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set in a boat at the mouth of the Tiber; that of Mr. Brown, who was drowned in the Grotto of Neptune, at Tivoli, in attempting to creep round it on its slippery stones; likewise the tomb containing Shelley's heart. We were told, at Florence, that when he was drowned, they burnt his body on the shore, but that his heart would not burn. On his tombstone was 'Cor Cordium' of Shelley. We were likewise told that his wife travelled to England with a vase in her hand, containing some of his ashes. Near his monument is that of his child by his first wife, Miss Wolstoncroft. Many others met our eye, erected by travellers to those who had been the companions of their steps, but whom death had detained prisoners in his dark realms: for, alas! in every clime, all things have an incurable taint of mortality.

The monument of William Bowles is there, close to the Ostian way. The simplicity and smallness of these tombs are strongly contrasted with the gigantic folly of the pyramid of Cestius, which shadows them. One poor poet complains, that his name is written in water-not so those whose names are in the book of life! They shall not be as water spilt upon the ground, which cannot be gathered again."" vol. i. pp. 154, 155.

The picture of Luther at the Farnese palace elicits the following apposite remarks:

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"In one compartment is seen Martin Luther disputing with Cajetan. finely-cultivated genius of Leo the Tenth could not be insensible to the brilliant powers of Luther; he is said to have remarked, in the beginning of the controversy, Brother Martin is a man of very fine genius-these squabbles are the effect of monastic envy.' But, alas! selfinterest silenced the dictate of better knowledge. Vassari has represented Cajetan in front of a palace-I suppose at Augsburg. He appears to be dismissing Luther with contempt, who stands firmly before him; and I fancied him saying, I cannot recant but on scriptural grounds. Our peace consists in coming to Christ in lively faith. Without this, we may be absolved a thousand times by the pope himself, but we shall never obtain on good grounds a quiet conscience.' In the next compartment the troops of Paul III. are barbarously destroying the Protestants in the Netherlands. This should have been blotted, even from the memory, in such a noble palace; above all, it should not stand boldly out to public detestation." vol. i. p. 166.

Miss Morton was curious to ascertain whether the people of Rome whom she fell in with, believed the tales of their priests, and what noCHRIST. OBSER. No. 354.

tions they had of the Bible, and of the real nature of religion. The following is her conclusion.

"With respect to the Roman subjects, I am persuaded that the slavery, and consequent hypocrisy, is complete. We had a curious opportunity of discovering this in various conversations with Italians. We were speaking on the subject of religion to an Italian woman, who, on other matters, appeared sensible. She soon told us that she did not think her soul would live after death: indeed, she was quite sure it would not; that there was no immortality. 'I do not believe what our priests tell us,' said she: they come brushing here with their holy water; they tell us to fast, and to do a great many things which they do not.' You have not then a Bible?' said I; 'you do not go to church? Oh yes; and my niece, seven years old, never misses confession. I have a vigna under Monte Mario; in that there is a little chapel, where we maintain a priest when we are there.' Have you then a Bible?' We have one in the chapel; it is what the priest uses: would you like to see it? Yes.' In a few days it was brought.

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This Bible turned out to be 'Storia dell' Antico e Nuovo Testamento, del Padre d'Agostino Calmet, &c.

"We one day brought in our Testament, wishing to converse upon it with an Italian of good education: he gently pushed it from him, exclaiming 'e prohibito,' and said that they were not allowed the liberty we enjoyed; indeed, in all our conversations with him, he spoke with horror of their state, and yet with fear and whispering, as if he heard the familiar at his heels.

"Another Italian, with whom we had almost daily opportunities of conversation, was in good earnest 'a faithful servant of the church'-was protected and favoured by cardinals, and held the pope in high veneration. At our breakfast-table, on fast days, he would not touch a morsel of bread and butter, but only take a tumbler or two of wine-his happy brain seemed never to have thought on aught the church deemed hurtful." vol. i. pp. 213, 214.

We must now quit Rome; but shall just transcribe the following account of the permission of Protestant worship in that stronghold of Papal superstition.

