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by various arguments; and by the presence by“the fruit of the Spirit;" fact that the Gentile converts had they shall occupy, in peace and learned to approach the Most High prosperity, the holy city; all nations their Almighty Father. They had fearing and obeying the King in not, indeed, been rescued from sla- Zion (Gal. v. 22; 2 Cor. iii. 7; Eph. very, and tenderly led through the iii. 13-22). Thus in Rev. xxi. 9, deep, “as a horse in the wilderness, to the end of the prophecy, we that it should not stumble.” They have an allegorical representation, had not been miraculously fed, nor in glowing colours, of the glorious assembled to witness those super sabbatism of the church upon earth, natural and terrible manifestations subsequent to the destruction of that of the Divine Presence at the in- great city,“which spiritually is called stitution of the Law. Yet the Apostle Sodom, and Egypt." tells the Christians of his day, that With these brief remarks, I prothey had arrived at the general As- ceed to an examination of the passage. sembly and church of the first-born, “ The faithful in Christ Jesus,” which are enrolled in heaven; and are sometimes spoken of, in the had obtained possession of other aggregate, as constituting the undiblessings, of which the community vided body of Christ. That which of Israel, and the benefits bestowed is proper to the collective body, upon that nation as the elect of God, belongs, in a certain sense, to every were merely the types. The Law was individual member. Hence, while the shadow of good things promised, in ver. 17 the Apostle looks forward of which the substance is contained to the eternal reward of the righin the Gospel of Christ. This is not teous, naturally reverting, in the less true of the doctrines shadowed next verse, to temporal sufferings, forth in the ceremonial rites, than of and more especially to those of the those adumbrated in the typical con- period in which the Epistle was stitution of the Jewish polity, persons, written, he contrasts them with and things.

that grand “manifestation of the In a spiritual sense, all Christians sons of God," “the glory [about] are members “ of the body of to be revealed in us,” in the time Christ," which consists of all his appointed of the Father. Until which people. “ His body, the church,” period it is necessary that sufferings is the same which in other passages be endured by the church (Col.i. 24). is described, as an edifice; elsewhere, The force and beauty of this with reference to its nature and course of argument are abundantly promised extent, a “new creation.” apparent, when viewed in connexion “In hrist" (that is, under the Gos- with what the Scriptures unfold re. pel) “all things are made new:” a garding the wisdom and goodness new commandment, a new worship, of God; whereby also the true rea new temple, and a new city. These lations and the relative importance of are the things destined to be per- time and eternity rise into view. By petual, as pertaining to the kingdom that which has been graciously rewhich cannot be moved. (Heb. xii.) vealed, we are enabled to repose

The blessings of the new cove- with confidence in regard to matters nant extend into the heavenly state, too high for us. (Ps. cxxxi.) “ whither the Forerunner hath for In ver. 19 the Apostle proceeds us entered." Yet even upon this to notice the ardent expectation earth a glorious type of those higher of the Jews, founded on prophecy; and more permanent blessings awaits which, although by many interpreted the church, in the which the anti- after a carnal sense, yet all devout typical Israel shall attain to a high Israelites, from Jacob to Joseph of degree of sublunary perfection; Arimathea, "waited for the salvation forming a spiritual temple, in which of God," and the glories of Messiah's the Most High shall manifest his reign.

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“ The creature," is that which is had been constituted. And so of created. The Gospel was a

the remainder of the sentence; for creation ” (Isa. Ixv. 17); the Law, the change of the dispensation is the therefore, was the old creation, con- subject treated of. “ But by reason stituted with express reference to

of Him who hath subjected it to “a better hope" and higher expec. change." Who? Doubtless the tations. Looking back upon the King in Zion;" by whose authority, ceremonial law, many readers are and with regard to whom, that disapt to view it as the essence of the pensation had been temporarily conformer dispensation, to which the stituted. The writings of the Prochosen people were merely subor- phets contain abundant indications dinate. But it is of persons, and of this change, as well as of a future not of things, that the Apostlespeaks; and glorious manifestation of the human beings, who should be de- sons of God. And thus those who livered from bondage and enjoy a

waited for the salvation of God were glorious liberty. Besides, neither actuated by the hope that “the hope nor fear are predicable of mere creature itself” (still employing the institutions.

