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and edify it. Much of the barreness of like household words. Another thing the pastoral office, so universally la- also is observable: all stories which mented in these times, may surely derive their poignancy from a fabe attributed to that cold and de- miliar use of the name of the prince sponding sensation which is one of of darkness, and which are usually the forms of unbelief. We preach, followed by a smile even among and we hear also, with a certain in- thoughtful persons, are, in this relacredulity, as though we expected no tion too, exceedingly objectionable, fruit. We become heartless and It is one of his devices to amuse us, insensible; as we might be, if we when we ought to be rather alarmhad been certainly warned that the ed :influences of the Spirit had been

'Tis pitiful withdrawn. And thence may further To court a grin where you should woo a come such speeches as have occasioned these remarks. But the pow. nay, it is far worse than pitiful; ers of darkness have nothing to do it is quite opposed to the admonition, with faithful preaching Excellent “ Work out your own salvation with sermons, preached by holy men, are fear and trembling.” And it is reessentially gifts of the Comforter. "I markable, that the very next words, laboured more abundantly than they for it is God that worketh in you," all; yet not I, but the grace of refer to the operations of the Holy God which was with me.” “They Spirit, and might teach us the conglorified God in me.” “ To me, who nection between salvation, and seam less than the least of all saints, is riouness of mind in attending to the this grace given, that I might preach concerns of salvation. If ministers, among the Gentiles the unsearch- and especially young ministers, inable riches of Christ.” Can we sup- quire how they are to receive relipose that the Apostle who thus ascri- gious compliments, they may perbed what he did to Divine power haps find safety in silence; for silence can we suppose him saying to a Gen- is, frequently, a most impressive tile convert, “The devil told me what form of eloquence. To answer noexcellent epistles I have written to thing, when flattery expects to hear the Romans and Corinthians !” If its own echoes, is reproof. There the reader is offended by this abrupt was once a minister who, at the close attempt to draw a parallel, let him of a sermon, being addressed by one define the inherent difference be- of his auditors with, “I shall not tween the two cases. It is, indeed, tell you, sir, what I think of the very probable that St. Paul would excellent exhortation we have just have rebuked a flatterer who tried heard,” was repulsed by, “You may to ingratiate himself by a foolish safely speak, sir, for I have no opicompliment; but he would have done nion of your judgment;”—which this without levity, and without the was about as bad, in its way, as the affectation, real or imputed, of humi- one which heads this communication; lity. I am the more anxious to and, if spoken in the lobby of the settle the point on its right founda- House of Commons, might have tion, because glittering anecdotes ended in a meeting on Putney Heath. have done much evil to the Christian And thus res humanæ sunt Aebile lu

The inexperience of young dibrium, both in church and state.

converts smart sayings into Let us try to be serious in the right arguments : and, sometimes, that place; for our spiritual enemies are which does well when spoken by mighty; and they shew their suctheir seniors, and under circum- cess, if they can make us laugh stances which apparently authorize when we ought to be too sober. deviations from a regular course, is minded to yield to the influences of perfectly unjustifiable and untimely, levity. We may undervalue the when bandied about, at second hand, gifts of the Spirit, when we think







we are shewing our humility; and persons on spiritual matters either call men to be diverted by the spec- sooner or further than as the Spirit tacle.

of God (which bloweth when and where it lists) would be resisted in me if I held my tongue. Secondly, be

cause it is but deluding the persons I

Divine speak to, and helping them to be LIFE, BY THE REV. WILLIAM LAW.

content with an imaginary falsehood,

should I, as a spiritual assistant, To the Editor of the Christian Observer. speak to them of any thing but that

which is their own evil and their own The following is a copy of an unpublished autograph letter from the good. For true edification arises author of the Serious Call” to the only from such knowledge, and not Rev. John Ryland of Northampton,

from devout harangues on the spifather of the late Dr. Ryland of ritual life in general, though set forth Bristol. In this day of garrulous in the most enlivened words. The spireligious profession it may furnish ritual life is nothing else but the worksome useful considerations, though, ing of the Spirit of God within us ; perhaps, your readers may also think and therefore our own silence must be it open to some exception. There a great part of our preparation for it : is a time to be silent; but there is and much speaking, or a delight in it, also a time to speak; and there is will be often no small hindrance of occasionally danger of mistaking the that good, which we can only have one for the other.

