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to the capture of Constantinople, the great river Euphrates, inasmuch may perhaps suffice for the informa- as it arose in the western parts of tion of the reader. The history of Anatolia ; to this it may be replied, the Decline and Fall of the Roman first, that it was, strictly speaking, a Empire, from which this sketch has continuation or revival of the Seljubeen taken, now fails us ; but it can kian dynasty ;-secondly, that the be hardly necessary to trace the his- expression (as was before observed) tory further. Once seated upon the may as properly be applied to the imperial throne of the Cæsars, the binding power, as to the power bound; Turkish sultan assumed a new name -thirdly, that the expression, the and character among the kings of great river Euphrates (as has been the earth, and his empire attained also observed), may be understood to such a colossal magnitude as to symbolically, rather than literally, become for upwards of two centuries that is, as merely denoting the eastern the scourge and terror of Christen- boundary of the Greek Empire.dom. Few, probably, will therefore Again, it may be thought that the doubt of the propriety of applying to description of the number of the it the prophecy of the second woe- armies of the horsemen-namely, two trumpet.

We cannot believe that myriads of myriads—is rather apan event so vitally affecting the plicable to the Turkman hordes at an Roman empire and the Christian earlier period, than to the Ottoman church should have been omitted in armies; but the historic sketch the Apocalyptic visions, and the given above shews plainly that these sixth trumpet is the only one which hordes were scattered over the plains, can be understood as announcing it. not only of Persia, but of the whole There may be some difficulties in the of Anatolia ; that they preserved their interpretation, but the application character and habits of life; and seems upon the whole irresistible. that from them were supplied the

It may be asked, how the four Spahis, or Asiatic cavalry, of the Otangels can be justly considered as toman armies : and the single fact, emblematical of the Ottoman power, that, of the four hundred thousand which sprung up in the sultany of men whom Bajazet brought into the Iconium alone : but this difficulty field of Angora, above three hundred may be, perhaps, sufficiently obviated thousand appear to have been this by the consideration, that the sym- species of cavalry, may appear to be bol

