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read such tame versification as the any other preferment.” Bishop following, on the above castle and Mant, I am sure, would be among antique relic?
the first to teach his clergy, that, if a “ Where Venta's Norman castle still up- village cure is not a sphere for the Its rafter'd hall, that o'er the grassy foss display of abilities, it is eminently And scatter'd flinty fragments, clad in
so for the exemplification of quali
ties of infinitely higher importance; On yonder steep in naked state appears, for those graces of the Holy Spirit, Old' Arthur's board; on the capacious without which knowledge is vain.
round Some British pen has sketch'd the names
Mr. Warton's professed commission renown'd,
as a Christian minister, like that of In marks obscure, of his immortal peers; the Apostle St. Paul, was “ to open with a few more lines, informing us, the blind eyes, and to turn men from that, though this gorgeous board, darkness to light and from the with its stout oaken planks, and its power of Satan unto God, that they figure of Arthur and his twenty-four might receive an inheritance among mettlesomeknights, has become time. them that are sanctified through worn, yet its heroes shall live in the faith that is in Christ.” But I will page of Spenser; which Mr. Mant venture to say, that there is not a in his notes illustrates by a similar single line in either of the two vosentiment in Ovid's Elegy on Ti- lumes now before me which indicates bullus.
that such a notion had ever entered As you do not restrict me, my into Mr. Warton's mind, or that he dear friend, to a very nice adherence did otherwise than perpetrate a soto any thesis, I shall trespass on you lemn mockery when he professed with a notice or two from the vo- himself called by the Holy Ghost lumes out of which I have just copied to take upon him the office of the the above stanzas. The names of sacred ministry. In the language of Mant and of the Wartons are quite Bishop Mant's own Bampton Lecsufficient links to attach the matter tures, whatever may be our several to Winchester.
views of baptismal regeneration, he The two Wartons were both in did not evidence the slightest sign their day, some forty to eighty years of renovation," or conversion." ago, considered very respectable He took orders as a matter of course, kind of clergymen; but I confine my and with as little serious thought, I remarks to Thomas, the Laureate, fear, of the solemnity of his office, as and Poetry Professor at Oxford. if he had been articled to a scrivener. Bishop Mant was a young man, and He lived a life of decent classical not in orders, when he wrote his Life entertainment ; laughed, smoked, and edited his Poems; a circum- gossipped; and composed verses hustance in fairness to be mentioned, morous, sentimental, and descripas the work is not altogether of such tive, in Latin and English; and wrote a character as the editor of the works of biography, topography, Christian Knowledge Family Bible criticism, and history; but as a miwould perhaps have selected some nister of Christ he did, so far as we years after for his clerical labours. know, nothing—that is, nothing But even then Mr. Mant felt some really, earnestly, honestly, and from apology necessary for his hero, con- the heart, and beyond the mere rousidered in his capacity of a minister tine of what the bare necessities of of Christ. “In the exercise of his his “ profession” demanded. Let profession as a divine,” he says, “ I me just recite to you what Mr. Mant do not understand that Mr. Warton himself says on this subject : was much distinguished. A retired “ The Bishop of Gloucester (Dr, village church is not a theatre likely Huntingford) has represented Mr. to bring forward the abilities of its Warton as strongly attached to the minister, and Mr. Warton had never Church of England in all the offices CHRIST. OP«!!r No. 356.
