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ment but for the outcry about rights, as proposed lowering the duties on tobacco if there had been some act of parliament and glass; and reducing newspaper stamps for turning each parish into a patent mo- from fourpence to twopence, and advernopoly, not for the welfare of the flock tisements from three shillings and sixpence but the fees of the pastor. On the sub- to one shilling, or eighteen-pence, accordject of tithes also we have as little diffi- ing to their length; repealing the taxes on culty, even to the point of commutation, candles, sea-borne coals, printed cottons, provided all parties are honest and in and a number of small articles. These reearnest on the subject, with a view to ductions, he thought, would benefit the render the commutation not only fair at poorer classes of society, and greatly prothe moment, but such as will ensure a mote trade and manufactures. The defi. stipend perpetual, adapted to fluctuations ciency of revenue caused by these retrenchof value, and incapable of being alienated ments he proposed to meet by the abolition to other purposes. Tithes, it can be of more than two hundred offices; a tax of shewn, fall on land and not on produce ; a penny a pound on cotton wool, another on so that there is nothing unfair or difficult the transfer of land and stock, another on in making the landlord responsible for steam-boat passengers, the equalization of them; and there is one point which it the duties on wines, making the whole five may be well for our bishops and clergy to shillings and sixpence per gallon; and weigh, which is that tithes have at present altering the duties on timber, increasing the protection afforded to land by the those on the growth of Canada, and lowercorn laws, whereas, before long, this and ing those on that of the Baltic. The deevery other partial protection, or mono- tails are under the revision of parliament, poly, will evidently cease, in which case a and scarcely an item seems likely to stand far worse commutation would be made in its original form. The duty on cotton for the church than while the protection wool is lowered, that on the transfer of endures. When Leeds and Manchester, stock (carrying with it that on land), is aand Birmingham and Sheffield, may traffic bandoned, as contrary to the faith of parliaunimpeded, tithes and rents will not sus- ment, and the others are being modified ; tain their present elevation, and then a and the intended repeals on glass and toless favourable commutation would be bacco are, in consequence, set aside. There effected than at present. However in the can be no question as to the general excase of composition for a fixed term, which cellence of the principle adopted by the is all we believe that is contemplated at Chancellor of the Exchequer, particularly present, this consideration does not apply; that of equalising duties, increasing mabut it may be well to keep it in mind in nufactures, and not favouring bad articles reference to the general question.
and bad markets; but several of his deA few lines, in conclusion, of the secular tails were very unfortunate. The repeal concerns of the month.
of the tax on sea-borne coal is, however, a The new ministry have divided the civil most important boon to the southern counlist into two portions, not interfering with ties, and will do much towards benefiting that portion which relates to the personal the poor. We hope with this tax will comfort and dignity of the king, but plac- fall the present system of trick and fraud ing the remainder at the disposal of par: which characterises the coal trade, and the liament. The pension list is to be limited best remedy for which will be a sale of to 75,0001. per annum, instead of 140,0001., coals by weight instead of measure. Anothe present incumbents being retained, ther great benefit also in the intended though with a distinct acknowledgment plans is, the extinction of patronage, unthat many of them have no public claim productive expense of collecting, the vexto relief from the public. Some of the ations of excise, and the unjust restrictions pensions are honourably merited, others which prevented many things, by which are cases of mere charity, and some, we persons might, without injury to others, fear, of political profligacy; but it would benefit their own condition. The most not be worthy of the nation to rescind honest feature, we must say, in the new any, as they were all granted with a virtual ministry is their sitting loose to patronage ; understanding that they were for life. The Lord Brougham is casting it overboard in great point is to guard against similar ex- masses in his own court; and if all their travagance and delinquency in future. plans are conducted on this enlightened
The Chancellor of the Exchequer has and self-denying system, they will earn exhibited his financial arrangements. He the warmest suffrages of their country.
ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.
J. B. B.; D. M. P.; E. S.; H. B. T.; Y. M.; E. L.; S. H. W.; H. C. ; Iota ; W. Y.; MISERICORS ; A. C.; W. C.; T. B.;
A CHRISTIAN MISSIONARY ; G. M. ; R.; H. W.; Amicus; J. T. W.; and H. S. B. are under consideration.
