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sent, and first glance at the outline this ; from such a prostration of reaof the panorama before you. You son to superstition, that no monstrosee how cheerfully in past days of sity becomes too great to be believed, hostile attack, and how safely, this and we worship a piece of bread, antique city lay on the eastern decli- verily conceiving it to be an incarvity of yonder hill, sloping down to nate God!—By the way, your friend the river that fleetly gurgles through honest Isaac Walton used to fish in its streets, dispensing life and health these very streams of the Itchin, as to its inhabitants. I can fancy I well he might; for, if he could get hear at this distance the constant over the humanity of torturing two babbling of those pellucid streams; and races of beings, the one to ensnare see darting along them the finny in the other, where could he find better? habitants, who seem nothing scared That remarkable man lies buried in by the neighbourhood of man, though your cathedral. Do you remember dwelling in waters so imperturbably shewing me the slab that covers his translucent, that their every move remains, on the east side of the south ment is visible. Our good monks transcept? were always happy when they could But I must not detain you by the select a site for their dwelling upon river's side, numerous, and rapid, and the margin of a trout stream ; for clear, and ever varied as are the their meagre Fridays and Lenten fasts streams of this vicinity, but just beg were thus readily supplied, and they you to ascend yonder hill. It is enjoyed the credit and the merit round, and soft, and verdant as you of austerity without its privations. now survey it: but the peeping out I never could satisfactorily account of the chalk here and there tells you to myself, for the superstitious cre that its other side is perhaps a predulity of even well-informed mem- cipitous cliff; and such it is. This bers of the Church of Rome in is a remarkable feature of our souththis matter. To this moment there er chalky downs by the sea side. is stuck up in their chapels, in Have you never walked—I have the very centre of London itself, a often--on a smooth turfy path, little catalogue of what may, and what suspecting danger, and almost ready may not, be lawfully eaten in Lent with boyish spirits to run down the and on other days of mortifica- tempting slope at full speed; and tion, with minute specifications re shuddered to find at the next turn of lative to eggs and herrings, and in- the road that you had been within a dulgencies and dispensations. I yard of the edge of a perpendicular suppose that the feeling of the intel- cliff, of several hundred feet elevaligent part of the laity is, 'We must tion, whose white steepy crags connot reason on the matter; the priests trasted strangely with the level and say it is so, and our duty is to believe: verdant surface above. carp and plover's eggs are within the geologist sufficient perfectly to unlimits of salvation, mutton and beef derstand how this effect should have are without it; why it is so, we can occurred; though I suppose that the not tell, and dare not ask: we will character of a chalky hill disposes

it therefore mortify ourselves in due to crack perpendicularly when severform, as prescribed, always happy in ed by a stream or undermined by the the conviction, that if we really wish sea, leaving half the hill up to its sumany change, there are reasons enough mit a smooth grassy slope, and the for claiming indulgence, which the other being gradually washed away priest is always able and willing to and lost in the adjoining valley. But afford for a suitable pecuniary con I am philosopher enough to moralize sideration. What, my friend, dowe as often as I witness it ; for what a owe to Protestantism, that is, to re- picture does it exhibit of human life, stored Christianity, were it only in as seen from different points of obrescuing us from absurdities like servation! Look back at the time

I am not


by the

when you ran over the slippery paths ages they have congregated, surof youth; how calm, how green, how veys their halls, and refectories, and full of goodly sights and sounds on courts, and dormitories, and above every side did they appear! but did all their gem of a chapel, and then you see the gulph before you, and thinks of times by-gone, and of times can you now sufficiently admire the to come, and of one's own childhood, grace and mercy, which preserved and one's little ones; what a tide of you amidst so many dangers then thoughts rushes across the spirit! unknown and unsuspected? How. But I will not paraphrase for you, in ever, my friend, let us take a just and prose, Gray's Ode on a distant Prosnot a partial view: all is not cliff pect of Eton College. The senti