from hearing what the Spirit and J. E. R.

voice of God speaketh within us. “ Sir,-Your packet I received, This is not enough known by reliand the letters i delivered as di- gious persons: they rejoice in kindling rected; but I am sorry you sent so a fire of their own, and delight too many


your Plans, because neither much in hearing their own voices, the ladies nor myself know how to and so lose that inward unction from dispose of any for your advantage.

above which alone can new-create “ I am glad you have so worthy their hearts. a gentleman for your boarder; and “ To speak with the tongues of if any thing I have wrote has helped men or angels on religious matters, to beget, or increase, the desire of his is a much less thing than to know heart towards God, I shall be as how to stay the mind upon God, and thankful to God for it as he can be. abide with him in the closet of our As to your intention of a visit here, I hearts, observing, loving, adoring, can say nothing to encourage it: and obeying his holy power within and though my countenance would Rhetoric and fine language have no forbidding airs put on by about the things of the Spirit, is a myself, yet, as old age has given me

vainer babble than in other matters. her own countenance, I might per- And he that thinks to grow in true haps bear the blame of it.

goodness by hearing or speaking “But my chief objection against a Haming words or striking expresvisit of this kind is the reason which sions (as is now much the way of you give for it-namely, for my the world), may have a great deal of instructive conversation on spiritual talk, but will have little of his conlife. An appointment for religious versation in heaven. conversation has a taking sound, and “I have wrote very largely on passes for a sign of great progress the spiritual life; and he that has in goodness. But with regard to my- read, and likes it, has of all men the self, such a meeting would rather least reason to ask me any questions make me silent, than a speaker in it. about, or visit me on that occasion. First, because I hurt myself, and am He understands not my writings or only acting a part, if I speak to the end of them, who does not see Christ. Observ. No. 356.



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that their whole drift is to call all “ His death dissolved a veteran and Christians to a God and Christ with- adventurous army, which included, in them, as the only possible life, under the name of Carizmians, or light, and power of all goodness Corasmins, many Turkman hordes, they can ever have, and therefore as that had attached themselves to that much turn my readers from my. Sultan's fortune.... Part of these enself as from any other Lo here or gaged in the service of Aladin, sul. Lo there. I invited all people to the tan of Iconium ; and among them marriage of the Lamb, but no one to were the obscure fathers of the Ottomyself.

man line.... Orthogrul became the 'I am, with every good wish to soldier and subject of Aladin, and you and your friends, your hum- established at Surgut, on the banks ble servant,

W. Law.

of the Sangar, a camp of four hunMarch 28, 1760.

dred families, or tents, whom he governed fifty-two years, both in peace and war: he was the father of Othman, who possessed, and per

haps surpassed, the ordinary virtues (Concluded from p. 400.)

of a soldier; and the circumstances To the Editor of the Christian Observer. of time and place were propitious

to his independence and success. By the three causes mentioned at The Seljukian dynasty was the conclusion of


more, and the distance and decline career of the Turks was arrested for of the Mogul Khans soon enfrantwo centuries; and by the last men- chised him from the controul of a tioned cause in particular, the four superior. He was situate on the angels might be said to be bound upon verge of the Greek empire; the the great river Euphrates, if we refer Koran sanctified his gaze, or holy this last expression to the seat of war, against the infidels ; and their the power by which they were political errors unlocked the passes coerced and restrained, which was of Mount Olympus....It was on the the Tartar dynasty in Persia." The twenty-seventh of July, in the year fragments of the Seljukian monarchy twelve hundred and ninety-nine of (observes the historian) were dis- the Christian era, that Othman first puted by the Emirs who had occu- invaded the territory of Nicomedia ; pied the cities or the mountains; and the singular accuracy of the date but they all confessed the supre- seems to disclose some foresight of macy of the Khans of Persia ; and the rapid and destructive growth of he often interposed his authority, the monster"....(Gibbon, chap. Ixiv.) and sometimes his arms, to check From this point of time, so emphatheir depredations, and to preserve tically marked by the historian, the the peace

