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trivance the tread-wheel, when lightly remedies for our defects; and, haploaded with work and heavily loaded pily, some of them are now doing so with majorities, would run round with great propriety and wisdom. with ruinous speed, and endanger But others fear changes, even useful the limbs and lives of its occupants. changes: and so must we all; for in Now it was the wisdom of our an- this changeful world even what is cestors to provide fly-wheels and useful in itself may by accident be governors in abundance: in modern dangerous ; schools may be dangerdays we prefer speed and high pres- ous, and reading, and mechanics' sure : each has its benefits and its institutes, and political privilege, and inconveniences, and between them alms-houses, and hospitals, and Bible both I hope we shall go on safely, societies, and even the ministry of if not smoothly. I see not how, on the Gospel itself may become a sathe principles of some of our divines vour of death unto death instead of and statesmen, we could ever have life unto life: but all this ought not emerged from the slough of Popery: to deter a good man from doing his I see not, on the principles--I use duty in each particular instance as the word by courtesy—of others, we it arises, leaving the result in faith could have avoided the utter rejec- and submission to an all-wise Dition of every form and recognition rector. Out of the nettle Danger of religion. I am thankful, there- we are to pluck the flower Safety ; fore, to those who, when they see and I pray that it may please God, us rushing down hill, have the pru- in his infinite mercy, at this serious dence to offer a curb and drag, juncture to guide our rulers in while others are clamouring only for church and state how to do so. spurs and oil. We are thus at least

I was speaking of the devastations allowed time to pause and breathe ; which have happened to the good and if, after all, the vehicle is per- city of Winchester; some of them of mitted to proceed, it will probably modern infliction. Bishop Mant, in be with more safety than if no such his Life and Works of Thomas precaution had been employed. Ap- Warton, thirty years ago lamented ply all this, my good friend, to cer- some of the ravages which had octain pending matters respecting our curred even in his then young mevenerable Church, and you will fully mory. “I was much disappointed,” comprehend the moral which I would he says, “when I paid a visit to the wish to elicit. A large part of the King's House, lately converted into public, including some of our states- barracks, at being able to discover men, under the name of ecclesiastical scarcelyany traces of those vast masses reform, would precipitate us into of ruin which had often astonished utter ruin : the Church of England and delighted me when a boy: and at could not survive their plans an hour, finding, instead of the craggy hill on and with it would perish not a little which they stood, a spacious and that is religious and holy among us; level area, capable of parading three and I fear no instrument of equal thousand men.” “Surely,” adds moral and spiritual benefit would he," it is but reasonable to regret, take its place. To prevent this ac- that in the conduct of modern imknowledged and most serious evil, provements regard is not always ought good men, and especially had to the monuments of ancient art, ought our bishops and clergy, to which, independently of other conbecome merely a drag upon the siderations to recommend them, wheels ? Ought they to countenance are peculiarly valuable as the best, abuses, and to resist salutary amend- and as it were living, historians of ments, lest what is good should ancient manners.” Every person of perish with what is evil? I think warm feelings will echo this sentinot. They ought, I conceive, to be ment; and yet the utilitarian may the foremost to discover and propose not unfairly ask in return, Why retain heaps of cumbersome rubbish, valuable relics of antiquity, which “vast masses of ruins,” which oc- might like this have been spared, cupy space and absorb materials that not only without inconvenience but might be converted to valuable pur- with the general concurrence, have poses ? Are not the modern dwell- not been so fortunate. The public ings which have been erected where taste or benefit is seldom any match stood the no longer needed walls of for private intrigue or cupidity. I this city, and for which these massy almost believe, were it not for the ruins furnished an ample quarry, a public press, which prematurely lets considerable addition to human con- out secrets, that if some wealthy venience; and ought this to have goldsmith of London coveted the been foregone for the sake of a mere Monument to adorn his peach indulgence of curiosity, as “ histo- garden, he might secure it by only rians of ancient manners ? ” There adroitly contriving his machinery, must, in truth, be a fair compromise grounded on a pliable surveyor's rebetween antiquarianism and utility. port that the edifice was insecure I would not scruple, in spite of all the dry rot in the timbers, if it had the venerable heroes of the Gentle- any—the ground valuable for a man's Magazine, to pull down an old, crane or warehouse—and the purawkward, insufficient church, if the chase-money convenient for the purreligious wants of the people re- poses of the Corporation. Jobbing quired a larger and more commo- runs throughout our public transacdious structure; or to get rid even tions; we are a nation of jobbers; of a cumbersome city-gate, which, and hence the public, constantly though very useful to quarrelsome over-reached, are always, and often Normans or Saxons, happened to be very unjustly, suspicious. Churchan hourly annoyance to thousands building, that necessary and imof the loyal lieges of King William portant object, is popularly conthe Fourth. But the evil is, that the sidered as mere jobbing : the parson, decision in these matters seldom falls or the patron, ora select vestryman, it to persons both disinterested and is supposed, has a clerical friend to qualified to pronounce a wise judg- oblige; or the churchwarden has a ment. There was a grievous dis- cousin a builder, or an acquaintturbance a few years since, in this ance an architect or surveyor : and very city of Winchester, by the li- thus the best things get a bad name. cence given by a Paving Act, under I wish that the promoters of new the ample powers of which the Vandals churches had in

