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a-days; and, sure enough, our pre- with all our sins and crimes—and I lates are not impeccable ; but do we by no means extenuate them

more ever hear chain-armour clink under of justice, benevolence, and I believe their cassock, or see them mount of true religion, in the world, than at breaches and rally infuriate warriors this very moment. This will only to battle and bloodshed? You re- add to our guilt, if we abuse our member the keen retort when one of talent, or rather our ten talents; but these martial prelates was taken in the fact I believe to be as I have battle, and the Pope (was it not ?) stated. Compare even the greatest wished to rescue him, as his beloved atrocities of the present day (always son in the Gospel, under the plea of excepting West-India slavery, which his spiritual character; and the royal has hitherto survived on account of victor, exhibiting the ensanguined ha- its evil being at a distance, and not biliments of war in which he had generally know nor believed), and they been captured, asked, “Is this thy are nothing in comparison with son's coat?” Our prelates, some of those of former ages. The history of them, still retain their castles, so Winchester is full of scenes most called, just as they do their palaces; fertile in instruction on this topic; but the name is all : moat and draw- and melancholy is it to read of the bridge, portcullis and dungeon, frauds, rapine, injustice, battles, have vanished; no soldiers mount sieges, massacres, and other appalling their walls, or arrowsbristle out from calamities, which have in former ages theirloop-holes. They are now peace- desolated its inhabitants; but which ful, hospitable, and charitable abodes: we, who live in the halcyon times of they ought also ever to be the abodes civilization and peace, and under of eminent sanctity and self-denial, the full sunshine of the Gospel and of men devoted in a peculiar manner the blessings of Protestantism, have to the service of God, and studying never experienced, and only read of in all things to be a pattern to the as records of days that are passed. flock : but I am speaking only of the I

that the late trials of the public features of the age, and not rioters and rick-burners at Winchesof the deserts, good or evil, of indi- ter exhibited as painful, disgraceful, vidual character; and I think I and alarming a series of transactions, hazard nothing in supposing that as we have witnessed in this country those times could not be very Chris. for many years; yet what were even tian, or the laity very peaceable, or these, to the revolts, rebellions, dethe clergy very faithful ministers of vastation, and bloodshed which often their professed Lord, when prelates occurred by the rising of the pearetained armies, and lived in martial santry in former ages ? and how feud with the neighbouring barons, honourable the justice, the patience, and made the Church an engine for the humanity, the mercy, which chaevery kind of spoliation, oppression, racterized all the legal proceedings. and cruelty. Or go on, and trace the What a fear of unnecessary severity, annals of this castle down to the of injuring a single innocent person, times of the Reformation, or to its or of aggravating the offence and reduction to a heap of ruins by punishment of the guilty! All the Oliver Cromwell, and say if, upon country is excited, a penalty is the whole, you would prefer fixing on awarded by a jury, and the business any of those eras as a model of pub- of the legislature is stopped for an lic and private honour, and flourish- explanation, because a magistrate, ing religion, and all those virtues in the agitated moments of general which moralists and historians are alarm, had not used the delicacy ever ready to assign to past ages, to which the law requires, and which the exclusion of their own. I con- became him, in the removal of a prifess I am more than sceptical on the soner: whereas in former days, point; for never. I believe, was there, the days so often boasted of as su


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perior to our own, he might have ample, what William of Malmsbury loaded his prisoner with fetters, and says of the times of King Rufus, whips and tortures might have been whom I select because of his close used with impunity to extort a confes- connexion with Winchester. “Tunc sion ; and little had been said if the fluxus crinium, tunc luxus vestitum, rioters had been attacked with the tunc usus calceorum, acuatis acuelis sword, and left dead by thousands inventus; mollicie corporis certare in their villages. Compare the ju. cum fæminis; gressum frangere dicial proceedings I have just alluded gestu soluto et latere nudo, incederi, to, with the following, which took adoloscentium specimen erat.” So place in this very city in "the good said the good monk of Malmsold times.” In the year 1249, Henry bury; and so, I doubt not, his prethe Third coming to Winchester, two decessors said centuries before; as merchants of Brabant accost him Latimer and Hall did afterwards, and with tears, and say that they have just as we say now; and for exbeen stopped and robbed of two actly the same reason, because that hundred marks by persons attending human nature is always full of corhis majesty's court. The jury, being ruptions, and that, seeing peculiarly of the higher classes of the citizens, those which are rampant in our own and having a share in the guilt, ac- days, we naturally think them worse quit the accused. The merchants than those of other times. in consequence complain ; and the But one of the chief crying sins king assembles his counsellors, who of all dark ages," is oppression. coolly tell him that Winchester is The poor had virtually no rights ; infamous for robberies, murders, and they were the prey of

