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other ; since no questions are to be asked; but even if they were asked, would that be a good regulation which would admit Bishop Maltby and shut out Mr. Gurney, who, we verily believe, though he would not subscribe to Captain Gordon's test, is quite as sound in the matter of the Holy Trinity as Captain Gordon, and more so than his lordship? Let, then, the proposed test extend to the whole Bible, and not to one part or tenet of it, however important and essential. Let us not virtually say that any one doctrine or precept of the word of God is unworthy to be an article of faith, provided we adhere to some other. Let us not make irreverent distinctions between one declaration of the Divine word and another. Al is to be believed; all is to be made the test of faith; and if the proposers of the new society should decree otherwise, and make only a partial test, be it Socinianism, or be it any thing else, they fall into one of the most awful delusions of the Church of Rome.
The Bible, and the whole Bible, is the religion of Protestants ; not only the doctrine of the Trinity, fundamental as it is, but all those truths which are connected with it; every jot and tittle; we see not how a Christian society can take narrower ground. But this is in truth the very ground taken by the much-calumniated Bible Society; its members not daring to point out what part of revealed truth they think essential, what unessential, but viewing their members as professed Christians, who, as such, subscribe not to a part, but to the whole; not to man's comment, but to God's word.
One line more as respects Socinians themselves : Let no person venture at the proposed meeting to speak on the platform concerning them, who cannot conscientiously assert, that before coming to the meeting, and many days previously, he has prayed and interceded for them on his bended knees in private before his God and Father. A pointed bayonet to stave off heretics is not the only weapon of the Christian soldier. If those who denounce heresy do not wish to confirm the heretic in his sin, and to awaken the sympathies of bystanders on his behalf, let them imitate the conduct of Christ weeping over Jerusalem, rather than the bitter spirit which too often disgraces his professed disciples; and the more fearful the heresy the more need is there for this chastised and tender spirit. The Socinians are exulting at this moment at the unhappy spectacle of unhallowed wrath which has been exhibited by some who ought to have opposed them with far other weapons.
We do not augur much wisdom in the intended plan of forming a new society by the Sackville-Street Committee, from the specimen which has just reached us of the new Westminster Bible Society, under the auspices of several of its leading members. Their object, they say, is to uphold - Christian principles and practices in Bible Society operations :" but what religious man has any other object? and is it not most uncandid and unfair to insinuate that all the devoted servants of Christ in the land, except their own little party, wish to promote unchristian principles and practices, however mistaken they may suppose them to be as to the particular question about the introduction of tests into Bible Societies? Then, again, they say that theirs is a society “ constructed on scriptural principles ;” thus begging the very question under discussion; and pronouncing every body but themselves unscriptural; a species of selfsatisfied pharisaism not becoming Christian men. We trust this is not the spirit in which they purpose conducting the intended meeting, making it a vebicle for panegyric on their own piety, wisdom, and zeal, and a libel on their Christian brethren who differ from them; but who equally think they have“ scriptural principle,” and “ Christian practice” on their side. Then, again, one of their rules is, that all persons with out distinction shall be encouraged to subscribe ”—all persons, Atheists, Deists, and Socinians, not excepted; but only those who subscribe to their manifesto are to be allowed membership. What an unjust and sordid principle is this.
Will it be believed, after all the denouncements of Bible Societies for taking heretical money ; after all the taunts of Mr. Melvill, for example, at the Naval and Military Bible Society meeting, about receiving the Socinian's guinea, that his friends are deliberately planning the very same thing; that Mr. Drummond, Mr. Howells, Captain Gordon, Mr. Washington Phillips, Mr. Haldane, and the rest of the new Westminster model society, have affixed their signatures to a proposal to “encourage” this very practice. Mr. Melvill actually says that the question, “ whether or no the guinea of a Socinian is of equal worth with the guinea of a true believer in circulating the Scriptures involves the whole of the matter.' He calls it “ blasphemy,” for “ he can define it by no milder term;" to do precisely what his own friends are now doing, and "encouraging.” It is a platform idolatry;”. (we take care to insert the inverted commas, for want of which the Record gravely charged on us the harsh words we adopted as quotations from Sackville Street;) it is making “a Macbeth's caldron, into which are thrown bits of a Jew, a Turk, a Tartar, and every kind of blasphemer;" with columns more to the same effect. Yet this very Macbeth's caldron is the new society to be; for all persons without distinction, Jews, Turks, and Tartars are to be “ encouraged" to subscribe. We only mention these things to shew the utter want of consistency which pervades the whole of the proceedings of the Sackville-street Committee : they are excellent at breaking up; but the moment they come to build, they take the very materials they had just reprobated as utterly unfit for a Christian edifice:
they tell us of the Bible Society using Socinian money, and preferring filthy lucre to
Then, again, what can be more unfair than to encourage people to subscribe to
BRITISH AND FOREIGN SCHOOL SOCIETY.