"In 1817 the English were received with great attention in Rome. Pius VII. appeared to feel all that gratitude which is natural to a man who has received his kingdom, and its astonishing works of art, through the valour of any nation. The English were allowed free entrance any where, even where the Italians found it difficult to enter. The pope received 3 L

them, even ladies, in his garden without ceremony. In this state of things, they ventured to solicit for the public celebration of service according to the rites of our own Established Church. Gonsalvi was the cardinal then at the head of the council. We are informed by a late writer, that Gonsalvi replied, I cannot authorize what would be directly in opposition to the principles of our religion, and the laws of the state; but the government will not interfere with any thing you do quietly among yourselves, as long as it is done with propriety.' The established worship of our church was then set up in Rome.

"In the year 1820 the priests took alarm, and it was feared that it would be discontinued. It was at that moment celebrated in a room near the pillar of Trajan the storm blew over it was then removed to the mausoleum of Augustus; but it was still too near the Capitol, and I understand the English themselves removed it without the Porto del Popolo. The service is now celebrated in a large upper-room, and we had the privilege of going without the gate to join in our own comparatively pure worship; the door is guarded by two of the pope's own body guard. I never heard the precise object for which they are placed, but I should strongly suspect to keep out the Catholics! They reminded me of the fact related in church history, of Huneric, king of the Vandals, and Arian. He fearing that he should lose his Vandals if they attended the preaching of the Christían bishop Eugenius, ordered guards to watch at the door of the church, who, when they saw a man or woman in a Vandal habit attempting to enter, struck such person on the head with short staves, jagged and indented, which being twisted into the hair, and drawn back with sudden force, effectually detained them; and many that belonged to his court were thus detained, and afterwards sent into the country to

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reap corn, which, as they were most of them gentlemen, was a severe punishment.'

"The permission to worship is most propitious for travellers. It is such an inestimable privilege to find no waste, howling wilderness, to drink of the brook by the way, and wherever we go to be made glad by the streams that flow from under the true altar. All the clergy that pass through Rome have an opportunity to proclaim the Gospel." vol. ii. pp. 170 -172.

And here with much respect and esteem we take leave of our Christian traveller, entreating her tender construction of the few monitory words in our proemium, but which do not at all derogate from the pleasure with which we have perused such passages as the foregoing, and to which many others might be added. Long could we linger upon Italy with all its pleasing, and, alas! its painful associations; with its balmy soothings and its heart-sickening superstitions; its Christian not less than its classical Paganism; the mystical not less than the literal city of the seven hills, and the fearful desolations which await it. It is a theme for solemn, but salutary reflections; and we shall rejoice if our notice of the publication before us shall suggest such to the minds of our readers; and lead them to prize more highly the civil institutions, and unfettered religious liberty, and spiritual privileges, which by the mercy of our heavenly Father, bless a less radiant, but more happy land.


A Charge. By the Bishop of Bath and Wells.

A Sermon preached at St. Paul's. By the very Rev. G. Chandler, D.D. Dean of Chichester.

Works of the late Rev. R. Hall, with a Memoir. By Dr. Olynthus Gregory. Vol. i. 12s.

Sermons by the late Rev. G. Jones; edited by the Rev. J. Owen. Vol. i. 4s. Recognition and Felicity of Glorified Saints. By R. Meek.

"The Ministerial Gift;" a Visitation Sermon. By the Rev. J. Garbett.

The Importance of Religious Knowledge; a Sermon. By the Rev. J. Hough. Prize Essay on the Causes of Dissent in Wales.

The Family Scripture Reader. 5s. The Constitution of the Bible Society defended. By the Rev. J. Fletcher.

On the Divine Authority of the Lord's
Day. By the Rev. C. R. Cameron.

"A Vision of Hell;" a Poem. 58.
A Letter to the Hon. and Rev. B. W.
Noel, on his Speech at the Bible Society.
By Fiat Justitia. Is.

The Single Talent well employed;

Lectures for Young Persons. By the History of Ruth Clark. 6d.

M. A. Ryan. 4s.

The Presbyterian Review. No. I. 3.

The Family Cabinet Atlas; Biblical Series. 3s. 6d.