of her Liturgy. In his political opi- and to give himself wholly to these nions he was inclined to Toryism. things, and who had taken upon him The former attachment, mixed with the most solemn vows to that effect; a decided antipathy to Calvinistic but of whom even a panegyrist can doctrines and discipline, may have say nothing more than that he was disposed him not only to regard attached to the Church Liturgy, choral service with fondness, but evidently without any feeling of its to have reprobated somewhat too spirit, and perhaps chiefly as opposed severely the practice of popular to Dissent; that he was an exempsalmody in our churches ; and the plary Tory; that he hated Calvinistic latter may have been the cause that doctrine and Calvinistic disciplinehe has sometimes marked with too under the former of which lax exharsh a censure the conduct and prin- pressions he too probably included ciples of Milton. In the mean time, several of the undeniable doctrines of let it be remembered, to his honour, the Gospel of Christ, and particularly that he has shewn no servile spirit some essential points respecting huin his official odes, where flattery is man sinfulness and infirmity, the too often indulged by prescription. vicarious sacrifice of the Redeemer, In the exercise of his profession as justification by faith, renewal of a divine, I do not understand that heart by the Holy Ghost, and those he was much distinguished. A re- spiritual graces which are the fruits tired village church is not a theatre of faith ;—that he enjoyed church likely to bring forward the abilities music; was not servile in his lauof its minister, and Mr. Warton had reate odes; gained credit at Oxford never any other kind of preferment. by a probably ultra-Tory sermon; I have, however, been informed that and wrote a well-turned and wellhe gained some credit in the Univer- arranged Latin discourse against sity by a sermon on the Thirtieth certain objections to Christianity. of January, and have myself seen a But his heart and mind and soul Latin sermon of his composition, and strength were not devoted to preached perhaps on his taking the God or his spiritual duties : “ his degree of B.D., wherein he reviews abilities,” says his biographer, the objections advanced against were for the most part employed Christianity at its first promulgation in inquiries not theological ;" which in a classical style and a well- young Mr. Mant thought might be arranged and perspicuous method. not only “innocent,” but “ beneBut his abilities were for the most ficial ;” but which the present Bipart employed in inquiries not theo- shop of Down would tell his former logical : let us presume innocently, self (for the mind, like the body, inasmuch as they did not interfere changes, and oftener in some cases with his practical duties ; and bene- than once in seven years) was ficially, as they promoted the inter- deeply criminal, since Mr. Warton ests of general learning."
had pledged himself, in the presence Now in this elaborately apologetic of God, to“ be diligent in prayers, statement what do we find ? I scru- and in reading of the Holy Scriptures, ple not to say, that if we weigh the and in such studies as help to the passage in the balance of the sanc- knowledge of the same, laying aside tuary, and of our own Ordination the study of the world and of the Service, we find an account of a flesh ;” and had assented to the soman chargeable with guilt most lemn injunction “ to forsake and set heinous in the sight of God, fear- aside, as much as he might, all fully dangerous to his own soul, and worldly cares and studies ;" and had baneful to the souls of others. Here professed “ clearly to determine, by is a clergyman, bound by his sacred God's grace, to give himself wholly office to live peculiarly to the glory to the office whereunto it had pleased of God and to bring souls to Christ, God to call him,” and “ to draw all his cares and studies that way;" estimation, disgraceful, though there with much more to the same purpose. might be some things a little weak To vow all this, and then delibe. in the character. And this was a rately to do just the contrary, is no professed ambassador for Christ ; ordinary guilt ; and the only won- one whose office it was—but I need der is, how the matter should ever not describe it; read George Herbe looked upon in any other light; bert, or read the Ordination Service, or how even a Winchester boy on or, best of all, read what the supreme the lowest form, to say nothing of Bishop of Souls himself says of it in
a Master of Arts and Fellow of the warnings of his holy word. Can Oriel College,” should have pro- we wonder that Dissent encroached nounced such conduct “ innocent," upon us ; and that those of the flock nay, beneficial.” I mean no re
who had learned from Divine authoproach to the present Right Re- rity what a spiritual pastor ought to verend “ alter idem,” who would be, were prone to forsake instructors not, I am sure, re-print his juvenile whose pursuits, however “innocent” declamation ; but the circumstance or“
