, which be mental fatigue. He consulted Guenaud, suspended, and with thirty men vibrated the physician, who told him that he had the machine against the wall a whole day. but two months to live. Some days after, They believed it was to little purpose, but Brienne perceived the cardinal in his nightthe second day the wall was perceived to cap and dressing-gown tottering along his tremble, and in a few hours it fell.- gallery, pointing to his pictures, and exFamily Library. Lives of Architects. claiming, • Must I quit all these ?' He saw

The Monument in London was first Brienne, and seized him : *Look at that used by the members of the Royal Society Correggio! this Venus of Titian ! that infor astronomical experiments, but was comparable Deluge of Caracci! Ah! my abandoned on account of its vibrations friend, I must quit all these. Farewell, being too great for the nicety required in dear pictures, that I loved so dearly, and their observations. This occasioned a re- that cost me so much!' A few days beport that it was unsafe; but its scientific fore his death, he caused himself to be construction may bid defiance to the at- dressed, shaved, rouged, and painted. In tacks of all but earthquakes for centuries. this state he was carried in his chair to the -Ibid.

promenade, where the envions courtiers Till lately, to unite the two banks of paid him ironical compliments on his apa stream, so that a waggon might cross pearance. Cards were the amusement of CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 350.

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his death-bed, his hand being held by churches, voluntary confession for the 'unothers ; and they were only interrupted burdening of the conscience and the adby the papal nuncio, who came to give the vantage of spiritual advice hos ever been cardinal that plenary indulgence to which recommended; but in the church of Ge. the prelates of the sacred college are offi- neva, Calvin's own church, a solemn incially entitled.” Mazarin expired on the junction is laid upon ministers at their or9th of March, 1661.- Lardner's Cyclo- dination, not to divulge any secret compædia, History of France.

mitted to them in confession, except in An air, which the regiment of General the instance of treason. Szembek played on entering Warsaw, was

UNITED STATES. forbidden by the Grand Duke Constantine, In the operations for that gigantic unon pain of a penalty of four hundred florins, dertaking, the Erie canal, it was first aslest it should awaken Polish patriotism. certained that the waters of Delaware Bay National airs and music have ever been are two feet higher than those of Chesapopular means of excitement; for instance, peake Bay. Scientific men are inquiring the English God Save the King, the the cause, and also what difference of eleScotch bagpipe, the Swss Ranz des vation there may be between the waters Vaches, and the Marseilles March and la of the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Parisienne in France and the Netherlands. Ocean across the isthmus of Darien. During Mr. Pitt's administration an organ A prize essay by Mr. Stuart is being pubgrinder was committed to Newgate for lished, to prove that neither the use of playing Ah, ça ira ! the war-whoop of the distilled liquors, nor traffic in them, is savages who were at that time deluging compatible with a true profession of Chris. France with blood.

tianity. We are fearful that this ultraism The newspapers state that such has in the friends of temperance may lead to a been the ignorance of the mobs which have recoil. The distillation of spirits, and desolated so many parts of the country,

traffic in them, are necessary for many of that, in one instance, it was with difficulty the useful arts, and other purposes, and they were prevented destroying a valuable spirits are, in some cases, used with advan. barrel-organ in a parish church, alleging tage in medicine. that it was worked by machinery.

The United States papers copy from A music-seller in Dublin has taken ad- the Montreal official gazette an advervantage of party feeling, by publishing tisement of two lots of land, “ To be sold Orange and Green Quadrilles, respectfully by authority of law, on Sunday, the 28th dedicated to Mr. O'Connell; and Anti- day of November next ensuing, at the Union Quadrilles, and Anti-Union Waltz, church door of the parish of Montreal, most respectfully dedicated to the King ! after Divine service in the morning.' GENEVA

They ask, what does this mean in a British In no point was the universal voice of colony? It would, say they, be a striking the Protestant Reformation more unani- incongruity to read the King's proclamamous than in the rejection of penance, with tion against the “profanation of the its concomitant of auricular confession, Lord's day" in the house of worship, and from its usurped rank of a sacrament. In immediately after have a sale of land at most, however, if not all, of the Reformed the door.

RELIGIOUS INTELLIGENCE.

sea.