“ the Evange
We are desired to state, that the Bishop of London has renounced all connexion with
a Society entitled, The Friends of the Hebrew Nation, and with their institution in
Camden Town. A Barrister wishes to correct a misapprehension of T. B., in our Number for Sept.,
512, in attributing the remarks animadverted upon to a “ well known minister in London.” The Barrister says that he alone is responsible for them, and that he
still continues at issue with T. B. on the general question. Several “ Members of the Society of Friends ” will see that their defence had been
anticipated by one of their body. Our correspondents mean nearly the same thing respecting good humour, and it is
therefore unnecessary to prolong the discussion. Our readers will also think it
time to close the liturgical discussion, and some others. Mr. M.Neile's letter was too late for this short month, but shall appear in our next
Number. We quite agree with“ one who who desires to be an Evangelical Orthodox Christian
and Churchman,” that such party names as he specifies are highly objectionable. We never, on any occasion, use them in our pages, except as a quotation, or for intelligible specification with some such modifying phrase as “ what are called.” See, for instance, in this very Number, p. 103, col. 2, the quoted phrase “ the religious world,” which is there employed only in this modified manner, and made to include “that general body of persons in all parts of Christendom, who, with whatever minor divisions of sects and parties, are mainly anxious, &c.” Surely there is nothing sectarian in this; there can be nothing sectarian in including good men of all parties. Indeed most of the old phrases are wearing out, amidst the restless multiplication of new opinions. The term High-churchmen at one time conveyed to the mind something specific; but does any High-churchman of the ancient mould approve of the new High-churchism of the prophetic and miracle school? Again, baptismal regeneration, which some would make a test of orthodoxy, is held in very different senses by different clergymen, and in its least tenable sense, by Mr. Irving, the Morning Watch, and the new school of prophetic interpreters, who reprobate the uncharitableness of viewing any baptized persons, however wicked, as belonging to “ the world." So again some persons aver that “ the fanatics” lical clergy;" whereas if we look into the pages of Mr. Erskine, Mr. Irving, and the Morning-Watch men, who are as good at fanatical notions as most writers, “ the Evangelicals” are the chief objects of their vituperation. We more heartily than ever wish for a comprehension of all the true servants of God in the Church of En. gland, with as little as may consist with this our frail mortal condition of party names or irritating controversies. With infidelity on one side, wildfire on another, cold orthodoxy on a third, dissent on a fourth, and worldliness, lukewarmness, and formality every wbere, it becomes all who are really faithful in the land, all sound Churchmen, all who wish to serve God, and are anxious for the souls of men, to rise above minor
differences, and exert themselves in brotherly love for the good of all. The Clerical Correspondents who have addressed us on the form for the thirtieth of
January, have mistaken the import of the Rubric, which, as they think, enjoins them to read it on Sunday. In the best editions of the Prayer-book the Rubric is thus punctuated : “If this day shall happen to be Sunday, this form of prayer shall be used and the fast kept the day following." There should be no comma after “used.” The original Rubric was, If this day should happen to be Sunday, this form of service shall be used the next day following.” The words, “ and the fast kept," which were added long after, were evidently not intended to alter the other part of the Rubric; there is therefore no obligation to use the form on Sunday. We shall also advert to another liturgical point, on which some of our correspondents
have addressed us, namely, the recently-issued prayers for the country. There cannot be the slightest reason for supposing otherwise than that they are to be continued till revoked by authority. With regard to the place of the prayer in the service, respecting which one of our correspondent's inquires, the direction to read it "immediately before the Litany,” is in strict accordance with the directions which have been given with all such prayers, for a very long period of time. On looking back for above a half a century, the invariable rule seems to have been this : all intero cessory prayers are directed “to be used immediately before the Litany,” or “immediately before the Prayer for all Conditions of Men,” when any event in our own country is the cause of offering up the prayer, such as in 1788, 1810, and 1812, during the king's indisposition. But, when, in time of war, any event in other countries has called forth a form of prayer, it is invariably directed to be used next after the prayer, “In time of war and tumults,” as in 1799, on a threatened invasion, in 1781, on the revolt in America, and in 1803 and 1805, on a threatened invasion. Every thanksgiving has, without exception, been directed to be used after the General Thanksgiving. These remarks do not refer to the books of prayers used on days of fast or thanksgiving, but only to the single-leaf forms. The situation of the
present prayers is therefore, that assigned by long precedent, though we incline to think that it were better to open the Litany with the threefold invocation than with an occasional prayer, and to introduce the prayer elsewhere. One of our correspondents, however, prefers the usual place on the ground of the general practice of ministers to request the Prayers of the Congregation immediately before the Litany, or immediately before the Prayer for all conditions of men, whenever any of their parishioners are in affliction; for which, in the Cambridge printed Prayer-books, a special Rubric is given, but which Oxford, probably in her adherence to the sealed books, does not insert. We do not, however, see the force of this reason, as the clergyman does not pray before the general invocation, but only announces that persons are to be prayed for. While on these minutiæ, we may add, that the second of the two prayers in the form now in use, our readers are aware, is taken from the accession service; that prayer being considered very appropriate to the occasion. It is the only instance which we recollect of a prayer in the single-leaf forms, taken from the Prayer-book. The case of two prayers in a single-leaf form is also rare.