abstract term) “ shall be delivered It will also be remarked, that –From what ? vers. 18 to 27, inclusive, form an Here an entirely new idea is preepisodical illustration of the princi- sented, which can only be understood pal doctrine-namely, the extension with reference to the original basis to all Christians of the high privilege of the argument. “In hope that the of being the elect of God; and the creature itself shall be delivered from glorious prospects of the church, as the bondage of corruption." This contrasted with that state of suffer- could not signify the yoke of the ing under which she then laboured. Law, elsewhere termed the “yoke Oftentimes the matter is so exu- of bondage,” as in contrast with berant, and the subject so vast and the freedom and spirituality of the comprehensive, that episode and Gospel. The Law had indeed been parentheses, with rapid transitions subverted by the superstition and and much compression, are atheism of that age; but it was ployed, yet nor unsuitably to the still "holy, just, and good.” Neither epistolary style.

was it the fear of death, a “bondage" The case of the Jews is first under which the human race has noticed. The persons immediately laboured ever since the entrance of contemplated are true Israelites, the sin. But it was the oppression of sons of God in a spiritual sense, “ the abomination which maketh who had not neglected the words desolate,” of Daniel; or, in other of God, speaking by Moses (Deut. words, it was the Roman power, xxviii. 15) and all the prophets. at that period universal, which was “ For all are not Israel who are de- the immediate agent in the dreadful scendants of Israel ;" and to those persecutions alluded to in this chapthe oracles of God address a far The style of this and of the different language.

subsequent verses is somewhat Ver. 20 contains an additional veiled, and certainly not without argument, which, like the other reason. See a similar reserve, 1 Pet. portions of the passage, points to v. 13; 2 Thess. ii. 7; Rev. xi. 8. the doctrine previously announced- Still, it was only a hope of a funamely, that from the beginning a ture deliverance, revealed for the change had been determined; God consolation of the ancient church not willing it to be permanent. That of God, and now confirmed and the antecedent must thus be sup- enlarged by the inspired Apostle. plied, is evident by proposing the When his nation “shall enter in question, Who not willing it? Doubt through the gates into the city," less the same by whose authority it the new Jerusalem; as a people,



make profession of obedience to to describe it as a matter of futurity. Messiah ; they shall partake of all The hope alluded to, is “the rethe blessings of his reign. (Deut. demption of our body" from slavery, xxix.; Is. xxvi.; Rev. xxi. 2; Rom. and a corrupting oppression. Its xi. 23-29.)

object is the same with that menIn ver. 22 the argument is ex- tioned ver. 20. Many of the chil. tended to the case of mankind at dren of Israel, who had received in large. All the known world had faith the promises of God in Egypt, been laid prostrate before the mi- doubtless never entered the land of litary power of Rome: the writhings Canaan. Moses himself only saw it and distortions of the nations af- at a distance. forded sufficient indications of their Ver. 25. One beneficial effect of sufferings : the time was yet future this remote accomplishment is, the when men should beat their swords exercise of faith and patience, with into plough-shares, and their spears resignation, in full reliance upon the into pruning-hooks, and study the Divine wisdom, goodness, and truth. art of war no more. But the suf- Yet, not being fully revealed, or ferings of the Christians were pe- but imperfectly apprehended (ver. culiar, and superadded to those 26), the sufferers did not well know which they endured in common what to pray for: and the Apostle, with the world.