or" beneficial” in popular opinion, makes the more strongly for my ar- were not a conscientious addiction gument, as it shews how strangely to the ministry of the word of God, deficient are no small number of our and a watching for souls as they that young men from public schools, must give account? and at college, in what relates to the And here I must say, disguise it right estimate of the clerical cha- as we will, that our universities have racter. Mr. Warton gives us his been grievously in fault. How have own ideas of an amiable and re- our young divines been hitherto spectable country clergyman, play- trained ? I am reminded of a pasfully drawn indeed, and with good- sage quoted by Mr. Mant, as “ a humoured satire, but not seriously specimen of humour, from a little intended to describe any thing really publication rarely to be met with, delinquent, any grave moral defect. the Companion to the Oxford Guide," Just scan this divine's favourite oc- to the author of which Warton adcupations :
dressed a poetical epistle. The pasThus fixed, content he taps his barrel;
sage is indeed, as Mr. Mant says, Exhorts his neighbours not to quarrel ;
humorous enough; but, alas ! the Finds his churchwardens have discerning sting lies elsewhere than in the Both in good liquor and good learning ; humour. "The schools of this uni. With tithes his barns replete he sees,
the humorous author, And chuckles o'er his surplice fees ; Studies to find out latent dues,
are more numerous than are geAnd regulates the state of pews; nerally supposed; among which we Rides a sleek mare with purple housing,
reckon three spacious and suTo share the monthly club's carousing ; Of Oxford pranks facetious tells,
perb edifices, situated to the southAnd—but on Sundays—hears no bells ;
ward of the High Street, a hunSends presents of his choicest fruit, dred feet long by fifty in breadth, And prunes himself each sapless shoot ; vulgarly called tennis courts, where Plants cauliflowers, and boasts to rear The earliest melons of the year;
exercise is usually performed both Thinks alteration charming work is,
morning and afternoon. Add to Keeps Bantam cocks and feeds his turkies; these, certain schools, familiarly deBuilds in his copse a favourite bench, nominated billiard-tables, where the And stores his pond with carp and tench. laws of motion are exemplified, and
Such were, without caricature, which may be considered a necesthe average occupations, I fear, of sary supplement to our courses of some hundreds, if not thousands, of experimental philosophy. Nor must "good kind of " country clergymen, we omit the nine-pin and skittle at the time when Warton wrote ; and alleys, open and dry, for the instrucwhat I wish to remind you of is, tion of scholars in geometrical knowthat there was nothing, in popular ledge, and particularly for proving the centripetal principle. Other much to their honour, have raised schools and places of academical the character of the theological exdiscipline, not generally known as amination ; but this cannot satisfy such, may be mentioned. The Pe- the wants of the Church ; for, unless ripateties execute the courses proper the examination is too ample for the to their system upon the Parade ; intended lay pupil, it will not be navigation is learned on the Isis; sufficient for the clerical. And begunnery on the adjacent hills; horse- sides this, more is wanted; the spirimanship on Port-Meadow, Bulling. tualities as well as the literary techton Green, the Henley, Wycombe, nicalities of the sacred office require Woodstock, Abingdon, and Banbury to be consulted, and these are often roads. The aris in peritrochio is ad- too little thought of, even where mirably illustrated by a scheme in a much attention is devoted to schophaeton; and the doctrine of the lastic competency. screw is practically explained most I was wondering how I should evenings in the private rooms, toge- fairly get back, without too great a ther with the motion of fluids.” leap, from Oxford and Cambridge,
I would not ground a serious and Mant and Warton, to Wincharge on a playful and exaggerated chester and its antiquities, when I effusion; but does it not strike you, opened on Warton's poem, “ Apud my friend, that there must be some- Hortum jucundissimum Wintoniæ," thing wrong or defective, as a school with a note by the Bishop, purporting of the prophets, in a place of which that the place alluded to by Warton the above can be even a caricature ? in the “jugi sacrati," &c. of the The reply is, that our universities following lines, is St. Giles's Hill, at are not strictly theological institu- the foot of which are the remains of tions, schools of the prophets; they Wolvesey Palace, formerly the magdo not profess to qualify young men nificent residence of the Bishops of for holy orders. But where, then, Winchester ; that the “ maximum are our young men qualified ? In templum” is the cathedral ; and the the days of Popery they did profess“antiquum larem, &c.” the college. to educate specifically for the church,
“ Quæ micant utrinque as it then existed : since the Re- Tecta ingentia, maximumque templum, formation they furnish the testimo. Antiquumque larem decus camenis. nial; but the qualification adapted Sub clivo ancipiti, domus superbæ