and balance of his Turkish Ottoman arms progressively enfrontier.” But this coercion on the croached upon the Greek empire, part of the Khans was but of short both in Asia and Europe, till the duration, and the Turkish power dominions of the Sultan not only revived under a new head. “ The comprised the whole of the territory death of Cazan, one of the greatest then remaining to the Greek em. and most accomplished princes of pire, but the whole of what had the house of Zingis, removed this ever belonged to that empire. In salutary controul; and the decline the course of a few years, of the Moguls gave a free scope to ritime country, from the Propontis the rise and progress of the Ottoman to the Mæander, and the Isle of empire ;” the origin of which Gib- Rhodes, so long threatened and so bon thus describes, after the vain often pillaged, were finally lost to struggle of Gelaleddin against the the Roman empire;” and from the overwhelming hordes of the Moguls: year 1312 may be dated the fall of

- the ma

the seven churches of Asia. “ In Capitol, and that Adrianople was the loss of Ephesus” (says Gibbon), chosen for the royal seat of his go" the Christians deplored the fall of vernment and religion in Europe.... the first angel, the extinction of Never till this fatal hour had the the first candlestick of the Revela- Greeks been surrounded, both in tions. The desolation is complete; Asia and Europe, by the arms of the and the temple of Diana, or the same hostile monarchy.” Nor did church of Mary, will equally elude Constantinople alone feel the power the search of the curious traveller. of Amurath ; " he marched against The circus and three stately theatres the Sclavonian nations between the of Laodicea are now peopled with Danube and the Adriatic, the Bulwolves and foxes ; Sardis is reduced garians, Servians, Bosnians, and to a miserable village; the God of Albanians; and these warlike tribes, Mohammed, without a rival or a son, who had so often insulted the mais invoked in the moschs of Thyatira jesty of the empire, were repeatedly and Pergamos ; and the populous- broken by his destruetive inroads, ness of Smyrna is supported by the A.D. 1360–89.... The character of foreign trade of the Franks and Bajazet I., the son and successor of Armenians. Philadelphia alone has Amurath, is strongly expressed in been saved, by prophecy or cou- his surname of Ilderim, or the light. rage ; ....she is still erect; a column ning; and he might glory in an in a scene of ruins ; a pleasing ex- epithet which was drawn from the ample that the paths of honour and fiery energy of his soul, and the rasafety may sometimes be the same.” pidity of his destructive march. In In the last year of Othman's reign the fourteen years of his reign, A.D. his son Orchan took Prusa, and from 1389-1403, he incessantly moved its conquest (the historian observes) at the head of his armies, from “ we may date the true era of the Prusa to Adrianople, from the Danube Ottoman empire....and the city, by to the Euphrates....From Angora to the labours of Orchan, assumed the Amasia and Erzeroam, the northern aspect of a Mohammedan capital.” regions of Anatolia were reduced to In 1353 the Turks were first impoli- his obedience ; he stripped of their tically introduced into Europe as allies hereditary possessions his brother of the Empire, and effected a settle- Emirs, of Ghermian and Caramania, ment there. “ Soliman, the son of of Aidin and Sarukhan ; and after Orchan, at the head of ten thousand the conquest of Iconium, the ancient horse, was transported in the vessels kingdom of the Seljukians again and entertained as the friend of the revived in the Ottoman dynasty. Greek Emperor. In the civil wars Nor were the conquests of Bajazet of Romania he performed some ser- less rapid or important in Europe. vice, and perpetrated more mischief; No sooner had he imposed a regular but the Chersonesus was insensibly form of servitude on the Servians filled with a Turkish colony, and and Bulgarians, than he passed the the Byzantine court solicited in vain Danube, to seek new enemies and the restitution of the fortresses of new subjects in the heart of MolThrace.” After this, we see the davia. Whatever yet adhered to the Turks advancing rapidly in the con- Greek empire in Thrace, Macedonia, quest of the European provinces of and Thessaly, acknowledged a Turk the empire. By the pale and ish master....He next turned his arms fainting light of the Byzantine an- against the kingdom