by one of those strong rhetorical Ver. 23. The subjects of that figures which abound in his Epistles, “high vocation” mentioned in the represents those inarticulate aspiEpistles, who enjoyed the first be- rations (ver. 27) as perfectly undernefits of that Holy Spirit promised stood by “the Searcher of hearts," by the Prophets- the pledge and who in them recognised the earnest earnest of complete and eternal pleadings of the Holy Spirit; seeing deliverance from evil—even the that these sufferings were consequent adopted sons of God, suffered every upon their illumination, whereby form of cruelty and of death. Yet they had learned to “ live godly in they endured, “as seeing Him who Christ Jesus” (2 Tim. iii. 12), and is invisible” to the carnal eye; pa- were in accordance with the

purpose tiently waiting for the promised of God, who, in due time, should demonstration of their adoption, by grant their requests. the redemption of their body from The Apostle next suggests topics the oppressive bondage. The body of consolation; shewing from prohere spoken of, is also “the body phecy that all had been pre-ordained of Christ,” whereof each Christian by Infinite Wisdom ; that the chil. is “ a meniber in particular;" there- dren of God had been predestinated fore in the text termed “our body;" to be conformed to the image of and for which no possible sacrifice his Son," who " was led as a lamb is too great (1 John iii. 16). And to the slaughter;" and quoting from as the ancient church, after much Ps. xliv., “ For thy sake we are suffering, and various fortunes in killed all the day long; we are the wilderness, obtained rest in the counted as sheep for the slaughter." land of promise, an emblem of eter. The chapter concludes with a trinal blessedness ; so shall Christians, umphant strain of confidence in the as a body, be delivered from all final triumph of believers over all oppression, and enter upon a state enemies ; among whom are enuof tranquillity, typical of still higher merated" principalities and powers," blessings beyond death and the elsewhere the rulers of the darkgrave.

ness of this age,” and “spiritual This salvation was then, and still wickednesses in high places”-that is, is, a matter of hope. But if the “the old serpent,” ruling by means Apostle (ver. 24) had chiefly in view of the Roman power (Rev. xii. 9). the future life, it were superfluous In bis Second to the Corinthians

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the Apostle also consoles the faithful to combatants; and the spoil of with the prospect of “a far more war, to public property and muniexceeding, eternal weight of glory," tions of war. On land, except in in a style of eloquence and emphasis extreme cases and each case jusof truth refreshing and elevating, tified on its own grounds only, and filling the soul with the most exalted controuled by public opinion-prianticipations of things unseen and vate persons and private property eternal (iv. 8 to v. 11). In both are acknowledged and respected. Epistles the deep aspirations of the We hear no longer of the husband oppressed saints are viewed as the man being carried into slavery, or result of their sonship; the con- the fruits of the earth filling the garsequence of sufferings heaped upon ners of the victor. We hear no more them by the powers of darkness. of private plunder by the soldier;

It might here be proper to notice at least, no soldier is heard to disthe seeming discordance betwixt the honour himself by the avowal of true character of the Roman power, private plunder; and the sense of and the very plain and ample di- shame and reproach in the indivirections to Christians, as subjects of dual, and better discipline in the “ the powers that be.” (ch. xiii.) army, growing up with increased Nothing could be more descriptive civilization, have put an end to this of that power than the composite once great scourge of war on land : wild beast of Daniel; and yet Chris- and the change has not been less tians are commanded to yield obe to the advantage of the victor than dience. But on this topic the limits the vanquished ; for “plunder, like of this paper do not permit that I pitch, defileth the hand," and, more, should enlarge.

it betrays the heart.

