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sheep, the poor sheep!' My eye in- up the sloping bed of granite, which led stantly glanced at the little green slope, to my position. However, as they apand had hardly time to take cognizance of proached, they affected some respect or its situation, before, dashing high over the timidity, and, after eyeing me for some precipice above, the snow, ice, and rock time, the greater part began to browze, or poured down upon it, swept like lightning to seat themselves in the immediate viover its surface, and then hurried down cinity; while some of the younger and out of sight into the depths of the Trum- more inquisitive followed the dictates of letenthal, leaving the spot of green a patch female curiosity, by entering into a scruof dingy brown. There could be no tiny of my accoutrements. doubt but the sheep, whether few or many, First, my feet, which hung over the were instantaneously overwhelmed. No edge of the fragment of turf-covered rock, living animal could be seen any where on became the objects of speculation. Then the precipices; down which, by the regular three jumped up behind me, and Icould perchannels, the snow and ice, disturbed and ceive were very busily employed at the back set in motion by the great avalanche, con- of my hat, and with my coat skirts. After tinued to thunder for several minutes after. a minute or so, I began to think it possible

“ It was about eight o'clock when I that, if I did not give an eye to their opecrept up into my resting-place, as the rations, they might perhaps browse the poor fellow and his two boys, who had rim of the former, or one of the latter, and preceded me, invited me to do, in' Gottes therefore turned round. They meant no name.' I found this to be the little loft harm, poor things ; all they wanted was close under the low roof, which was per. to amuse themselves, and I am sure they fectly open at the gables. A little hay made me forget how many leagues I had and straw, a piece of sacking round my come, and how many more 1 had still to body, and my knapsack for my pillow, go, by the harmless entertainment they made up the sum of my bed-furniture. afforded me. I lay down just as I was ; having first di. “ I made many observations upon their minished the quantity of my mattress by habits while lying in this pastoral state, stopping the interstices between the logs but as they were probably more novel to with hay, thanked God for the shelter me than they would be to my reader, I over my head, and composed myself to will finish the subject with only one rerest." pp. 44-46.

mark: that I could not but admire how Many a time our traveller's best exactly they were constructed with my own and only company on the mountains species in this respect, that each fancied

her neighbour's position and place of rewas the goats, between whom and

pose preferable to her own, and left no himself there seems to have existed a means untried to get possession of it; mutual attachment; and he moralizes though the attempts were not always upon them in the fashion following:

successful.” pp. 65–67. “ I have good reason to conjecture that Mr. Latrobe, like all other trathe goat has an exquisite sense of that vellers, remarks upon the vice, ignospecies of honour and dignity, which is generally attached to elevated positions. rance, filth, and squalid poverty, One of the herd had found a kind of which distinguish the Roman Carocky protuberance in a small level pla- tholic cantons from the Protestant, teau, and took formal possession. A se- as much as an Irish mud-cabin is cond observed this, and, quitting the troop, jumped up too. 'so there they distinguished from an English cotstood with their eight feet close together tage. Take a specimen.upon the small flat surface afforded by the “ Uri is the poorest of the four Cathoröcky pedestal. This, however, soon be- lic cantons bordering the lake, and, as came the object of envy to the rest, and might be expected, the evil produced by by a simultaneous movement the whole the tenets and government of the Church herd moved forward to the attack. A of Rome is more evident and less conscene ensued which defies my powers of cealed than in the others. The eye meets description. Of course it may be in- every where with a fat thriving priesthood, ferred, that, when the two first occupants and a miserable ragged population. I were ousted and dethroned, the war raged certainly do not mistake in stating that with ten-fold violence for the honour of three-fourths of the individuals met with the succession—in short, they made such in one day's ramble of eight or nine a clamour and scuffle, that the goat-herd leagues in this valley, were beggars. This came out with a great piece of bread in his practice prevails, from the old silver-headmouth, and a stick in his hand, and drove ed man and woman, to the child who can them away from the stone of contention. scarcely walk or hold forth a hollow