crag, as all is not smoothness and mentalities of such a prospect, I converdure: we were deceived when, fess, are to me merged in thoughts in our buoyant hours, we thought of deeper tinge than sentimentalism. the latter ; let us beware lest as Think, my friend, of the tens of we approach less sanguine years, thousands of immortal spirits that we begin to suspect the former. have been trained within yonder Our God is not a tyrant, but a walls, since the day when William merciful Father in Christ Jesus. of Wykeham, after finishing his Read the twenty-third Psalm : did neighbouring magnificent cathedral, the happy man who indited it see and completing his splendid estabnothing but desolation and barren- lishment of New College, Oxford, ness? I honour even Paley for his laid their foundation somewhere glowing sketches of the goodness about the year 1390, dedicating of God; but in describing the actual them to the honour of the Virgin state of events and the blood joyfully Mary, as a nursery for his higher flowing in the veins of the young seminary, and providing like a and the prosperous, and even of the princely donor for a warden, and beasts that perish, he

seventy scholars, and ten secular though he had always trodden the priests, with the complement of serene altitude, and basked in priests' chaplains, and clerks, and sunshine, and beheld verdure, and choristers, and masters who were breathed balminess; and had never

thenceforth and for ever to grace his descended to the valley, and shud- munificence. Call up


your endered at the precipices which frown thusiastic recollections ; not forgetbeneath the fairest human prospects. ting a name or a stone that honours The Christian must survey both; the or dishonours this venerable instituyoung, that he may learn to fear; the tion. Retrace its time-worn courts, aged, to hope ; and the song and and its groined gate-ways, and its the resolution of both should be, mutilated busts and corbels of kings "Goodness and mercy have followed and bishops, and its niches adorned me all the days of my life, and I will with gorgeous statues; one of which, dwell in the house of the Lord for in particular, that of the Virgin ever.”

with her Infant, a Papist might For many

hundred years one of say is itself a proof of her mirathe lofty eminences before you—that culous power in escaping the vanone, St. Catherine's, (why did the dalism of the Reformation, and the monks dedicate so many of our hills Great Rebellion ;-look at the hall to St. Catherine ?) has been the where banquetted, and the school daily prescribed and favourite haunt where studied, and the play ground of the successive generations of college where sported, and the chapel youth, who have trodden with elastic where knelt—shall I in every case step its verdant sod. When one looks say worshipped ?-prelates and schoat their well-known track, and hears lars and divines and poets and statestheir glad voices, and casts a glance men, most of them long since forat those venerable walls where for gotten, and whose deeds will never



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be known till the last day shall reveal good money should have been so them; others remembered in the af- ill-expended! Better a plain barnfections or the execrations of man like chapel than none; and I find kind. Call to mind, for example, no fault with all due economy: but the names of Archbishops Chicheley it is hard to spend much, and have and Wareham; of Bishops Ken, and nothing in return; and to see our Bilson, and Sherburn, and Lowth; most costly churches full of extraof Sir Henry Wotton ; of the poets vagant atrocities. A good barn is an Coryatt, and Otway, and Philips, excellent thing, if it pretend to be and Young (Young's birth-place lies nothing more; but things paid for a few miles yonder, at Upham), and as ornament should be ornamental: Somerville, and Collins, and Joseph but what mean the disfigurements Warton, with his brother the anti- which now-a-days we call turrets, quary. These are but a tithe, but and towers, and steeples, and cupothey furnish matter for a week's las ? One is ashamed to shew a meditation. Picture our present foreigner three-fourths of the recent Protestant Wykamist Bishops, Bur- ecclesiastical edifices that glare gess, and Mant, and Howley, scan around London; and it is the more ning their syllables, and fagging provoking, because the most econoand fagged, where Ken the non mical structure may be simple, and juror, and Chicheley the persecutor in good taste of its kind. Nothing, of Wickliffe and founder of All I believe, is much cheaper for a Souls, Oxford, scanned and fag- church than a plain Gothic edifice ged, and were fagged before them. without ornament; if something Is there not in all this a homily? A more costly can be allowed, the less fertile mind than your's would same style abundantly admits of it, find one: nay, it is a whole volume up to the most gorgeous fashion of of homilies; and I pity the man Our Lady's chapel—or as we Prowho wants a better text for twenty testant's call it, for want of a better