Your contributor has done well, therefore, in drawing the attention of the thinking part of the public to the corresponding evil, which

yet continues, in war upon the sea : To the Editor of the Christian Observer. subject through the press, and the

and it is by the discussion of the Your contributor W. in your Num- influence of public opinion (and pubber for January, cannot have set lic opinion, though slow to reason, forward in too strong a light "the is reasonable in the result, as we national crime of privateering;" and have seen and are seeing daily), he has my thanks for having in- that I look forward for a change to troduced the subject into your be wrought, rather than by “a few pages. He is wise, also, in consi- petitions to Parliament, or by dering a time of peace the proper endeavours to move our cabinet, or season for calm and reasonable, “the sovereigns," for immediate aland therefore useful, discussion on a teration. Petitions to Parliament, practice which custom has brought in the present fashion, bid fair to to us, and custom has kept with destroy their own weight, or to us; veiling its enormity, and its supersede the functions of governindefensibility, in the deceit with ment; and we may do more wisely which, time and babit cover all by expecting parliainent, the cabithings. No nation, nor individual net, and the “ sovereigns,” to follow, I should hope, could be found rather than to lead, the public now, for the first time, to introduce, opinion, in a matter “opposed to or to defend, maritime war against every dictate of Christianity and private persons and private pro. justice,” but of which time and perty.

habit have accustomed men to The progress of civilization has endure the crime and to take the long since confined warfare on land profit. CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 352.

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offer you

But your contributor, in his tri. of distress and difficulty to our bute of respect to the president of West-India proprietors, and the the United States of America (in acknowledged embarrassment of the 1823), for proposing to the courts government in devising and apply. of France, Russia, and Great Bri- ing a proper remedy, every suggestain, as an article of international tion may be of value, it may be law, the putting down privateering, useful in this regard, as also as bas omitted to do justice towards respects privateering, to subjoin the another great man, also to the whole paper of Dr. Franklin, and subject he discusses. I do not wish the article for treaty, in the form to detract from that president's delivered to Mr. Oswald. On merit, in having brought forward a future occasion I may the consideration in 1823; but I some remarks on the hint to be should as soon think of coupling taken from this paper, as supplying the abolition of the Slave Trade one means, and one instrument, for with the name of Buxton, and for- a safe and satisfactory abolition of getting the names of Wilberforce slavery. and Clarkson, as of giving the But, to return to the immediate honour of the proposal for putting subject : Dr. Franklin did more down privateering to a Monroe, and than propose, he actually, as one omitting a Franklin.

of the last acts of his public life The honour, however, is still with (9th of July, 1785), concluded and America ; and if you think with me, signed a treaty of amity and comthat discussion and information on merce between the United States of this subject are useful, you will America and the King of Prussia ; allow me to use your pages in re- in which, as a strong and lasting minding your readers that as early testimony of Dr. Franklin's phias 1783 (January 14th), Benja- lanthropy, was introduced for the min Franklin submitted to the Bri- first time (and as yet for the tish Ministry a proposition in writ- last) the same article against the ing for improving the law of nations, molestation of the by prohibiting the plundering of property of unarmed citizens in unarmed and usefully employed time of war, and against privapeople. He added, that he rather teering ;-extending the language wished than expected that it would to comprehend, not only fishermen, be adopted; but he thought it cultivators of the earth, artizans, might be offered with a better and manfacturers ; but “ all women grace by a country that was likely and children, scholars of every to suffer least, and gain most, by faculty, and, in general, all others continuing the ancient practice; whose occupations were for the which was the case with America, as common subsistence and benefit of the American ships, laden only with mankind." the gross productions of the earth, Nor to America alone belongs could not be so valuable as the honour in this matter; for the British ships, filled with sugars or Scotch Presbyterians were formerly with manufactures. His proposal,

proposal, as tender and as honest; and there he said, had not been considered is still extant an ordinance of the by his colleagues; but if the Bri- town council of Edinburgh, made tish Minister should find that it soon after the Reformation, “ formight be acceptable, he would try bidding the purchase of prize goods, to get it inserted in the general under pain of losing the freedom treaty, and that he thought it of the burgh for ever, with other would do honour to the nations punishment at the will of the mathat established it.

gistrate ; the practice of making Dr. Franklin's views took also a prizes being contrary to good conwider range;

and in these times science, and the rule of treating

persons and


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