" My own person then became an ob- hand. ject of curiosity; for not many minutes “ The cottages and their inhabitants had elapsed before I was alarmed to see seem equally poverty struck, and inconthe whole herd coming at pas de charge ceivably dirty and miserable; yet the

vent;

churches and chapels are often splendidly ply is double : first, that some of the decorated, and the clergy clothed with objects shadowed forth are not themgained by the sweat of the peasant's brow, selves legitimate objects of worship, and labour of his hands, (interrupted not as assuredly is not any created being; only by the occasional fasts and festivals, so that we scruple not distinctly to but by almost daily attendance at the apply the term idolatrous to the adoalways go in the shape of food into their ration paid to the Virgin Mary: and stomachs, or clothes upon their backs, but secondly, that even were the oriinto the pocket of the well-fed priest, ginals proper objects of worship, as who no doubt knows its value. What in the case of our blessed Saviour, should be spent in soap to wash their faces, is preferably bestowed as a dona- the material representation of them tion for the whitewashing of their souls.

is liable to much abuse and per“ The Roman Catholic religion, set- version ; that it promotes the very ting aside weightier considerations, is no superstition which the Second system calculated to improve either the

Commandment was intended to premoral or physical condition of a poor ignorant peasantry.” pp. 73, 74.

and that it inevitably tends At the Roman Catholic village of to chain down uneducated minds

to Alpnach, in Unterwalden, Mr. La

the earthly image, instead trobe was present at the conclusion of elevating them to the professed of public service, and was much spiritual object of adoration. The amused with the unceremonious priest of Alpnach might argue that packing up of the effigy of the Virgin no intrinsic solemnity was attached Mary.

;

only while it was set up as a sym“ It appeared to me to have been a high bol that the people were expected to day for the Virgin; for her effigy, in the form of a great doll dressed à la mode, had been bow before it ; but that still the brought forth, placed upon a moveable person who put it away so uncerestand, and evidently carried about in pro- moniously was guilty of irreverence, cession. However, it soon appeared that in the same manner that a Protesther day was at an end, for, while I was standing beside the high altar, in comes

ant parish-clerk is, who uncerethe sacristan or some other officer at- moniously tosses about the church tached to the church. He advanced un- Bible, Prayer-book, and sacramental ceremoniously up to the figure, unstrapped her from the pedestal, and then vessels, which a few ininutes before inserting his hands between her shoes, had been handled with decorous so(one of which I had seen a woman kiss a lemnity—not for the sake of the few minutes before,) unserewed a peg paper, or print, or gold, or silver, which kept her upright, let her fall upon but from that association of ideas, his shoulder, and carried her pick-a-back out of the church into the vestry: so

inevitable to the human mind, by that the figure which one moment was which every thing connected with deified, and prayed and hymned to, and either vile or hallowed uses assumes not approached even by the consecrated

a corresponding complexion in the priest without reverence, was the next taken on the back of the unsanctified feelings. I should experience pain, valet and shut up in a dark box.” pp. says the Roman Catholic, at wit87, 88.

nessing disrespect offered to a saintThis slight incident might furnish ly shrine, image, or relic, just as a occasion for an argument on the Protestant mother would at seeing strange anomalies of the Papal wor- her child make a footstool of the ship. Roman Catholic apologists, Bible, or play at shuttle-cock in a from Bossuet to Mr. Butler, com- church; not because in either case plain of it as a grievous calumny any sanctity is attached to the mathat any Protestants should affirm terial substances, but because, by that they worship the images or relics the very instincts of our nature, of saints. We keep them, say they, such an action is felt to imply a only as symbols : and reverence not want of respect for the thing reprethe wood or stone, but only the ob- sented: so that the parent would not ject shadowed forth. Now our re- be satisfied by the most logical CHRIST, OBSERV. No. 356.