instance taken of commissioners sold the venerable the most effectual means of remarket-cross, that curious specimen pelling these charges of private inof the style of architecture of the trigue or interest, by a disinterested reign of Henry the Sixth, to a neigh- attention to every meritorious claim, bouring gentleman, to pull down to never making what was meant for adorn his garden. The workmen public utility a source of private pahad actually begun the attack, and tronage. Take, for example, the purin a few days nothing would have chase of the advowson by Governbeen left of that long-boasted orna- ment of Mary-le-bone parish for ment of the city, with its three sto nearly fifty thousand pounds, and the ries, canopied niches, arches, pin- appointment to the new churches nacles, crosses, effigy of St. Lau- erected in it of persons wholly unrence, the Roman deacon, and patron known to the parish. Dr. Hume of the parish in which it stands, had Spry was, indeed, a public man, as not the citizens risen in a body, and having written zealously against the by force of arms expelled the in- Bible Society; and Dr. Dibden, as vaders, and obliged the commissioners having diligently illustrated biblioto revoke the grant. Many other mania and black-letter ; but what was this to the inhabitants of Mary, the Regent's Park; but they genele-bone? I mention this particular rate no mental associations; none, at parish, because it is the largest, and least, of a picturesque order, though perhaps the most wealthy, in the many of far more important and fearkingdom; and not from any dis- fully tremendous interest, especially respect to individuals: their personal in relation to the immortal beings recommendations might be great ; who inhabit them. But, still, all is they perhaps were so, and in some modern; it scents of the varnish, instances I know they were -I mean and the gloss is fresh upon it. The no disparagement to any ;-but even American revolution itself is not old if the parties concerned were the best enough to raise the kind of emotions parish priests in England, would any of which I write ; and I question thing persuade the people of Mary-le- whether Bishop Hobart, zealous rebone that there was no favouritism in publican as he was, did not feel more setting over them strangers, whose when the Archbishop of Canterbury friends happened to be powerful with told him at Lambeth Palace that the Cabinet of the day, while those they were walking in the avenue who had solid local claims, and where Archbishop Laud was wont the parochial suffrage, were passed to converse and meditate on the over as unworthy of notice ? Our affairs of church and state, than when new churches ought more especially he mounted Bunker's Hill, or boardto be free from all interested pa- ed a steam-boat on the Brandywine. tronage, since they are built by the Mr. Utilitarian Hume might perpublic for public purposes, and chiefly haps evince livelier sympathy on in dense neighbourhoods, where the seeing a real working Lancashire very circumstance of their erection power-loom than if he discovered a proves that the people needed in- fac-simile of one amidst the ruins of structors known as men of piety, Persepolis; and the philosopher would and active zeal, and diligent pastoral in one sense be right; but why should habits. The plan pursued in most of not the amenities of life and litethese new churches, of making the rature also have their place? If the payment of the clergyman's stipend roof of Westminster Abbey were in depend in whole or in part upon the danger of falling in, and a hundred pew rents, though in many respects pounds would repair it, Mr. Hunt a very undesirable mode of clerical would weary his parliamentary audiremuneration, has, however, this ad- tors, and Mr. Cobbett inflame his vantage, that it renders these ap- town and country radical readers, pointments no sinecure, and by no with tirades on the profligacy of means an eligible incumbency to any such a grant, and its inhumanity, clergyman who does not intend to when the sum to be voted would devote himself to the duties of his furnish a meal to thousands of staryprofession.