every tyrant : violences upon strangers, and that their richer neighbours oppressed the jurors are accomplices. The their minds and bodies, and no man king summons the delinquents, and cared for their souls. Compare this complains that his own wine is with our own times; our equiopenly carried away from the carts table statute-book, our impartial while conveying it to the castle. courts of justice, our poor laws, Another jury is convened, who find our charitable institutions, and our a regular conspiracy of the richest schools. Never were the poor, I people in the place to commit these sincerely believe, less ground down outrages. Many in consequence fly; than at present; never were their thirty are hanged; and many more are just rights so well understood or punished in various ways. Now faithfully secured. In former days say the whole was a plot; and this they were systematically kept in only proves still more how wretch- ignorance; and ignorance is the edly things were managed in those parent of every evil work, and next halcyon days of our rude forefathers. in danger to unhallowed knowledge,

Nor does it mend the matter to which last, I fear, is likely to be say, “ Better rude than luxurious ;” their bane in the present day. Thus better a rough and somewhat un- we veer from extreme to extreme. scrupulous age, than a sly, silken, But the Bible teaches us to avoid effeminate generation like the pre- both dangers. It teaches us that for sent. Here, again, I would meet the soul to be without knowledge is these eulogists of past ages. Look, not good; and it expressly declares for example, at the sumptuary laws that the fear of the Lord is wisdom, of every age and country. Does not and to depart from evil is underthe preamble of them all run, standing. Would that the advocates "Whereas our ancestors were so for popular ignorance, and the panefrugal, modest, and thrifty; and we gyristsofknowledge without religion, their posterity are grown so vain, would equally weigh these inspired pompous, and Frenchified; be it vide declarations ! acted; and so forth ? Take, for ex- Not, however, my good friend,

that in those “ dark ages” of the parative, as respects our neighbour,
wisdom of our ancestors the rich and is not the chief point: the alarming
powerful were always better off than and humbling fact is, that they are
the poor; for if there happened to awfully positive, and committed
be richer still, and more powerful against the Divine Majesty, and
than they, their turn to be oppressed with innumerable aggravations; and
came in due gradation, up to the are infinitely heinous, so as to be
highest barons, and the monarch expiable only by the blood of the
himself. If no one could quell the incarnate Son of God. These are
latter, the Pope and the church plain facts, and they carry with
could, and did; witness, without them conviction ; but I am not al.
going out of Winchester, the humi- ways convinced when I find com-
liating ceremony of King John parisons made, and am told, in round
kneeling before the priests in your terms, that never had we so profli-
cathedral, to be received into favour gate a parliament, so corrupt a
with the sovereign pontiff and his church, so licentious a people, so
church, after his excommunication, much Sabbath-breaking, so much in-
and the tyrannical interdict upon toxication, so much fraud, so much
his kingdom. In short, in those pride in the rich, and so much dis-
days might was right, and right was content among the poor.
might; and it is only, I fear, re- The Episcopal mansion of Wolve-
cently that any nations, and those sey, I need not tell you, no longer
very few, are beginning to learn exists. While King Charles was
those equitable and self-denying building his palace at Winchester,
lessons which the word of God would the munificent Bishop Morley avail-
have taught them some thousands ed himself of Sir Christopher Wren's
of years ago : and which, even of skill to commence that noble edifice,
those professed learners, practises which his successor Trelawney com-
what it inculcates! I sincerely be- pleted; and it is stated to have been
lieve our own nation does so the best modern house in Winchester
much as any; but very imperfect is when a recent prelate pulled it down.
our best; and much is there want. There is now, therefore, no episcopal
ing, to render either our domestic or palace in Winchester.
our international intercourse such I must now again postpone our
as the Christian can witness without visit to the Cathedral, and perhaps
a large mixture of pain.