SUPPLEMENT TO RELIGIOUS INTELLIGENCE.
BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY. The present Number contains the usual variety of interesting biblical intelligence, foreign and domestic.
ANTI-SLAVERY SOCIETY. We strongly recommend our readers, among the various interesting articles in the two Numbers of the Anti-Slavery Reporter (75 and 76), to consider with care that on the important question of compensation, which is likely to be urged as one of the chief practical difficulties in the way of emancipation. Mr. Trew's testimony on slavery is of great weight from his intimate local knowledge; as is also that of the conductors of the Christian Record, the new Jamaica periodical publication which we introduced to our readers last month. We look with intense anxiety to the approaching discussion of the question in parliament.
SOCIETY FOR THE PROPAGATION OF THE GOSPEL. We have much pleasure in appending the special Report of this venerable society relative to the Codrington trust, from wbich our readers will see the important measures in progress for the benefit of the slave population under the society's care. The heads of amelioration are specified in pages 9ml; and it is added that the society are "fully pledged to carry the whole of them into effect,” and also “to adopt, from time to time, such further measures as may be likely to accelerate the complete emancipation of the slaves." The proposed regulations are of great practical value ; and what is still more important, they are characterised by a spirit which we feel warranted in believing will both render them efficient, and also enlarge them in proportion as the leading friends of the institution can see their way clear to act with prudence in this great work of Christian justice and mercy. The groundwork of the whole Report is stated to be “the duty incumbent upon a Christian people to put an end not only to the odious traffic in slaves, but also to the great evil of slavery itself;” and the sacredness of this duty, it is remarked, “is felt as deeply by the society as by any part of the community. The society has considered it best to begin with only gradual measures as respects direct emancipation ; but the accompanying regulations, added to the prohibition of field punishments, the introduction of task work, a higher scale of education, ordering periodical returns of the proceedings on the estate, and forbidding the removal of the slaves by sale, are preparatory steps of great moment; and the whole Report may be considered as a virtual death-blow to slavery. Earnestly do we pray that the anxiety which the society express for the welfare, temporal and spiritual, of their dependents, and which, as we understand, was echoed in the strongest manner in the discussions at the meeting at which these resolutions were passed, may be abundantly rewarded by seeing this great work of religious duty prosper in their hand.
Our own view, as to what the society not only may safely do, but what eventually, and before long, we are persuaded, it will do, remains unchanged; but we do not think it necessary, at this particular moment, when the whole subject of slavery is coming before parliament, and with the pledge, in the Report before us, as respects the Codrington property, of such further measures as may be likely to accelerate the complete emancipation of the slaves,” to enter upon matters of detail. We wonld rather rejoice at the hope which this Report presents to us, that our Right Reverend Prelates, in the ensuiig discussions in parliament, will be among the foremost to assist, with the whole weight of their influence, that great work of humanity, that “ daty mcumbent upon a Christian people,” but hitherto opposed by prejudice and selfish interest, of “putting an end to the great evil of slavery.
SKETCHES OF ORIGINAL SERMONS
BY THE REV. ROBERT HALL.