OBITUARY. MR. WILLIAM GREENFIELD.
was treated as one of the family, and had
the advantage of the same education as Wiry much concern we record the la- his young relatives. At the age of ten, mented decease, at the early age of thirty- his mother finding him altogether avcrse two years, of Mr. Greenfield, the super to an agricultural life, and judging that intendent of the editorial department of the metropolis was the only place likely the British and Foreign Bible Society. to afford him subsistence in any other This remarkable young man, a second manner, determined on quitting her situaProfessor Lee, hud, like the respected in- tion and accompanying him to London, dividual to whom we have compared him, where she entered the service of another risen by his extraordinary powers as a lin- family, while her son, after various trials, guist, from a humble station in life, work was, through the kindness of the late veing with his hands for the supply of his nerable Dr. Waugh, bound apprentice to daily wants, to a most honourable and re
a respectable bookbinder, in whose fasponsible othce as a translator of the Holy mily strict Christian discipline was uniScriptures; and had he been spared a few formly maintained. In the interval be. years longer, he might probably have oc tween his removal to London, and the cupied as conspicuous a station in the date of this engagement, the lad was public eye, as even the eminent self-taught taken care of by his two maternal uncles, scholar whom we have just mentioned, young men, who having devoted themwhose early narrative, as published by the selves to God, were desirous of reading present Bishop of Salisbury in 1814, is his word in the languages in which it was still vivid in the recollection of all who originally written; and while thus emperused it, and adds much to the satis- ployed, their nephew, who always shewed faction with which his friends witness his a most inquisitive spirit, and an ardent depresent justly merited academical and ec sire for information, expressed his wish to clesiastical honours.
be taught the Hebrew language. This We had no personal acquaintance with desire, so far as their slender means Mr. Greenfield, nor did he belong to our afforded, was gratified; and to this circommunion; but from what we have cumstance, trifling as it appeared at the learned of his character, we think it our time, was Mr. Greenfield indebted, as a duty to record a brief tribute of respect means, under the blessing of God, for his to his memory, more especially on ac future advancement in his literary purcount of the unjust and cruel persecution suits. The further promotion of his litewith which he has been assailed, and rary character, under the evident blessing which we are informed embittered his of God, was strikingly remarkable. It last days, and too probably hastened his happened, that in the house in which his early removal from a world of strife to a
master occupied workshops, there dwelt a brighter scene, where those who die in Jewish Rabbi, who was in the frequent the Lord “ rest from their labours, and habit of urging among the apprentices their works do follow them.” The only and journeymen his objections against references to his name in our volumes the advent of the Messiah, the Christian during the short time he has been known interpretation of the prophecies connected to the public, are in our notice of his with that subject, and the whole of the pamphlets on the Mahratta and the Negro Christian dispensation. With this man, English versions of the New Testament young Greenfield held frequent disputa(Christian Observer, 1830, p. 116 and tions, as he subsequently did with many P. 652), and the allusion to him in our last other Jews; and being pressed closely on Number. Whether he ever saw these last the ground of defectiveness in our authorremarks we know not; but it is consola ized version of the Old Testament, ing to us that they should have appeared offered to give up his opinions, if upon in our pages before his lamented decease. being thoroughly taught the Hebrew lan
Mr. Greenfield was born in London in guage by his opponent, he should find his the year 1799. His father, who had been instructor's assertion founded in truth. employed, on account of his Christian The Jew took him at his word; and being character, as a foremast man on board the a most diligent student, he soon became ship Duff, in her second missionary voyage, so well versed in the language as to surwas unhappily drowned on a subsequent pass his teacher; and though the result voyage in another vessel; and the subject of his labour was subversive of the arguof this notice thus became an orphan ment adduced by the learned Rabbi, he yet when he had scarcely reached his third became so much attached to his pupil as year. His mother, who was a pious ever afterwards to express his high sense of woman, having relations in the north, his moral worth and extraordinary talents. removed from London to the neighbour- These discussions were always conducted hood of Roxburghshire, where she ob- by Mr. Greenfield with good temper, and tained her livelihood in service, and her displayed great shrewdness as well as an child was placed under the care of a rela- intimate acquaintance with the Bible. So tion, who dwelt in the vicinity of her tender was his conscience, and so careful employer's residence. Here the child was he to avoid arguments that might
not be conclusive, that whenever he found Before, however, engaging his services, himself not sufficiently acquaintd with the Mr. Bagster wrote to Dr. Waugh, and subject, or foiled in dispute, he applied to received aletterinpraise of Mr. Greenfield, his friend and spiritual adviser, Dr. Waugh, couched in terms that fixed his entire whom he used to visit three times a week confidence in him as a Christian of sound both for spiritual instruction, and for principles, and a Hebrew scholar of exsuch assistance in his studies and his ar. traordinary ability; and never, he adds, guments with the Rabbi, as Dr. Waugh's was his confidence shaken or his hopes rich treasury of knowledge, and his ser disappointed. “ This superior young viceable library, could furnish. Dr. Waugh, man,” says his employer," has accomhowever, like the Jewish instructor, soon plished much in his short career; but found himself surpassed as a linguist by when it is placed in comparison with what his pupil: “ Hoot, mon; ye ken depths he was preparing to do, and towards which o' criticism that I na meedle with; ye are he had treasured up materials, I sigh gone over me." So fully satisfied was deeply at the thought that the head and his venerable pastor, after adequate in- hand can be no more employed for the quiry and probation, of the truly Christian good of man and the church of Christ." character as well as mere theological at Of the numerous works which engaged tainments of this pious and amiable youth, his attention we cannot now give a detail. that he admitted him at the early age of That which excited the greatest public about sixteen as a communicant in the attention, was the Comprehensive Bible ; church over which he presided, and of a work of prodigious labour and research, which Mr. Greenfield continued a beloved at once exhibiting his varied talent and and honoured member, till the decease of profound erudition. Of this book we the fostering friend whom he has so soon shall not now speak, nor of the calumnies followed to his heavenly rest.