to a few more of the antiquities of I have been betrayed into the the place. But of all these, the above topic, not because I am not, as churches and monasteries are, to my I before said, deeply sensible of our mind, and I doubt not to yours also, public as well as private sins; but the most painfully interesting. Old because I think there is in many Trussell says that Winchester had persons a disposition to undervalue once fifty churches. “ Passengers," our mercies, and to speak of every adds he, could no way enter into thing in such a spirit of gloom and this city, either through any of the detraction as would chill the spirit gates or the single posterns, but of gratitude and freeze the fountains they must of necessity go under a of hope. It is no palliation for mo- church, or so close unto a church, dern iniquity, that former ages were some oratory, that they might iniquitous also; as, on the other not touch at the entrance hereunto hand, it is not just to attempt to any thing so soon as the walls of such augment our repentance by misre- places; the testimonies of which presentations, as if we were not only are at this time (1620) by the ruins wicked, but also degenerate, and of the churches and such places.” more wicked than all other ages and “ Here was likewise an infinite nations. To our own Master we number of monasteries, conventual stand or fall : our sins being com- buildings, and other religious foun

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dations.” Many of those extant time, as Bacon tells us, is the greateven when Trussell wrote, are now est innovator, on the precise spot obliterated. Sometimes the trans- where repose, unmarked, unhonourformations are afflictingly grotesque. ed, the bones of Alfred the Great, a Many a barn and stable has relics county gaol has been erected, and of the days of Saxon and Norman the grinding of the tread-mill is kings; the threshold of a cottage heard where the monks of Hyde once, perhaps, covered the bones of Abbey were wont to chaunt Masses a mitred abbot; a chiseled stone in for the repose of his soul. Such, a garden wall one fancies torn from my friend, is this changeful world. the shrine of a saint ; juries and ma- It is well if scenes like this quicken gistrates assemble, and judges sit, in us the feeling that it is not our and prisoners extend their hands, rest; and lead us with more unand counsel cajole, where the priests earthly affection to Him who, amidst of St. Stephen's chaunted their li- all that is vain and fragile here, is tanies and offered their presumptuous the same yesterday, to-day, and for Mass, while suppliants knelt before them and crowned heads did them re

(To be continued.) verence; and, as if to prove indeed that



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REVIEW OF THE ALPENSTOCK," AND two or three yards long, put on as a scarf

over their heads, and just allowing their PROTESTANT VIGILS.

fine features to be seen—and the organ (Concluded from p. 442.)

pouring forth its solemn sounds—the

first effect was most striking—and a sad Before taking our leave of Miss contrast to the English chapel. The Morton, in our last Number, we solos were finely executed, and in the had intended to follow her to Genoa, chorus, the people appeared to join with to visit the Protestant chapel, and fine yoices, and a willing mind. I had

not, during my stay in Italy, seen such an to hear part of a Jesuit sermon; and appearance of devout worship. After also to make a pilgrimage to the vespers, a Jesuit, a venerable looking Waldenses, and to hear a sermon

man, with the well known cap on his head, from one of their ministers, and to platform raised in the cross aisle, on the

seated himself in a large arm-chair, on a collect a few particulars respecting right side of the altar. He appeared that interesting church and people : much fatigued, wiped his face, and then but, our limits running short, we

with a trembling voice commenced,

• Cari auditori, before all things, it is newere obliged to omit these particu

cessary for us continually to establish the lars, which we shall now supply, fact--that out of the Catholic church before grasping our alpenstock, and there is no salvation-the creed of this visiting Switzerland with Mr. La- church must be retained in every partitrobe.

cular, and faithfully believed by all, who

would be saved :—and having stated this “ On Sunday morning, we hastened to very first article necessary to be rememthe chapel of the consul (Genoa), to join bered by all the children of the only inin the Protestant service. Alas! the chapel fallible church–I shall proceed to shew was nearly empty; for though so many you—that, without the shedding of blood, English live on the hills, the congregation there is no remission sin. God, through consisted of only twenty persons—twelve the whole Mosaic types and shadows, apof them travellers. We had a poor twenty pointed all sacrifice for sin to be made minutes' sermon...... I was told that at five through blood; when God asked a sacrio'clock a Jesuit would preach at St. fice of Abraham, it was that of blood; Ambrogio; I went.— The church is en- and when the great sacrifice for sin was riched with marble, gilding, and paint- to be made, it was that of the blood of ing—it was completely full, and the Jesus :'-he then quoted a variety of texts women being all veiled in the Genoese in Latin, shewing the efficacy of this mezzaro, of beautifully fine white nuslin, blood; made the most touching appeal to Christ. OBSERV. No. 356.