may be rather designed to cha- a sufficient confutation of this objecracterize the power generally, which tion. But there is, however, another was the subject of the vision, than difficulty behind, which I must conas pointing out the particular branch fess myself unable to clear up, and of that power which was to be the that is, the want of evidence to shew instrument of the woe; and that no that fire-arms were in use among the more distinctive character could be Turkish cavalry on the invasion of given of the Turkish power after it the empire by the Ottomans. One had been split into the four sulta- peculiarity, which characterized the nies. Similarly we see the four horses in the vision, was, that out of horns of the he-goat denote the Ma- their mouths issued fire, and smoke, cedonian Empire, after the first nota- and brimstone ; and that by these ble horn had been broken, and that three was the third part of men killed, empire divided into four kingdoms; by the fire, and by the smoke, and by and in like manner, the beast with the brimstone, which issued out of seven heads and ten horns used to their mouths. Now, as it seems plain symbolize the Roman Empire of the that the discovery and use of gunwest, after it was dismembered by the powder is here alluded to, so it apGoths, &c. If it should be further pears from history that this destrucobjected, that the Ottoman power tive discovery was applied to the could not be said to be bound upon purposes of war about the middle of the fourteenth century, and was in vision, plainly designates the venom common use among the nations of of false religion, which was enforced Europe before the close of that cen- - by the sword wherever the Turkish tury; and the Turks appear to have conquests extended; and which is employed a Dane or Hungarian of the represented by a symbol in the viname of Urban, to cast the battering sion of the Saracenic locusts. The train by which they were enabled to poison is seated in the tail, to indieffect breaches in the walls of Con- cate that it followed the success of stantinople; and to this, expositors their arms: as in the following vision, generally refer the words of the pro- of the woman and man-child, the phecy. But it must naturally pre- great red dragon is described as drawsent itself to the mind of the intel- ing with his tail a third part of the ligent reader, that this interpretation stars of heaven.- Lastly, with redoes not explain the appearance of spect to the commencement and terthe fire issuing outof the horses’mouths, mination of the woe, different dates which seems evidently to intimate may be assigned, and different readers that fire-arms were used by the Turk- may prefer one or the other. The ish cavalry. Now of this I can find prophetic period of its duration is no historical evidence; or, I ought distinctly limited to an hour and a rather to say, that small arms do not day and a month and a year, i.e. appear to have been brought to suffi- (as was before observed) three huncient perfection in Europe to be used dred and ninety-one years and fifon horseback, till some time after teen days. Those who, on the authe capture of Constantinople. The thority of Cantimer, date the decline subject is, however, beset with much of the Turkish power, from its conobscurity, and the words of the pro- quest of Camenice in Poland, in 1672, phecy may perhaps be legitimately fix the commencement of the period applied to the use of fire-arms by the at the taking of Kutahi by Ortogrul, Turks at a later period of their con- in 1281. This exposition is not saquests? The other parts of the pro- tisfactory to my mind, because I do phetic description appear to have been not see how the woe can be prosufficiently cleared up. In regard to perly said to have terminated in 1672, the breastplates of the horsemen, I when eleven years afterwards we see willingly quote Bishop Newton: “In the Grand Vizier traversing Hunthe vision, that is, in appearance, and gary, and besieging Vienna itself not in reality, they had breastplates of with a powerful army, and the infire, and of jacinth or hyacinth, and habitants of that capital, with the brimstone. The colour of fire is red, imperial family itself, flying in disof hyacinth blue, and of brimstone may for safety in all directions; and yellow: and this, as Mr. Daubuz ob- again, A. D. 1690, another Vizier serves, “ hath a literal accomplish- taking Nissa, Widin, and even Belment; for the Othmans, from the grade, after a bloody siege, and subfirst time of their appearance, have jecting all the Hungarian territories affected to wear such warlike apparel beyond the Teisse. If, on the other of scarlet, blue, and yellow.' Of the hand, we fix the termination of the Spahis particularly, some have red woe at so late a date as the fatal and some have yellow standards, and battle of Zenta, in which the Sultan others red or yellow mixt with other in person was utterly defeated by colours. In appearance, too, the heads Prince Eugene; or, two years later, of the horses were as the heads of lions, at the treaty of Carlowitz, by which to denote their strength, courage, and several of the Turkish conquests fierceness.” The next distinguishing were ceded, and its power for ever mark of the horses in the vision, was, restrained; it is difficult to discover that their tails were like unto serpents, any prominent epoch, corresponding and had heads, and with them they do to either date, from which to comhurt. The symbol, as used in the mence the prophetic period.

It apo

pears to me, that the successful campaign of the Turks in Hungary, just QUERY ON EDUCATION IN SHEFFIELD. mentioned. A. D. 1690, may with the most propriety be considered To the Editor of the Christian Observer. as closing the victorious career of Mr. Best observes, in his excellent the Turkish arms; for in the next volume of sermons noticed in your and succeeding campaigns they un

last number, that “ more juvenile derwent a series of defeats; and the offenders are committed for trial attempt made by Mustapha, in 1697, from the town of Sheffield than to retrieve the honour of his arms, from any other town in the county.". was but a last expiring effort, and in one of your former numbers I totally unsuccessful. Now, if we fix find it stated, that the clergy of the close of the Turkish woe at this Sheffield bear an honourable chacampaign, the prophetic hour and racter for piety, and a zealous attenday and month and year carry us tion to their duties; and Sheffield is precisely back to the date so singu- proverbial for the education of the larly marked out by Gibbon-name- children of the poor, especially by ly, the twenty-seventh of July in the means of Sunday-schools. Whence, year twelve hundred and ninety; then, the fact noticed by Mr. Best ? nine, when Othman first invaded The returns of our school-societies the territory of Nicomedia ; and of amply prove, that, among the lists which he makes this striking obser- of those who are tried for offences vation, that “the singular accuracy against the laws, very few have reof the date seems to disclose some