I should like to see a few saint-Henry the Seventh's chapel from your pen on the subject : one at Westminster. But the mischief might be upon the real nature of is, that we have decorations which Christianity; and another upon edu are no decorations; and whose only cation; and another upon what has merit is the money they consume. been gained or lost, spiritually I wonder our print-shops do not speaking, by the Protestant Refor. collect portraits of some score of mation. We have certainly gained these edifices, under the title of New nothing in point of church building, Caricatures. They would, of course, as you will see by contrasting either begin by excellence with All Soul's, of Wykham's chapels with those Langham Place, Marylebone ; the pepper-box and extinguisher struc- dedication of which is about as comtures called new churches. I can mendable as the architecture. When not put out of my mind the sub- Archbishop Chicheley founded “ All limely chaste forms of this chapel : Soul's College,” the title meant I wish I could say my eye never something ; Popery then supplied in wandered during the service I at- profusion, altars, and mortuaries, and tended at it; or that its vaulted roof chantries, and hospitals, and churches, and magic tracery never stole a and cathedrals, and colleges, for the thought from something better : but benefit of the souls of private donors, I have no such sins to confess in re or of the faithful in general. In spect of most of our new churches; yonder college and cathedral, you they have rarely interrupted my de- will find not a few relics of " Orate votions, except perhaps to make me pro anima,” which have escaped the angry with the artist; or caused a theological eyes of Puritans, and the thought when I had left them, ex- iconoclast hands of Commonwealth cept,

What a pity it was that so much soldiers ; but what can be meant in


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a Protestant country by a church order to be sure that my memory being dedicated to “ All Souls ?” did not deceive me, I turned to my Did he who thus denominated the note-book, and there find copies of structure in Langham Place, really several which are, or were some time believe that there were souls in pur- since, legible. I pass for the present gatory to be prayed for? or did he by the cathedral, as I may have copy the words without knowing again to allude to the subject, should their meaning, as the rustic spon we pause at William of Wykham's sor directed his child to be named splendid monument and chantry ; Beelzebub, because it was a Scripture for no man had stronger faith in name? Why not have “ Corpus” purgatory, and the value of prayers church ; and a new St. Dunstan's and masses to rescue souls out of it, or, above all, a new St. Swithen's ? than this munificent prelate. You Illustrious St. Swithen, bishop and remember how he stipulated in the patron of Winton, why discard thee title deeds of his magnificent donaand revive All Souls? We may, tions to the monks who once occuhowever, I own, put a good Protest- pied this majestic cathedral, that the ant construction on the latter, view- prior and convent should engage,“ in ing it as a church for the benefit of exchange for his temporal benefits, the souls of the living, and not of to give an equivalent in spiritual the dead; and thus settle the ano- goods ;” especially three masses maly, and turn it to good account. daily in his chapel, themselves and

But all this about church-building their successors for ever. In like is a slip of the pen ; for when I manner the objects of his charity asked for your homily on the be every night for ever,” to sing nefits of the Reformation, I alluded the De Profundis, or Fidelium, or to its religious benefits, and not its Inclina for his soul, and the souls of architectural declensions. Remem- his father and mother. What means ber, however, in justice to the Re- “ for ever?" Did he never expect formation, what Popery built her release. What a horrible thought! churches for; whereas Protestantism What a horrible religion! I need holds no post-obiit bonds on men’s not say that in his college chapel consciences; she offers no masses was duly recorded the same admoand prayers to deliver souls from nition to all who should enjoy his purgatory : if we build churches bounty : “ Orate pro animâ Wil. upon Protestant principles, it is not helmi de Wykeham, fundatoris hu“to bribe the rage of unrequited jus collegii." I should not like to heaven:” our altars are not sacrificial; be the casuist who was obliged to nor is a priest's absolution an equi- define how much falsehood mixed valent for endowed abbeys and mor

up with truth constituted a heresy. tuary domains. Still, if we do not It might even be difficult to ascerspend as idly or superstitiously, tain what was the exact measure of there is no need that we should not repose which a Papist like Wykham spend as gracefully; and he who placed in other sources of hope than delineated the temple at Jerusalem the immediate merits of the only by Divine inspiration will attribute Saviour. Faith and merit strongly no virtue to our doing all we can to jostled together, of which there are make our churches grotesque and some curious illustrations in the indispleasing.