May it

SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING THE Esq., Clapham Common; by whom dona

OBSERVANCE OF THE LORD'S tions and subscriptions will be received; DAY.

as also by Messrs. Hankey, bankers, FenWe rejoice to state, that the society church Street; the Rev. Daniel Wilson, which we alluded to in our last Number, Islington; and the Rev. H. Blunt, Chelfor lessening the great evil of Sabbath We have no words to express how breaking, and restoring, under the blessing greatly we estimate the importance of this of God, a due reverence for the Divine object at the present moment. authority and practical duties of the Lord's please God to render the efforts of the soday, has been formed, and upon principles ciety abundantly conducive to his glory which directly recognise the Divine and and to the spiritual and everlasting welfare permanent obligation of this solewn instin of mankind tute of revealed religion. For the plan and objects of the society we must refer CHURCH OF GENEVA-M. GAUS. our readers to the resolutions, which it is

SEN. intended to circulate very widely. In the The Church of Geneva is in a state of mean time communications may be ad- great ferment, in reference to the proceeddressed to the secretary, Joseph Wilson, ings in the affair of M. Gaussen. The company of pastors had directed M. Gaus- the neighbourhood), leaving me only forty sen to use the catechism in his schools and pounds per annum for the support of my in his personal instructions. In his reply family. I have no other income; added he agreed to the former, and refused the to which, my health, for the last three latter, for the reasons which he specified years, has been so exceedingly bad as to The company gave him permission to take confine me to my house for weeks togethis course; but directed him to withdraw

ther. I have therefore often, as you may his letter, which he declined, probably easily imagine, been thrown into consiconsidering it would be construed into derable difficulties; so pressed indeed, that a disavowal of the sentiments expressed I have been obliged by degrees to part with in it. Much subsequent discussion has articles which I may never have it in my occurred; the result of which has been, power to replace, especially a watch, which that, after a protracted debate of some was left me by my dear father." hours, the company have passed a sentence,

“ The total income of my curacies, in. that M. Gaussen shall be excluded its sit- cluding surplice fees, has never exceeded tings for a year; that his general conduct sixty-four pounds per annum, a part of in the affair, without touching upon his which I have great difficulty to obtain ; religious sentiments, shall be recorded as yet on this I depend entirely for support. ecclesiastically censurable ; and that his Finding the parishes, when I first came to parish shall remain under the supervision them, destitute of all means of religious of the company. More serious measures instruction, except the duties done in each were proposed, but were at length nega- church once a fortnight, and sometimes tived. The company have determined to not so often, I have spent annually a conpublish the proceedings, which will, no siderable portion of the stipend in providdoubt, be canvassed in print on both sides. ing for the spiritual wants of my people, In the absence of these necessary docu- who are very poor. I am afflicted with a ments, we merely state the above facts, complaint which frequently obliges me to without comment. It is quite clear, how. have recourse to medical aid ; in conseever, that the conduct of the company was quence of which my income is scarcely ill judged, even upon their own principles, sufficient to procure the common necessain issuing an injunction which they could ries of life. I am at this time suffering not sustain ; and the result, sooner or for want of articles of wearing apparel, later, we trust, will be, that the light eli. which the inclemency of the season and cited by the discussion will lead to the my debilitated frame absolutely require. rejection of the unscriptural catechism to Opportunities have been afforded me, since which M. Gaussen so justly objects. my residence here, of removing to much

more advantageous situations; but it havPOOR PIOUS CLERGY SOCIETY. ing pleased God to honour my feeble la

It is afflicting that cases like the follow- bours here with more than an ordinary ing should be found in a church like ours, share of his blessing, 1 dare not hastily and often without any fault of the indivi- abandon such a station of usefulness." duals. Indeed, no person who takes holy “I am still resident incumbent of orders can be sure that he may not be My perpetual curacy has produced this condemned to poverty for life, unless he year seventy-six pounds fourteen shillings. have private fortune or personal expecta- În consequence of low wages and partial tions, by means of patronage or otherwise. want of employ, families here are so disTo expect

, as a matter of course, to live tressed as to be unable to pay pews’-rents. comfortably by his profession, is out of the My family consists of a wife and eight question.

children." “ I have a wife and three young chil- We have taken the above cases as they dren. I have had four, and am every day occur, and might add many others to them. expecting an increase of my family. The What objections any person can urge stipend of my curacy, which I have held against an institution which attempts to for some years, is sixty pounds per an. relieve necessities like these, we cannot num, out of which I am obliged to pay understand. It seems to us a work of twenty pounds per annum for the rent of Christian mercy which cannot but bless my house (the only one to be obtained in him that gives as well as him that receives.

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VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.