ceived the elements of mental cultiforesight of the rapid and destructive vation—(see, for instance, the congrowth of the monster.” But, which- vincing statements, relative to the ever of the foregoing dates be pre- late trials of the rioters in the southferred by the reader, he can hardly ern counties, in the British and Fofail to acknowledge the accurate ful. reign School Society's paper affixed filment of the prophecy. On the to your number for last May.) How, closing declaration of the prophecy, then, are we to account for the fact that all these Divine judgments should announced by Mr. Best? It deserves be ineffectual as to the reform of the to be fairly inquired into; because rest of the Christian church, I can

such statements are eagerly laid not do better than cite the words of hold of by the enemies of popular Bishop Newton. “Though the Greek education, but I am convinced withchurch was thus ruined and oppress, out justice; for I feel sure, that, if the ed, the rest of men, who were not killed case of the juvenile offenders in by these plagues, the Latin church, Sheffield be fairly inquired into, it which pretty well escaped these will prove, that, whoever or whatever calamities, yet repented not of the may be in fault, it is not Scriptural works of their hands, that they should education, or the faithful pulpit or not worship devils (@arporia, demons, private ministrations of pious clergyor second mediatory gods, saints, and Still the apparent anomaly angels) and idols of gold, and silver, deserves investigation; and the reand bruss, and stone, and wood, which sult, I doubt not, will be to encouneither can see, nor hear, nor walk:

rage the friends of instruction, as sineither repented they of their mur- milar investigations elsewhere have ders, their persecutions and inquisi- uniformly done. tions ; nor of their sorceries, their pretended miracles and revelations nor of their fornication, their public uncleanness; nor of their ihefts, their exactions and impositions on mankind.”

D. M. P.

men.

A MEMBER OF VARIOUS

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EDUCATION SOCIETIES.

SERMON.

of God, and more and more to disTHE BISHOP OF BRISTOL'S MISSIONARY cern and appreciate the excellency

of his works and the designs of his To the Editor of the Christian Observer. government, must render the re

membrance of every demonstration Having observed in your pages many of faith, and of every good work done notices of the proceedings of the in the flesh, a subject of unceasing Society for the Propagation of the delight to those who shall be perGospel, I the more wonder that it mitted to stand before our Lord when has not occurred to you to look over He shall have pronounced judgment the sermons prefixed to the society's on their fidelity, in whose commenAnnual Reports, and some of which dation there must indeed be the fulcontain sentiments far from scrip- ness of joy.” tural, and such as it does not become Now I would ask, with all due rea Christian missionary institution to spect to the character and station of put forth. I was induced, by the the Right Reverend author, is this a perusal of the interesting summary scriptural view of the only foundation of the Society's last year's proceed- of human hope? What is meant by ings in your pages, to refer to the “ the covenanted promise of a resurreport itself, and to the Bishop of rection to eternal life to those who Bristol's sermon prefixed to it. The serve God in faith and righteoussermon being published, istaken from ness?” Is this mode of expression that range of privilege against stric- compatible with the doctrine that tures from the press which I should we are justified freely by faith, and be disposed in general to claim for accounted righteous before God only pulpit addresses ; but I am not in- for the merits of our Lord Jesus clined to offer any minute critique Christ? Are not“ faith” and “ righon it, especially as it contains much teousness" put altogether out of their that is instructive and excellent, and relative places? When the Jailor the whole is penned in a devout and asked, “What must I do to be serious spirit, becoming so moment- saved;" did the Apostle reply, “You ous a subject as that of the propa- must serve God in faith and rightegation of Christianity throughout the ousness ? " No; he said “Believe in world.