scriptions in our old churches and I thought I was right when I said chapels. There are other doctrinal just now, that there remain some of and practical jumbles also. Look our ancestors' “ orate pro animå” at St. Anne teaching her daughter tablets very harmless now, and the Virgin Mary, while a woman is worthy to be preserved as monitory praying in monkish rhyme, vestiges—in Winton college chapel, Omihi per natum, vitam precor Anna, as well as in the cathedral ; but in

beatum ; Christ. OBSERV. No. 355,

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which, though it may admit of two trary to the doctrine of justification constructions, is, I fear, a prayer to by faith as the most superstitious reAnne, to grant life for her Son's sake. liance upon the supererogated merits Here, then, Christ is mixed up with of departed saints. The nonsensical a sainted advocate in heaven; as at superstition of Michael Cleeve's punother times we find his merits joined ning epitaph, anno 1487, to human intercessions upon earth. Satrapa cælorum, Michael, custos paradisi

, For instance, we have-I am keep- Sortem justorum costodi da Michaeli, ing to the college chapel—“ Ora is less dangerous than the sentimental pro animâ Magistri J. Wright, quon- self-righteousness of modern days. dam socii hujus collegii,” with a scroll from the supplicant's mouth, that Michael the archangel is the

No man in his senses will believe “ Per tua quinque vulnera, succur

“ custos rere mihi omni horâ.” Mr. Wright's Cleeve was of Winchester College

of heaven as Michael faith in the five wounds of Christ for salvation was not so implicit as

upon earth, or that the heavenly

warder was able to award salvation not to need posthumous human in

to his terrestrial namesake; but tercession for the deliverance of his soul. In the instance of the address many may be, and are, misled by the

self-righteous tone of a large porto Anne, was involved a double su

tion of our Protestant epitaphs. perstition-namely, purgatory and

But be this as it may, the style prayer to a departed spirit. In the of our monumental inscriptions becase of Wright, the request had been

came greatly improved in conselawful, had the object of it been lawful, just as the Apostle says,

quence of the Reformation, till it Pray for us." I do not think,

was perverted by the tame frigid therefore, that we ought of neces

semi-pagan school, that so long desity to conclude that every Papist the effects of which we are only now

based our national pulpit, and from who sought for the prayers of his fellow-men for his soul after his recovering. I could easily prove death, meant to derogate from the this by collating the epitaphs in our death, meant to derogate from the cathedrals ; but even in this college merits of Christ, any more than a Protestant who asks for his friend's chapel I see traces of it. For in

stance, in a punning epitaph on John prayers while living. The delusion

Dolben, anno 1560, the third year so far was only in the belief in pur- of Elizabeth, we have these two gatory : but this was bad enough, and it led to every thing else that was bad, till on it were grounded Non malus ille fuit qui verba novissima the gross heresies of supererogated 0 bone Christe precor te miserere mei: merit, and the worship of saints and angels. Take the matter how we which I construe, “ He could not may, and give to it its best aspect, be among the ungodly, whose dying Christ was dishonoured : eternal life words were, Blessed Saviour, have was not in fact, whatever it might mercy upon me.”

Here is no inbe in word, and in the glosses of vocation of saints or angels, and no modern popish advocates, sought for trust in human merit: and if such wholly through him; the merit of a prayer were sincere, this man went works, our own or others, in life or to heaven justified through the obeposthumous, was to make up the dience unto death of that Divine aggregate of goodness requisite for Saviour whose name alone he insalvation. I wish something like voked. Let us hope that he rethis were not the creed of too many ceived from the hands of that Phywho call themselves Protestants; but sician of souls that medicine which look at our church-yards, and see if another fellow, who died a quarter you cannot find many things as bad of a century after, 1585, is stated to ás “ Ora pro animâ,” and as con- have discovered and valued above all

lines :

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