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apology of the child that he meant of all Roman Catholic countries ; nothing irreverent, since the leaves while the thinking are led to view and cover of the book, or the stone the whole as priest-craft, and to reand mortar of the building, have no ject religion in rejecting imposture. real connexion with any thing divine We cannot acquit the more enlightor spiritual. I avail myself of this ened of the Papal priesthood, whatprinciple, continues the Catholic, to ever may be their own ideas, of misstrengthen devotion where it exists, chievously encouraging popular deand to create it where it is deficient, lusion ; nor can we reconcile it with by means of visible emblems and either fairness or good sense that powerful mental associations. Now, they can read what is said of image without resorting to higher argu- adoration, either in the Inspired ment, we might be content to take Writings or their own cherished the Catholic apologist on his own Apocrypha, and not at once admit ground; for this very argument that their practice is both irrational shews the danger of setting up asso- and unscriptural. We may add also, ciations which, from the natural feel that, even upon their own principles, ings of the human mind, are liable it in the end does greater harm than and likely, on the one hand, to good; for the more the objects of vedegenerate into popular supersti- neration are multiplied, the less share tion, and, on the other, to generate does each receive: so that the worship scepticism and hypocrisy. The man of God virtually degenerates into the who packed up the Virgin Mary's worship of the Virgin Mary; and she image perhaps laughed at the crowds is obliged to share her honours with who adored it ; viewing them other saints; and they in their turn, much as

a master of ordinary and the Virgin, and the Supreme puppets does the groups of children Himself, yield to the local guardian who gape around as he pulls the of the village, or some particular wires; they thinking only of the object of religious favouritism. And wonder and he of the money. Nor, with regard to the priesthood, if, even probably, does the matter stop here; under the purest system of religion, for as the priest or the sacristan familiarity with the external minisstows away the trappings, it is trations of religion, unless sanctified well if he do not whisper to himself by personal piety, is apt to lead to a doubt of the whole dispensation indifference, perhaps contempt, from to which they are injuriously at- the sacristan of Alpnach, to an irretached, and reject Christianity in ligious English parish-clerk, who unveiling Romanism ; while the views prayers and preaching and sacrowd of unthinking worshippers craments only as a trade; how danare likely enough to be content with gerous is a system which makes the external shew of devotion, mummery a part of its essence. The and to make as little scrutiny into Protestant pastor sees in the relics their own hearts as into the claims of of the eucharistic symbols only so their wooden images. It is, were much bread and wine ; the reverenit no worse, an irrational mechanism tial feelings with which he had just in religion ; for while true devotion partaken of a portion of these sacrarequires such an abstraction of the mental elements had no connexion thoughts as is difficult even to the with the elements themselves : but most spiritually minded man, these under the doctrine of transubstantiavisible symbols draw them down to tion the case is substantially altered : the grossest materiality.

the priest has juggled the wondering reverence is attached to the symbol, worshippers with a fictitious divinity; what is its use? If attached, an while, perhaps, as soon as the specopening is made for the most de. tacle is over, he deposits his god in grading superstition, nay, idolatry; a chest with as little awe as the as is the case among the unthinking Alpnach functionary his Virgin

If no

Mary; and thus is laid a foundation more satisfactory ground of hope, comfor that spirit of infidelity which ex- fort, and dependence; and how seldom,

how very seldom, my superior knowledge ists among the Roman Catholic hier. stimulates me to deeper devotion.” pp. archy,and extends widely to the more 118_120. educated classes of the people.

We will relieve these painful We shall copy another of our scenes by a sketch of a Swiss village author's sketches of Papal worship, pastor, such, we would hope, as Swiss He is speaking of the devotions per- pastors were in the days of a pure formed at the chapel of the Madonna faith, before philosophy, falsely so del Monte, a sanctuary on the summit called, spoiled so many of them, and of the last eminence on the Alps, caused them to swerve from the towards the plains of Lombardy. simplicity that is in Christ.