The aspect of European affairs continues and the ruthless Cossack has already enclouded and unsettled. In Poland the tered its borders. A spirit worthy of Russians are following up the ferocious Koziusko has diffused itself among the manifestoes of the emperor by hostile in Poles; a national council has been appointcursions upon that much-suffering laud, ed, troops are organized, and preparations made for resistance, either to victory or whether France is to enjoy rational liberty, death. Of the final result we doubt not; or to rush into the excesses which all true Poland will, and must be free; but whe- lovers of their country would wish to ther to-day or to-morrow, whether by a avoid. successful expulsion of the present in- The displeasure of the populace against vaders, or only after new submissions, the superstitions of Popery may seem on new bumiliations, and new revolutions, the surface to bear some resemblance to who shall conjecture ? One thing only those which marked the Reformation in appears fearfully clear; that this much Protestant countries ; but with one porenduring nation will have to work her way tentous difference, that the multitudes who to her rights through much of suffering, tore down popish altars and crosses, and privation, and bloodshed. Already, we destroyed crucifixes, and superstitious picfear, may the work of spoliation, (confla- tures and images, in the great struggle begration, and massacre, have commenced. tween Protestantism and Popery, were May God in his infinite mercy avert the not Atheists and Deists, and bad no intenthreatened horrors ! The cabinets of Eng. tion of rejecting Christianity, while they land and France have doubtless interposed exclaimed against the superstitions which their mediating offices; but they cannot, deformed it. But in France the mass of either in justice or policy, interfere with the people know no distinction between arms; and the neighbouring states, Aus- religion and priestcraft, between Popery tria and Prussia, though constrained to and Christianity: in expelling Jesuitism, apparent neutrality, are in favour of the tbey leave a void which is not filled up by oppressor against the oppressed. These a purer faith; and every execration against states have, however, work enough on superstitition becomes a virtual outcry their own hands in preventing revolu- against Divine revelation. This void must tions nearer home, Germany is un. be filled, the legislature will not attempt settled ; insurgent Belgium is admitted to fill it, for there is no established church; into the European family of nations; but private efforts, we trust, may, by the Italy is rising in arms to achieve its blessing of God, even yet do much; and liberties; and France forbids the hostile

we rejoice to see that our Protestant breintervention of Austria for restraining the thren are not insensible of the solemn reaugmenting current, which will probably, spousibility which devolves upon them at before long, burst its banks even in Spain this critical juncture. Their brethren in and Portugal, nay, Russia itself. Under England might greatly assist their efforts, these circumstances, if Poland is true to and we trust that plans, prudent and unherself, she cannot but ultimately seeure ostentatious, but liberal, extended, and effiher great object; but we fear not without cient, will be devised for this purpose. dreadful sacrifices, at which humanity The juncture is the more important from shudders.

the circumstance that large bodies of the France also is in a feverish condition. Roman-Catholic clergy and laity are reThe King of the French has been obliged, nouncing the errors of Popery and forming by the concurrent voice of Europe, to de. themselves into a Frotestant church; we cline the crown of Belgium for his second trust in the main on conscientious and inson, which would amount toa virtual union telligent grounds, or at least under cir. of the two countries, and might in the end cumstances as hopeful as those which acaffect the repose of other nations. Paris companied the early stages of the Reforhas been in a ferment in consequence of mation. It is much that serious inquiry an ostentatious Catholic ceremonial at the has commenced; that the minds of thoucommemoration of the Duke de Berri, at sands and tens of thousands are becoming the church of St. Germain, which the po. open to conviction; that the Protestant pulace considered connected with political churches are crowded with attentive auviews, and indicative of the wish of the ditors; that the Bible and religious pubpriests to restore the Bourbons, and re- lications are extensively and earnestly establish the Gallican church. They in demanded; and that the necessity for the consequence proceeded to sack the arch- religious education of the rising generation bishop's palace, to tear down the crosses apart from popish superstitions is beginand crucifixes, and to ridicule the cere. ning to be acknowledged. These are so monies of the Catholic worship, amidst far favourable indications: they are indeed yells of “ Down with the priests, down very remote from being universal ; we dare with the Jesuits.” The government have not even say they are general; but they endeavoured to appease the popular exas- are so far extended, that we venture to peration by erasing the fleur-de-lis from look forward amidst the surrounding dethe national buildings; and have affected solations with favourable hopes, knowing to attribute the late excesses, with what that the word of God can, and will in the ever truth, to the secret machinations of end, prevail, and that the predicted fall of the friends of the exiled family. Governs “ the man of sin ” will be succeeded by ment has been induced to dissolve the the pure Gospel of Jesus Christ. chamber of deputies, and appeal to the In turning homeward, we cannot but public feeling.