The Reign of Terror, and other Poems. By J. Everitt.

Biblia Sacra Polyglotta. Accedunt Prolegomena, auctore S. Lee, S. T. B. &c. 1 vol. folio.




IN our notice last May, of the efforts made to impose a test in the Bible Society, we remarked, that if the principle of a test is admitted, the test must be far more stringent than any that has been proposed. We think it ought, at least, to exclude those who deny the doctrine of justification by faith; and we are sure that according to the Apostle's canon, it ought to shut out grossly vicious persons; for drunkards and adulterers are as little entitled to the name of Christians as the abettors of the most deadly heresies: indeed, no heresy is more heretical than an ungodly life. A sufficient proof of the impropriety of requiring any test in such a society, is the impossibility even of men of undoubted piety finding any one in common, except that professed adherence to the declarations of the Bible itself, which the proposers of the new test do not consider sufficient. In proof of this, it may be worth while to lay before our readers the opinions of some of our Dissenting friends respecting the members of our own church. To those who will duly read the signs of the times, they are not a little instructive; and the Church of England will have little occasion of gratitude to those who have elicited these censures. We shall confine ourselves to a portion of the passages collected in the "Christian Advocate;" but many others might be added. Thus the Congregational Magazine remarks:

"But could these new notions prevail in the society, there must be a test both of principles and conduct, a new act of uniformity passed, and a committee of triers set up, and then that great body, which has been so long and so successfully held together by the simple acknowledgment of the Divine authority of the Sacred Scriptures, and that every man should possess them, will be resolved into its numerous original elements, never to unite again. We can tell Mr. Gordon and his supporters, that the orthodox Dissenters will never have Christian fellowship with those who teach baptismal regeneration, the peccability of the human nature of Christ, or the carnal and worldly notions of the modern fifth-monarchy men. Such persons are now to be found in the society, and we are happy to act with them on the simple principle

hitherto recognized; but if the society is to become a community for the recogni tion of sentiment, &c. &c."........." We would advise the gentlemen who proposed and supported these amendments, calmly to reflect on their own inconsistencies. Here, in the Bible Society, which is not a religious society, but only a society for furnishing the means of religion,' they are clamorous for Christian fellowship, devotional exercises, and orthodox opinions they refuse the gold, and would reject the persons of Socinians, to secure these, while in that church to which most of them belong, and which is, or ought to be, a religious society, they receive from Sociniaus, who may be their parishioners, their proportion of church-rates and tithes, not for civil, but for the most sacred purposes. Though they will not reckon the Socinian body amongst the denominations of Christians, yet they still drag Socinians to their altars to perform the marriage right in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.' And though they will scarcely maintain towards them the courtesies of civil society during their lives, yet they recognize them as brethren at the grave, and bury them in sure and certain hope of a resurrection, to eternal life. Happy is he that condemneth not himself in the things which he alloweth.' Let these members of the church militant begin their crusade against Socinianism in their own church. The Anti-trinitarian heresy which has desolated the Presbyterian churches of this country, was generated in their communion; and it may be that oaths and subscriptions, tests and articles, have not proved more efficacious in repressing it now than they were in those days."

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The Baptist Magazine writes:


"The society has been denominated a Christian Society, and a reference to its records has been made to prove it suchand then comes the inference : those are not entitled to be admitted as members who reject an essential article of the Christian faith. But here again the argument is sustained by the ambiguity of the term Christian in this connexion. If taken in its broad and popular sense, the sense in which this is a Christian country as distinguished from Heathen and Mohammedan nations, the Socinians, being comprehended in this definition of the term, are