“I descended to the valley of Gstaad, “ Around me were groups of pilgrims, upon the river Saanen, a few miles above and the village girls tempting them to the the bourg of Gessenay, and then turning purchase of their votive garlands of ever- to the southward, followed a footway lasting flowers, wax-tapers, and rosaries. leading directly up to the foot of the Shortly after, I myself stood beneath the higher Alps, through the Gsteigthal, and entrance of the holy place; dedicated — arrived at Gsteig, a small village situated not to the Lord of lords, and King of close under the lofty and precipitous Mitkings ; not to the meek and lowly Sa- taghorn, and near the foot of the Sanetsch viour of the world, through whose media- Pass, the most westerly of the passes tion and bitter sufferings in human form, over the Berne Alps to the Vallais.' we alone hope for reconciliation with an “ I was happy to have it in my power offended God, and for a passage through to vary and to render my evening here the gate of heaven ;-but to the Virgin. more entertaining and instructive by a

" For this I had been prepared by the visit to the clergyman of the village, to representation contained in the last and whom I had an introductory note. highest temple, viz. that of the Ascension “ The pastor of an Oberland village, is, of the holy Virgin Mary; a subject as may be supposed, in general the only which seems to have called forth a greater man of liberal education and pursuits in display of talent and enthusiasm, than any the parish. His situation, as to the adscene of the life and sufferings of our vantages of occasional society, are of Saviour. This is her sanctuary : here the course very unequal, according to the lamp and the taper are always burning, particular position of his cure. A few day and night, before her altar ; and the leagues may make all the difference beprayers and vows of the pilgrim rising tween a post, where, to a smiling and continually before the shrine, from whence delightful country, the vicinity of other she is believed to listen and save.' parishes, and an open and uninterrupted

“ The poor pilgrims, as they enter, communication with the capital, may exclaim : Santa Maria ! Sancta Dei Gene- leave but little necessity for self-denial; trir, ora pro nobis ! miserere nobis !--and and others where there must be a supewhen sunk upon the pavement in deep rior and powerful stimulus for its exerdevotion, the same prayer may be seen tion. Many of the latter, situated in the in the mute motion of their lips. Devo- higher and more remote vallies of the tion! yes, and a devotion apparently so Alps, under the shadow of the mountains deep, so unfeigned, so humble ;-that, forming the central chain, where, accordwhile standing by, the tears have rushed ing to the saying of the country, the into my eyes, and I have humbled myself, inhabitants enjoy nine months' winter and prayed too; not to the Virgin, whom and three months' cold sun (sonneskälte), I would honour, but cannot worship ; not are, by the accumulation of the snows in to the saints, the martyrs, the cloud of winter, often cut off from all facility of witnesses for whose bright examples I communication with the world below, for bless God, as so many testimonies to the many weeks together. There the good Christian faith I have learned to profess; pastor may remain for months, buried as not to the departed Just in whose song it were with his flock; watching by day of praise I hope once to join, but who can the red sunbeams shifting from peak to never be the propitiation for my sins :- peak, from one white and sparkling mass, but to God the Judge of all, whose mercy high above his head, to another, while the and compassion are held out even to me snows around his dwelling are never enthrough Jesus Christ.

livened by them; and hearing by night “ The very conviction of the error of the wintry tempest howling among the those kneeling around me, has often had precipices and ragged pine forests; while, the effect of bringing my thoughts to the hour by hour, the snow settles deeper and dust, from a feeling how little worthy I deeper on his roof, and ever and anon am of the better light which directed my the crash of the falling rock, or the thoughts while yet a cbild to a firmer and thunder of the distant avalanche swells the chorus of indescribable sounds which needles of the pine forest, and the howl fill the air.