ing Irishmen. And that is true; and The King's House, or palace, and if either a hundred families, or a the adjoining ruins, suggest those single individual, would be famished affecting lessons of the mutations of in consequence of such a vote, or the every thing human which are so im- world really beone particle the worse, pressively exhibited in our ancient barbarous and unchristian would it cities, and which add so greatly to be ; but who does not see the fallacy the emotions with which we behold of the whole objection? I need not them. Our American friends are pursue it, otherwise I might even much struck with this, in visiting go so far as to reduce the whole to England. New York or Boston is a utilitarianism itself, and thus meet thing of to-day: we gaze at it only our philosophers on their own ground. as we gaze at Manchester or Brigh- If I advance to higher ground, the ton, or as we admire the terraces in argument rises with it; as you see


The massy

in the case of the temple at Jeru- new palace, he pulled down the ansalem, and the tabernacle in the wil. cient castle which occupied its site, derness, and all the mementos and how many like him had there sported relics of antiquity so often referred and trifled life away; how many had to in the sacred writings.

rendered it terrific with wars and Let philosophers philosophize; but bloodshed; and how many, in the why are not moral philosophizings as varied forms of self-seeking worldly reasonable as those that are merely utilitarianism, under its tripartite physical? And no man more needs division of the lusts of the flesh, the them than a frigid utilitarian. Let him lusts of the eye, and the pride of come, with his short-sighted matter- life, had there filled up their meaof-fact speculations, and here, in sure, both of good and evil, and these very ruins, is another plain gone to their account? matter-of-fact which throws a sombre walls which he subverted had been hue over them all; for they who de- heaped together by William the vised and completed what are now Conqueror, to keep in subjection his the wrecks around us, were perhaps metropolis of Winchester. There also in their day utilitarians. Yonder Stephen and Maud had fiercely King's House was the work of that contended; and there for successive sensual utilitarian Charles the Second, ages was exhibited every scene that who meant it for the scene of all he chequers the history of a semi-barcared to know of utility—pleasure; barous court. Every stone in its and ordered it to be completed walls might have read, to a worse without regard to cost; and Wren antiquary than Charles, such moniplanned the magnificent fabric, which tory lessons as it were well for him was to range from north to south to have learned; in order that, surthree hundred and twenty-six feet; rounded with the wreck of all that and marble pillars were in readiness, had gone before him—the ruins of the gift of the Grand Duke of Tus- earthly pomp and glory, of beauty cany; and there was every conve- and chivalry, of whatever was splennience, even to that of two chapels- did in the magnificence of princely as the queen, a Papist, could not wor- state or pontifical devotion—he ship with her worthy husband, in might so number his days as to courtesy called a Protestant;-and apply his heart to heavenly wisdom. nothing, in short, was wanting to But he learned not the lesson : he render it all he wished, but that hu- had his day of probation, and will man life should be certain, and have his day of final account: he human affairs unchangeable, and hu- tried much the same experiments as man pleasures without alloy. But, Solomon tried before him, and proalas ! none of these desiderata were bably found, like him, that the reprocurable; and after two years, sult was vanity and vexation of spirit. during which the work proceeded I would earnestly hope, what, howwith ardour, a stop was put to it by ever, I fear history does not allow the death of its projector ; who, me to believe, that he had come to the amidst all his calculations, seems to same practical conclusion :