Much will depend upon commence with expressing our gratitude the character of the new chamber, as to to God for the increased tranquillity of

the country. The acts of outrage which their provisions. We fear that for some lately disgraced and appalled the land, little time to come we must be content have nearly ceased; and this result, we rather with what is immediately practicarejoice to say, has been attained without ble, than what is abstractedly desirable ; exasperating severity; for though the le- what parliament will grant and existing gislature has rejected Mr. Hunt's prepos- claims will allow; than what every good terous molion for pardoning all the offend- man earnestly wishes, and hopes before ers in a mass, justice has in general been long to see accomplished. We are howaccompanied by moderation, and in parti- ever thankful for every progressive step cular, very few lives have been sacrificed; towards a better state of ecclesiastical we could wish that our penal code were regimen; and in this light we trust that such, that even these might have been the projected measures will be found bene. spared. We also rejoice to say that a ficial. The great point to be aimed at is. spirit of intercession with God on behalf that every parish in the land (or such a of the nation has prevailed widely among distriet or portion of population as for all classes of religious persons; and to this, ecclesiastical purposes may be consimay we not, in part at least, scripturally dered a parish) shall have a fairly reattribute it, that God has been pleased to munerated resident non-pluralist incumlook with favour upon us? Many of the bent, and the people enjoy the advan. clergy and lajty have been earnest with tages of adequate pastoral superintendence. the legislature and government for the By the approach to this standard, would appointment of a day of national fasting we measure every proposed regulation; and humiliation: and the subject has and if we cannot attain to it at once, we heen brought before the House of Com- shall at least be thankful for every apmons by Mr. Perceval, in a speech remark- proach to it, and never cease pressing the able in that assembly for its Christian matter, even after many partial improvefaithfulness and scriptural tone of piety; ments, till the end is fully attained. Of and though the house thought it better to the difficulies interposed by the existing pass over the proposal, and the majority regulations in reference to patronage and even of the religious part of our clergy and the tithe system, we have sometimes laity have not considered it desirable, under thought till we alınost despaired of adeall the peculiar circumstances of the case to quate amendment : but our views, we urge the point, yet the respectful atten- must say, as we more closely examine the tion paid to Mr. Perceval's statements, subject, enlarge in a nearer proportion to and the way in which the subject has been our wishes; and in particular with regenerally treated throughout the land, we spect to the encroachments, for so we feel pleasure in saying, has been such as must call them, of patronage, we have became its solemnity; and we would hope arrived clearly at one conclusion ;-not is an indication that the judgments of that injustice is to be inflicted upon any God for bringing us to repentance have man for the benefit of his neighbour, but not been inflicted upon us wholly in vain. that there is not a shadow of injustice in There is still ample room for humiliation; not recognizing the right of any private but this general seriousness of spirit on so claim in ecclesiastical matters to interfere serious a subject, is, we trust, a hopeful with the due discharge of the ordinances omen.

of religion, and the spiritual instruction of The condition of the Church of England the people. Even if a man in former has been urged upon parliament in a va- days built a church and endowed it with riety of forms; and by one individual in the tithes of his manor, and gave his suc. particular, Lord King, in a spirit of ex- gessors the right of presentation, we see aggeration and sarcasm which is much not what abstract right any patron, either more likely to impede than promote the by inheritance or purchase, can plead to cause of reformation. We trust that the prevent the building a new church, or even real friends of the church will neither, on the allotment to it of the fees and offerings the one hand, be goaded into unsafe mea- which accrue from the worshippers within sures, nor, on the other, be irritated into an the walls. This alleged authority is usurobstinate opposition to all improvement pation; it is not a vested right but a by the violent and unfounded statements vested wrong : the patron has a right only which are daily proffered on this subject : to what he has inherited or purchased, but will pursue ibeir path calmly, wisely, and though compensation is due to an and conscientiously, as if nothing had actual incumbent who by long usage en. happened. In this view we heard with joys certain benefits on his being deprived much satisfaction that the Bishop of Lon- of them, there is no reason to acknowledge don was bringing in a bill for facilitating his right, or the rights of the patron, to the building of churches, and the Arch- say that there shall be no church and no bishop of Canterbury two bills for the preaching but at their volition. Some composition of tithes and promoting the general court of reference or appeal is, residence of the clergy. Whether those indeed, necessary to prevent irregularity bills will embrace all that is desirable on and manifold evils; but the abstract claim these momentous points we cannot con- of a veto is a monstrous anomaly which jecture, not being yet acquainted with could never have been tolerated for a mo

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