of the wolf re-echoed from the waste. “ But what matters it? Is he a true As I stood upon an elevated knoll wide soldier of Christ ? Has he indeed given of the châlet, through whose interstices up his heart and his way to God, to be gleamed the fire over which my compamade the instrument in his hand of tem- nions were amusing themselves, my ear poral guidance and spiritual support to was struck from time to time by an abrupt his flock? Here is his post of honour! and indistinct sound from the upper parts He feels that to be cut off from the rest of the mountain ; probably caused by the of the world, is not to be cut off from crumbling rock, or the fall of rubbish the presence and help of his Maker; that brought down by the cascades. An equally where his field of view and of action is dubious and sudden sound would occabounded, there his duty becomes more sionally rise from the deep valley beneath; clearly laid down; that, where man is but else nothing fell upon the ear but the most impotent, there the power and monotonous murmur of the mountain mercy of God is most evident; and torrent, working its way over stock and where the creature is most humbled in rock in the depth of the ravine. The the sense of his own nothingness and de- moon barely lighted up the wide pastures pendence upon the Creator, it is there sufficiently to distinguish their extent, or that God manifests himself most clearly, the objects sprinkled upon them. Here as the Parent and Preserver of all living. and there a tall and barkless pine stood

“ I was welcomed with much kindness conspicuously forward on the verge of by the Rev. Mr. G. His motives for the dark belt of forest, with its bleached contented activity in his secluded parish trunk and fantastic branches glistening in are such as must win the esteem of all. the moonshine. Three fine rosy-checked children, the co- “ The valley beneath was marked by operation and society of an excellent the light haze hovering over it; and across wife, and a very well stocked library, are and above this the eye faintly caught the the sources from which he draws his outline of the vast white precipices of recreations and pleasures, when unoccu- the Günzenen, and the line of rocky pied with the duties of his station.” pp. summits in the neighbourhood of the 142_145.

Stockhorn." We must now give our readers “A second châlet, high up on the side one of our author's sketches of sce

of the mountain, received our party just

as all objects began to emerge from their nery; and shall select, as a spe- obscurity, and the air to freshen with the cimen, a nocturnal excursion to the approaching sun-rise. We were here still Niesen, the terminating eminence of nearly two leagues from the summit, and

it was not till near six that all of us had a range of mountains running north

gained the highest point. The sun had ward from the central Alps.

then risen some degrees above the horizon. “ Our party left Erlenbach for the “ Here we exulted in the splendid view Bourg of Wimmis, at the foot of the displayed around us. The steep apex of mountain, some time after sunset, Aug. the Niesen overhangs a vast bollow to the 2d ; and the cool and still hours of the N. E. Over this we looked down upon ensuing night were spent in slowly as- the bourg and castle of Wimmis, at the cending the deep ravine between it and edge of that tract of broken country the flanks of the Bettfluh, by the pale but through which the Sinmen and the Kanclear light of a waning moon. The diffi- der work their way from the mountains culties of our obscure and precipitous to their point of junction with one another road were shared by my hostess and two and with the lake. of her female friends with a good humour, “ More to the right lay that diversified patience, and perseverance which might and smiling region which, for its fertility well put their male attendants to the ex- and beauty, was by old writers termed ercise of all the wit and sprightliness that La Petite Bourgogne, with the castle of its nature had more sparingly bestowed upon ancient capital, Spiez, The Golden Court, them. Between two and three A.M. we glistening on the edge of the lake, which bivouacked for half an hour in an unoc- stretched in a curve from N. E. E. to E. cupied châlet, situated on the slope of the “ Thence the eye followed the valley mountain.

of the Aar, from the castle and town of “I would gladly give my reader an Thun further and further into the disidea of the solemn scenery of these ele- tance, beyond Berne, and over the Uchtvated regions, during the calm bours of a land, lying between the Alps and the summer night. As to sounds, there are Jura ; a cultivated tract of country, conbut few, at least when the air is still. taining innumerable villages and bamlets, The vicinity of man, productive in general up to the very base of the latter range of any thing but repose, has caused almost dividing Switzerland from France. profound silence to reign among these “ But this wide vista, beautiful as it was, wilds, where once the cautious tread of could not long detain the eye from the the bear rustled nightly among the dry other less smiling but more magnificent

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