“ Fear have forgotten that most certain of God, and keep his commandments, all events—death, and after death for that is the whole " (our transthe judgment. And thus, amidst his lators supply the word duty,' but fond schemes of princely enjoyment, privilege and happiness would do surrounded by flatterers, and the as well, and should at least be ministers of his debasing gratifica- added] “ of man.”—It would have tions, and the enriched and be-titled mortified Charles to have foreseen victims of his licentiousness, perished the fate of his luxurious palace. I this mighty master of the art of hap- do not know what became of it till piness-making. But did he never the Seven Years' War last century, think, when, to make room for his when it was made a depôt for French

prisoners. It was afterwards con- I have hopes, grounded supremely verted into barracks; then given up upon the mercy of God, and suborto the emigrant French priests; and dinately, as a means of prevention, again relapsed into barracks; for upon the calamities which all the which it seems well adapted, being nations of Europe, more or less, feel lofty, and spacious, and airy, and in consequence of so many years of suburban, and furnished with every hostility, and on the knowledge, now convenience for military practice. widely diffused, of the best interests As an object in the landscape, just of states, and the incompatibility of look at it on its steep ascent, studded war with human happiness. I augur with its innumerable windows, and something also from free trade and crowning with its conspicuous range political economy. Great Britain the horizon of the city. But it was at least, I am sure, ought to be one only to notice its moralities that I vast Peace Society; and, were it reminded you of it. Its halls are from no better motive than worldly now silent; it is not occupied even interest, to echo both temporally and as barracks: grass grows on its spiritually the anthem of the natiparade, except where a solitary cen- vity,“ Glory to God in the highest ; tinel with monotonous pace wears and on earth peace, good will toaway a narrow track. When my wards men.” little ones climbed with me its serene On the south side of the King's altitudes, I could not but bless God House were seen, till of late, the that their infancy and youth had not proud masses, noticed by Bishop been cradled, like ours, in an era of Mant, of the Norman Conqueror's blood, when, though the sword castle, while even now its fosse and passed not through our land, its mound exhibit somewhat of its oncegleamings flashed on us from afar; boasted strength and security. Northit pierced our widows and orphans ward is St. Stephen's Chapel, now through those they most loved : the County hall, and far-famed for even our rural retreats echoed with its pseudo Arthur's Round Table; but, martial clangour; every roof covered though certainly not king Arthur's, a warrior, and on every side were it can boast of age sufficient to saseen the dreadful preparatives for tisfy a somewhat voracious antidesolation and death. Our younger quary, for it cannot be many cenmen and women scarcely recollect turies short of a thousand years old; this ; may they never witness its and Henry the Eighth exhibited it recurrence! Oh, my friend, what to the Emperor Charles as undoubtdo we owe to the Author of all our edly Arthur's. There is a panegyric mercies for this present breathing on this table by Thomas Warton, of peace! Alas, how little have we who celebrated every thing Wintonimproved it! and how lightly do ensian, from Mons Catherinæsome among us speak of it! as if

(Aerii Catherina jugi quà vertice summo they almost sighed again for the Danarum veteres fossas, immania castra, * confused noise of the warrior and Et circumducti servat vestigia valli, garments rolled in blood.” When Wiccamicæ mos est pubi, celebrare pawill nations calling themselves

læstras, &c. &c.) Christian cease to be led away to the city play-house and shambles with that glaring meteor falsely —both under one roof—where, called glory! Is it no glory to Divided only by one flight of stairs make peace, to preserve peace, and The monarch swaggers and the butcher even to sacrifice much for peace ? I think that our generation was suf- Laureate Warton's poetry, and ficiently sickened with the horrors the poetry of other admired writers and the entailed results of war; the of his day, will not bear inspection next generation, I fear, may be less side by side with the poetry of our in terror of so great a calamity. But own age. Who now-a-days would

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