3 R

the heart, and rose from his seat, appa- “ It was a childish feeling, but it gave rently warmed by his subject,—and en- us satisfaction to think, that friends dying tered upon what we owed to God for his at Genoa would not be thrown to the great mercy. Whitefield himself could dogs, and that their dust would be alnever have appeared more in earnest; his lowed to mingle earth to earth.” Vol. ii. manner was such as to make error con

pp. 217, 218. clusive with the unwary. He then enu- “ With much delay and difficulty we at merated the various bounties of God in length obtained our passports for the the gifts of nature, of providence, and vallies of the Vaudois. About twentygrace; shewed that God required our one thousand Protestants inhabit the val. hearts in return-even real devotion of leys between the Pelice and Clusone, who life ;—and then, as if utterly exhausted, are there, in a beautiful natural temple, he sat down :--but presently, having made free to worship God according to their free use of his handkerchief, he again conscience. They live by the culture of added in a trembling and subdued voice- their lands; a stone fixes their boundary, • This sacrifice is daily renewed at our altar, beyond which they cannot purchase. The and our services daily remind us of what we village of La Torre is beautifully situated owe to the Blessed Virgin, for giving up amidst wooded Alps, above which rise the her Son to death : let us, therefore, implore more lofty snowy peaks. The church is ber benediction.' Here, rising from his one mile from the village of La Torre, at chair, be turned himself to her image on a spot called Sta Marguerite. On the 3d the altar, fell on his knees, and in the of June, Whitsunday, we followed the most impassioned strain, and weeping, happy, simple congregation up the hill. seemed to agonize for her compassion, The pastor and moderator, Mr. Baddressing her by every endearing name, preached from the words_ We have this and giving her all the titles and attributes treasure in earthen vessels, that the praise due only to the wise God our Saviour; may be of God, and not of men.' He and, at a given moment, all the people appeared about sixty years of age,-his joined in her praise : Jesus, and his blood, countenance was much worn by trial. and its efficacy, seemed forgotten, and He opened his discourse by shewing the there seemed no more of Christianity in the nature of the treasure-even the Gospel multitude than in that of Ephesus, when of Christ,quoting, from an old writer, they exclaimed, • Great is Diana of the these words— amidst the pagans all was Ephesians.' By this sad mixture of truth God but God, and amongst the Jews, and error, the missions here have influence their vain traditions, and their prejudices, -but unhappily the erroneous part alone hid the true God,—and effectually shut seems operative.” Vol. ii. pp. 214_216. out the light, light originally received

“ On Monday we inquired for the Pro- from God. He observed that the Gotestant burial-ground. A woman that spel was a treasure that enlightened the lived in the ruined convent had the key. intellect, and offered as a proof, the state As we walked by her side, we heard not of the Apostles before and after the day the simple annals of the poor, but the of Pentecost. “The Gospel is indeed a history of many whom riches and litera- treasure,' said he, for it shews us the ture and beauty could not detain from the means of obtaining Divine favour, and unrelenting summons of death.

· She

grace to sanctify the heart. When these does not rest hcre,' was the answer, as we wonderful effects are considered, we are inquired where they had placed Lady astonished that this ministry should be E. M., “but in the old burial-ground, committed to earthen vessels ; yet such beneath the Campo Santo; there, under has been the pleasure of God, for this plain that rock, close upon the shore; it is not reason, given as plainly by the Apostle, used now, but the Principessa had so that the praise may be, not of men, but great a desire to be buried by her sister, of God: and now, my dear brethren, and that they placed her there on the shore.' friends in Christ, how is it with us? we It is a solitary, beauteous spot; above it have this treasure likewise, but in earthen the grass waves freshly, and beneath it vessels, that the praise may be of God. the waves continually dash the foam of It is Christ who must be our strength in their surges; affection, in its wild desires, weakness: the Gospel of grace is comcould not have found a sweeter resting- mitted to us earthen vessels; we impart place for a beloved friend. The Cava- it to you—still earthen vessels ; but it is liere * told us at Naples, that in its own nature beyond pearls and gold. when explaining the word • haughty' to If we seek in this treasure Christ, he her ladyship, in Italian, she said, “ I'hope supports us by its promises ; it is then a

I shall not be haughty.'...... We entered a treasure which enlightens our undersmall enclosure on this lofty bill, surround- standings and sanctities our hearts, and ed by a wall, and planted with roses.- thence we devote to him our hearts and Within are very simple tombs which speak our lives.' of travellers, widows, and mariners. One “ Four times in the year the Vaudois alone speaks with the confidence of a receive the sacrament; we saw about five believer I know that my Redeemer hundred approach, and celebrate the love liveth.'

of Christ. The service began by reading

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