still entitled to be admitted within the pale of the society. But if the term Christian be understood in its strict and proper sense, as denoting one who is vitally united to Christ,-to preserve the purity of the society in this character, would require a law of exclusion, it is to be feared, much more extensive than that. embodied in Captain Gordon's amendment."........" We will only add, the most singular feature in this opposition to the Bible Society is, that it originates with Evangelical members of the Church of England. On witnessing the zeal of these gentlemen on the late occasion, we could not help asking ourselves,-Is the Church of England then quite clear of all unholy and heretical members? Have not the very individuals whom this party are anxious to exclude from the Bible Society, free access to the most sacred rights of their own church? and if expelled from the one, may they not if they choose still claim membership with the other? But is the Church of England less religious in its constitution than the Bible Society? And is its communion table less sacred than the platform of a human institution? He who contributes his guinea to a Bible Society incurs no personal hazard, while he may be the means of conferring on others incalculable benefits: he who approaches the table of his Lord' unworthily,' confers no benefit on any one, while, according to the decision of an Apostle, he eateth and drinketh damage to himself. If the party who are thus concerned to purify the Bible Society, have a zeal for God which is according to knowledge,' we are satisfied they may exert their influence in a more important sphere, and in a less equivocal and injurious direction."

The Eclectic Review argues as follows:

"The second clause of Mr. Gordon's amendment, in order to convey the real meaning, ought to have stood thus: That no Dissenter from the Established Church, rejecting the doctrine of a Triune Jehovah,' can be considered a member of a Christian institution. As it now stands, no Socinian avowedly belonging to a Socinian denomination of Christians,' is to be considered eligible; but the ninth general law would still include all impugners of the doctrine of the Trinity who nevertheless adhered to the Establishment. For instance, according to this proposed definition of the law, the learned champion of the Credibility of the NewTestament History, and the pious author of the Dissertations on Providence and Prayer, being Presbyterian Dissenters, would be no Christians; but Bishops Hoadly and Watson, how equivocal soever their personal orthodoxy, might, if living, be eligible vice-presidents of a Christian institution."........." Is not Mr. Noel aware that an Irish prelate,a vice-president

of the Bible Society, has already afforded a specimen of the extension of the prin eiple,' by intimating his high determination that no individual shall be permitted to open with prayer a meeting at which he is present, who has not been Episcopally ordained? Now, as we cannot suppose that the archbishop in question would altogether stand alone in his pitiable bigotry, we really think that the alarm taken by Dissenters at the first introduction of a test, as preparatory to a rule of worship, is not altogether unreasonable. Some persons have avowed their indifference as to the possible secession of the Quaker from meetings commenced with a prescribed act of worship, in a manner which indicates pretty plainly that their retirement would not be displeasing. And were the introduction of a form of prayer, and of regulations confining the occasional chaplaincy to clergymen episcopally ordained, deemed advisable, we have no reason to think that any consequent secession of Independent Dissenters would be regarded as a serious evil by a certain party, who, in anticipating the temporal reign of the saints, are not very anxious to have too many partners."

The Evangelical Magazine takes a similar line of argument:

"The ground of exclusion insisted on is, that the Socinians are not Christians; and the evidence of their not being Christians is derived from their denial of the Holy Trinity. That, in the strictest sense of the term, they are not Christians, we readily allow, as also that their rejection of the Trinity is the proof of this their unhappy state. But if, because they are not Christians, they are thereby disqualified from being members of the Bible Society, it must follow that all other persons not Christians ought in like manner to be excluded from this privilege, unless it can be shewn that one class of the enemies of Christ are better and more lovely in his sight than another. Even Captain Gordon's test proceeds too far, or it does not go far enough. If it were adopted tomorrow, it would put no interdict upon Sabbath-breakers, profane swearers, drunkards, fornicators, covetous persons, lovers of pleasure more than lovers of God, self-righteous Pharisees, and an endless class of other characters, who are as determined enemies of the cross of Christ, and as easy of detection, as any Socinian in the world. (Philip. iii. 18, 19.) Besides, we must remind our friend, that the proposed test could only reach those Socinians who worshipped in a Unitarian conventicle; it would not touch a Bishop Watson or a Dr. S. Clark, however much or justly suspected, because they happened to take shelter within the pale of a Trinitarian church. In fact, Lieutenant Gordon wants to raise a higher wall of protection around the Bible Society than

his own church raises around the communion table; for, notwithstanding the subscription of Trinitarian Articles demanded of her clergy, and notwithstanding the strictly orthodox character of her creeds and liturgy, a Socinian may take his seat, at any time, at the sacramental table, and defy the clergyman who would hinder his approach. Episcopalian tests are only for the clergy; the laity may do as they please. But, perhaps, after all, it is only a nominal orthodoxy for which Lieutenant Gordon contends. Perhaps, if he could prevail upon the members of the Bible Society to adopt his test, he would then take it for granted that every one offering to subscribe under the new constitution would be entitled to be looked on as orthodox. If this be his view, then the society might still continue to suffer all the practical contamination of which Mr. Gordon now complains. Its creed, indeed, would be more exclusive, but its practice might, after all, be precisely the same."