Hac dum prospicias, jugi sacrati to restored Christianity has almost Olim, fragmina vasta, dirutasque slidden out of sight. They give, Arces.” what other colleges also profess to Here, then, we are again in the midst give, a fair portion of classical, of our monitory antiquities, of which mathematical, and a substratum of Wolvesey Palace is fraught with the theological attainment; but here most chequered recollections. When they stop : whereas other churches, I climbed in silence and solitude those in the case of candidates for the mouldering remains of what were once sacred ministry, are not contented magnificent walls and buttresses with what their ordinary colleges and towers and arches, where wars send; they require a superadded were planned, and revels were kept, training, both mental and moral; and and sieges were sustained, and capthis is bestowed either at a theolo- tives immured, and royal nuptials gical institution, or in some other celebrated, and every scene of human appropriate manner. Till something joy and woe, virtue and crime, for of the kind is in operation among ages blended; my head whirled and ourselves, or till our universities my heart ached with the retrospect. institute specific classes for clerical Yet in one thing I gathered consocandidates, the bishops can do com- lation : the world, I felt convinced, paratively little ; though even that has not grown worse within the last little is important. The universities, thousand years; and certainly has not grown worse, as so many of our He- checks exertion. The fearful truth raclitics aver, within the last century. is, that iniquity abounds in every age; When I hear a melancholic declaim- but it has its phases; it is coloured er, whether a clergyman, or a poet, by the circumstances of the times ; or a news-paper or magazine scribe, and the minister of Christ ought in or a parliamentary croaker, or an un- his own generation to point out those fledged dabbler in prophetical specu- peculiar aggravations, whatever they lation, begin about this miserably may be : but this should be done degenerate age; the astounding in- specifically, and in such a manner as crease of vice; the vast modern super- not to allow of the reply, that he is additions to human misery; the evils only taking up the common-places that have resulted from reading, writ- of all ages; magnifying existing ciring, and education; the enervations cumstances, because they happen to of luxury; the growth of pauperism; be near and to press on his mind with the decay of religion; the substitu- localand temporary interest-finding, tion of what is shewy for what is for instance, the battle of Navarino, or solid; and a variety of kindred topics; Mr. Canning's speech against PorI am quite sure that individual has tugal, or the Catholic Question, or never read the page of history, at Elba and St. na, in the Proleast has not studied the philosophy phecy of Daniel and the Book of the of history. I plead not for what Revelations; just as, a hundred, or is evil; and in one respect our own five-hundred years ago, persons found land, at this moment, is perhaps the before him some battle, or kingly demost wicked of all lands, and our position, or act of parliament, then own age the most degenerate of all in agitation. It seems to me that ages—that is, computing, not by the sobriety is necessary in these matters, actual extent of what is censurable, and especially in fast sermons and but by the increased progress of other passing records. I would give knowledge, the profession of a purer
the declaimer leave to select any faith, the facilities for recurring to the period he pleases, of British, Saxon, all-perfect Standard of Truth, and the Norman, or modern English history, unbounded mercies of God to us in- since the foundation of these giant dividually and as a nation, notwith- ruins of Wolvesey were laid, which, standing all our demerits and trans- taking all circumstances into congressions. The warnings and expos- sideration, he would prefer to the tulations respecting ouractualamount present moment. He may begin with of criminality cannot be too earnest ; the remote days of arbitrary sway, but, speaking relatively, and by com- when, as tradition relates, the castle parison, I see no reason for heaping obtained its name from the tribute together on one age or nation all of wolves' heads imposed upon the the invectives that belong rather to Welsh by king Edgar, and ordered our fallen race in all places and at to be paid there. Orhe may pass on to all times. If you look to the mo- the time of the Normans, when from ralists or the satirists of any given this very city of Winchester issued day, you will find their own land and William the Conqueror's tyrannical country described as fearfully dete- edict of the Curfew; or when his riorated from the virtues of their an- hopeful nephew, Bishop de Blois, the cestors: the past is eulogized at the brother of king Stephen, inhabiting, expense of the present; and, black as after the fashion of those days, when may be the actual catalogue of trans- prelates were warriors, this feudal gressions, it is made blacker by fortress, withstood a siege by the contrast. My reason for objecting to bravest generals of the age, Robert this is, first, that such a representation Earl of Gloucester and David King is not correct in fact; 'and, secondly, of Scotland, and repulsed them from that it leads to much evil; espe- his menaced battlements. We are cially that it discourages hope and told much of the faults of bishops now