of Hungary, nals" (says Gibbon),“we can discern the perpetual theatre of the Turkish that Amurath I., the brother of So- victories and defeats.... In the battle liman, subdued without resistance of Nicopolis, A.D. 1396, Bajazet dethe whole province of Romania, or feated a confederate army of an hunThrace, from the Hellespont to dred thousand Christians, who had Mount Hæmus, and the verge of the proudly boasted, that if the sky should fall they could uphold it on man, says Cantemir, obtained more their lances.... In the pride of victory, or greater victories ; Belgrade and Bajazet threatened that he would Constantinople alone withstood his besiege Buda; that he would sub- arms. The capture of the latter was, due the adjacent countries of Ger- however, only reserved to grace the many and Italy ; and that he would arms of his son Mahommed II. styled feed his horse with a bushel of oats by Gibbon“ the great destroyer.” on the altar of St. Peter at Rome.” “The conquest of two empires, (Gib, chap. lxiv.) This proud career twelve kingdoms, and two hundred was, indeed, arrested, and the fate cities, is ascribed to his invincible of Constantinople for a while sus- sword.” This Gibbon styles “a vain pended, by the advance of a still more and flattering account;” remarking, powerful conqueror. Tamerlane, that under his command the Otafter overrunning Turkistan, Persia, toman forces were always more nuRussia, and Hindostan, turned his merous than their enemies; that irresistible arms against the western their progress was bounded by the provinces of Asia ; and in the battle Euphrates and the Adriatic; and of Angora, in which Bajazet brought his arms were checked by Huniinto the field four hundred thousand ades and Scanderbeg, by the Rhomen, to oppose seven hundred thou- dian knights and by the Persian sand, the former underwent a total king.” This very remark, however, defeat, the whole of Anatolia was sufficiently discloses the actual exoverwhelmed by the Tartar hordes, tent of his dominion; and the reducand the narrow strait which divides tion of Constantinople, as the histoAsia from Europe alone prevented rian himself observes, has sealed the total overthrow of the Turkish his glory.” This was the great obempire. But this mighty conqueror, ject of his ambition, and, after mighlike Zingis Khan about two centu- ty preparations, was at length achievries before, resembled a portentous ed by him, A. D. 1453 ; and it is to meteor, which after a transient blaze be particularly observed, in reference totally disappears. Tamerlane with- to the prophecy, this his success is drew with his myriads of horse from in a great measure to be ascribed to the western to the eastern extremity the use of artillery. “Among the of Asia, to avenge in China the ex- implements of destruction,” (1 still pulsion of the Tartar dynasty *; and cite Gibbon), “he studied with pethe Turkish empire rose again from culiar care the recent and tremenits ruins : the massy trunk" (says dous discovery of the Latins, and Gibbon) “was bent to the ground; his artillery surpassed whatever had

sooner was the hurricane yet appeared in the world.” (Gib. passed away, than it again rose with chap. Ixviii.) By it he was enabled fresh vigour and more lively vege- to batter down those walls which tation.” After a period of civil wars, had defied all former attacks; and, the Turkish dominions in Europe after a valiant but ineffectual resistand Asia were again united, A.D. ance on the part of the emperor, the 1421, under Amurath II., a wise city fell a prey to the sword of the and valiant prince ; than whom no conqueror. “It was thus, after a siege

of fifty-three days, that Constanti* It may seem extraordinary that these nople, which had defied the power tremendous conquerors should not have of Chosroes, the Chagan, and the Cabeen noticed by the Spirit of prophecy; liphs, was irretrievably subdued by but it is to be remembered, that the Roman empire, or Christendom, is the

the arms of Mohammed II. Her em

peculiar subject of the Apocalyptic visions, pire only had been subverted by the and that the conquests of "Zingis Khan Latins; her religion was trampled in and Tamerlane but little affected that the dust by the Moslem conquerors." empire, and, in effect, that they rather protracted the existence of the Eastern

-The foregoing sketch of the origin empire, than hastened its downlal. and progress of the Ottoman power,

but no

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