We conclude our extracts with one from the Wesleyan Magazine, which we copy rather for the sake of seconding its strong but just recommendation of Mr. Hughes's pamphlet. Several other valuable publications may be mentioned, to which we shall recur, if necessary; among others, one by the Rev. Dr. Fletcher, and another by "Clericus."


Though the questions at issue have been thus decided, there is every reason to believe that the individuals who have formed a conspiracy to alter the constitution of the British and Foreign Bible Society, will continue the work of agitation, and may seriously injure the institution, unless its friends use every exertion to preserve it in its simplicity. It is not a church, but an association for the one object of circulating the Holy Scriptures among mankind to the greatest possible extent. If once the principle be admitted, that the theological sentiments of its members are to be scrutinized, it is impossible to say to what length that principle may in future be carried by rash and intolerant men. To preserve consistency, a tribunal must be erected, not only to judge of heretical pravity, but also of moral delinquencies; the functions of ecclesiastical authorities will be assumed by aspiring individuals, till the most expansive and efficient society in the world is frittered away, so as to be the organ of a mere party. We shall perhaps enter more largely into this subject at a future opportunity; and in the mean time earnestly recommend a pamphlet which has just been published, entitled, Prayer and Religious Tests, in connexion with the British and Foreign Bible Society, considered in Two Letters, addressed to the Right Hon. Lord Teignmouth; inéluding Remarks on the Tone appropriate to all Discussions among Chris

tians, especially by Christian Ministers. By Sexagenarius.' The author of this pamphlet is understood to be the Rev. Joseph Hughes, one of the secretaries to the society, and the honoured individual with whom the institution originated."

As between the Church of England and the Dissenter, the above strictures are easily answered; but they shew the inconsiderateness of the proposed course, unless the object be either to break up the society, or to split it into as many fragments as there are sects. We depre cate both these results; or whatever else may interfere with the extension and stability of this highly valuable and truly Christian institution. We cannot but congratulate all who wish well to it, as at present constituted, on the numerous and strong expressions of attachment which the recent discussions have called forth from its friends and auxiliaries. The great body of religious and well-judging persons throughout the country, we are persuaded, feel convinced that the society is lawfully constituted, and is an eminent instrument in the hand of God for the spiritual welfare of mankind. Resolutions are flowing in from auxiliaries, earnestly deprecating the imposition of tests of faith, or other changes in the constitution of the society. Captain Gordon's committee, indeed, begin to feel by this time, that, though they may adopt a test upon paper, they cannot enforce it in practice; for they have decided that whoever may propose himself as a member, his money is to be taken, and no questions asked. Where then is the test? or what is its use? If a tradesman were to accuse his brethren of being encouragers of theft, for having no label in their windows against receiving stolen goods; and were to try to draw off their customers by setting up a new shop of higher morality, in which it was to be written, "Stolen goods not received; but, nota bene, all goods taken, and no questions asked;" would this be a very intelligible proceeding; more especially if it were added, that only one kind of stolen goods was prohibited, and all others were allowed? If Captain Gordon and his friends have not yet seen their error, and still believe that they have principle on their side, let them, as Christian men, act boldly upon it; let them exclude Papists, and all persons of known vicious life, and whatever else in their opinion clearly offends against Christian doctrine, and Christian deportment; and having done this by rule, let them follow it up in practice; not writing up no questions asked;" but honestly asking, "Do you subscribe to the test of faith aid down by the society; if not, we cannot admit you." Captain Gordon's committee in effect excludes no Socinian: he may come and welcome, if he pleases; there is no bar, no inquisition: the test was only in terrorem, more mocked than


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