who so ably introduces his discourses in the following pages; only pre
mising, that notices of his published WE
E congratulate ourselves and works will be found in our former
our readers on being able to volumes, and that we may possibly present to them some highly inter- have occasion hereafter to introduce esting and valuable sketches of ser- some interesting memoranda of his mons by the late Rev. Robert Hall. life. We now confine ourselves to They were taken down in short. the sketches of the following six hand, four or five years ago, from discourses, and our correspondent's his lips, by a clergyman, under the remarks upon them, as they were circumstances stated in the follow. penned four or five years since, and ing prefatory observations; but not with no view to publicity. a syllable of them has been allowed to appear in print during the lifetime of the lamented author. The For the Christian Observer. practice, of late carried to a wide extent, of printing the sermons of The following sketches of Sermons living ministers, without their autho- by the Rev. Robert Hall, preached rity, nay, even against their wishes, in the years 1826 and 1827, were is much to be censured; but, now taken down from the preacher's lips that this eminent man has been by a clergyman of the Church of Ensummoned to his heavenly rest, the gland. He had no idea, when he first veil of privacy is drawn aside; and took down the notes on loose pieces we feel much satisfaction in being of paper, in the most hurried manner, able to rescue from oblivion, and in with very imperfect and insufficient giving wide publicity to, the follow. light, that he should ever copy them ing specimens of his pulpit ministra- out, even into short-hand." Being tions, by which, “ being dead, he called to spend a winter at Clifton, yet speaketh.” There were circum- on account of the sickness of his fastances connected with the name of mily, he went first to hear Mr. Hall Robert Hall which raised him faron a Friday evening, his discourse above being the property of any par- being a sermon preparatory to the ticular communion, and our readers sacrament of the Lord's Supper. may justly expect from us some For thirty years he had nourished posthumous record of a man so re- the desire to hear this celebrated markable in his generation for piety, preacher, whose printed sermons talent, and public estimation. For have commanded a more wide and the present, however, we yield to permanent admiration, from Chrishimself, and to the Reverend friend tians of every confession in this Christ. OBSERY, No. 351.
country, than those of any of his five months, when I had read over contemporaries.
my notes five or six times, and had When the writer of these notes totally disconnected them with the heard the text delivered, he thought recollection of the voice and tone no harm could arise from minuting and delivery of the preacher, that I down a few leading sentiments. He appreciated them as they deserve. was induced to go on when he had Probably my first impression was once begun: he afterwards read his weaker from my being engaged in notes to his family; and in so doing taking these notes, which lessened, the real merits of the sermon, its of course, the sympathy at the time; arrangement, the truth of the doc. and from my missing the devotional trines, the beauty of the language, prayers and services of my own rose upon his view. Accordingly, church, with which my thoughts and when he attended Mr. Hall's minis. feelings were intimately associated. try afterwards he pursued his plan, But I have received from Mr. Hall's still improving at each returning own friends, who were his constant opportunity in an acquaintance with hearers,somewhat similar confessions the preacher's manner, and of course of the effects of his rapid and unin the faculty of catching with some- impressive delivery. At the same what of increased accuracy his time, those persons have told me, thoughts and expressions. He so what I partially found out in my improved by habit, that the last own case, that when you once bediscourse (which being delivered come accustomed to his manner in the morning, a clear day-light there is no want of unction in his much aided the work of writing discourses; that he fixes your atthe notes) is, he believes, very tention; that he warms with his nearly word for word as it was de- subject ; and that he rises to a sublivered. The other sermons vary: limity of devotional feeling which the first was taken with the least carries away his hearers. exactness, and with more omissions of The want of impressiveness in his thoughts and sentences than the rest. preaching, which springs from a bad
The difficulty of following Mr. voice and hurried enunciation, is Hall, to the present transcriber (who increased by an awkward gesture in had neyer been accustomed to write the pulpit—a leaning (probably from from the lips of a public speaker), indisposition) over the cushion with was extreme. Mr. Hall's manner the whole weight of his body ; then is rapid, and his voice weak and in- a raising up of himself suddenly seharmonious; whilst his matter is so veral times, in the course of his serwell prepared, and so familiar in all mon; which he closes without much its parts to his memory, that his dis- preparation, and sometimes so abcourse passes through the mind of ruptly that it is first known by his a stranger with very little impression. shutting with precipitation and noise It appears like the hurried recitation his large Bible. of a school-boy. The consequence Mr. Hall appears to preach withis, that the hearer is not struck at the out notes; and yet the regularity of time, or very faintly, with the real his thoughts and the clearness of superiority of his matter and beauti- his argumentation bespeak that much, ful arrangement of his argument. if not all, is meditated, and possibly
Accustomed as I had been for written out, in the closet; and dethirty years to hear preachers of all livered a good deal memoriter. If classes of mind and manner, I had this be really the case, it accounts no idea, at the time of hearing these both for his rapidity, and the want of sermons, of the high place they really impression in his preaching: for what occupy as compositions and speci. we deliver from memory we hurry mens of pulpit eloquence; and it through, lest recollection should fail ; was only after an interval of four or while from the same cause the mind