the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou But, to speak with the freeness shalt be saved :” the “serving God” which the solemnity of the doctrines and growth in “righteousness” were of salvation demand, whatever may fruits of faith, and not its precurbe the quarter in which they are er- The being “ saved ” was preroneously stated, it does not appear dicated of believing, and not of servto me that the basis on which the ing; though equally true it is, that sermon under consideration is con- real faith necessarily brings forth structed is scriptural. I cannot ade- good works; and that if any man say quately illustrate my meaning by that he has faith, and has not works, particular passages, as the discourse such faith cannot save him. And is by no means so obviously erro- where are we told in Scripture that neous as many of those of the same “moral and intellectual attainschool; but one or two expressions ments' may “ enable us to look may furnish a clue to the system with humble confidence to the apupon which the whole is founded; probation of Almighty God?” Our as for example : “ The covenanted Saviour spoke very differently, when promise of a resurrection to eternal he taught us, after all we have done, life, to those who serve God in faith to confess ourselves unprofitable serand righteousness : and again; vants, not challenging “approba“ Intellectual and moral attainments tion,” but pleading for mere mercy. which may enable us to look with The Pharisee looked with confidence, humble confidence to the approbation but, alas! in vain, to his attainments

sors.

our

BENEFITS OF PRIVATE MEANS OF

GRACE IN PARISHES.

for the approbation of God;" but faith, but it is practically paraphrased it was he who said, “Lord be merci- into self-reliance. The trumpet gives ful to me, a sinner,” that went down an uncertain sound ; and, in place of to his house justified, and not the such plain, distinct statements as those other. What the Right Reverend of the Inspired Writers, or, I might Prelate intends by our "intellectual” add, of our own Reformers, we have attainments having any share in en- such vague expressions as the above, abling us to calculate on the appro- which may be construed with a furbation of God, I cannot even conjec- ther or lesser remove from orthoture. That our

“moral” attain- doxy, according to the taste of the ments may lead us to cherish such a reader, but usually with the lowest confidence, is unhappily a very com- measure which they will permit. mon, though a very unscriptural,

CRANMER. opinion ; but that our intellectual attainments, though they were equal to those of Voltaire himself, can have any share in securing the approbation of God, is a notion as

To the Editor of the Christian Observer. peculiar as it is unfounded.

I would submit the inquiry, whe- In your Number for February a ther sentiments like the above are correspondent asks, Is it true that not an exemplification of the effort Dissent decreases where, in addition to combine in one claim, what St. to public services, the active priPaul teaches us to keep wholly dis- vate means of spiritual edification are tinct. He tells us that salvation is used in the Establishment? I hereeither wholly of grace, or wholly with beg to transmit to you the acof works; it cannot, he says, be of count of the effects of such means both. The Gospel teaches us that it in the parish where the plan named is of the former : that we are justi- in my former communication is in fied freely, by faith, and not for our full operation. It is written by own works.

Natural religion, so the minister of the parish; and to called, leads us erroneously to the opi- his statement I only wish to add, nion that it is of the latter, and that that in several other parishes, where a man may justly cherish confidence similar plans have been instituted, of being accepted with God in pro- similar results have followed ; and I portion to his own supposed good- have not been able to find one counness. The system to which I am ad- try parish, where the system is at verting seems to wish to unite both. work, in which the Church has not As though it said, It were too bold, been materially strengthened and it were unphilosophical, it were dan- Dissent diminished. It is possible gerous to good morals, to say, “Be- that in towns, under some peculiar lieve in the Lord Jesus Christ, and circumstances, this may not be the thou shalt be saved ;” and it were case ; but, in general, Dissent will equally contrary to the Gospel to never make progress where the mileave out faith altogether, and to nisters of the Establishment do their place our confidence before God duty, by teaching the people the wholly in our own righteousness: truth of the Gospel, not only pubtherefore let there be a compromise. licly, but from house to house. Hence has arisen such vague lan- Circumstances may make it necesguage as that above objected to. The sary for the plans used in one parish scriptural scheme is, the vicarious to differ from those in another; but merits of the Saviour; faith in those without some private means, and merits; and holiness of lifespringing some plan of lay co-operation, it is from faith. The neutralized scheme impossible that the spiritual interests begins with the end, and ends with of the people can be properly at: the beginning: the naked creed is tended to. My friend's plan may Christ. OBSERV. No. 356.

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