that were raised by misguided men to cry Having attained to great advancement it down, by charging upon it and its pious in the knowledge of the Hebrew, during and orthodox editor, not merely mistakes, the study of which he compiled a com or errors, or injudicious passages, to which plete lexicon of that language, he next all books and men are liable; but delibeapplied himself with equal diligence to rate, systematic, Neology, and even posithe study of Chaldee, and some other of tive blasphemy and infidelity. We leave the cognate dialects. At this time he the writers to their own reflections on laboured very hard at his trade, working their conduct towards a man who, we from six in the morning to eight in the are credibly informed, highly adorned his evening in the summer, and from seven Christian profession, and the meekness to nine in the winter; after which, he of whose character was strikingly disused to devote himself at home to sacred played in never having controversially Hebrew literature, of which he was pas- replied to any of the invectives cast upon sionately fond. His next object was the himself or his works. attainment of Greek and Latin, which In reference to Mr. Greenfield's conhe effected in class with several other nexion with the Bible Society, the followyoung men connected with him in busi- ing testimonial will afford most satisfacness, and in Sunday schools, in which tory testimony to his devotedness to the they with himself officiated as diligent cause in which he was employed, as well gratuitous teachers; and the extraordi as to his general character. nary facility with which he acquired a Resolutions passed by the Committee knowledge of these languages, and the of the British and Foreign Bible Soperfect ease with which he overcame dif ciety, November
1831. ficulties, to others almost insurmountable, “ That, feeling very deeply the greatness are stated to have been truly astonishing of the loss sustained by the Society in the From Latin he went to French; and death of its late Superintendant of the from this time forward he thought no Editorial Department, this Committee thing of turning his attention to a strange yet desire to meet that loss in a becoming tongue, and setting himself to acquire a spirit of submission to the will of Him knowledge of it.
who ordereth all things in perfect, though During two or three years after the ex inscrutable wisdom. piration of his apprenticeship he worked “ That this Committee, before they at his trade as a journeyman; but he did record their sense of the distinguished not in the slightest degree neglect his talents of their deceased friend, desire to business for his favourite studies, which express their devout conviction, that the were, nevertheless, pursued with unabated gifts of intellect with which he was enardour, till Mr. Bagster, the much-re- dowed, proceeded from Him • who is the spected publisher of Pater-noster Row true light which lighteth every man that becoming acquainted with his extraordi cometh into the world, and the cor.sonary talents and acquirements, prevailed lation they derive from the reflection that on him to relinquish his trade, and found those gifts, from their first possession, him employment more worthy of his have been consecrated to the advancement endowments, and which afforded ample of Biblical Literature their late friend means of gratifying his literary appetite. having been almost exclusively devoted CHRIST. OBSERv. No. 359.
to the important work of editing the “ That this Committee feel it a duty to Holy Scriptures, or works intimately record their persuasion that nothing has connected with them, during the whole of occurred during his brief connexion with his short, but laborious career.
the Society to invalidate those satisfactory " That this Committee remember assurances of the unexceptionable, moral, with gratitude and astonishment that and religious character of Mr. Greenfield in the nineteen months during which which were received at the time of his apMr. Greenfield had been engaged in the pointment; while in the transaction of bu. service of the Society, his varied talents siness he has uniformly conducted himself had been brought into exercise in no less with such skill, diligence, and urbanity, as than twelve European, five Asiatic, one fully to realize the expectations that the African, and three American languages; Committee had entertained. and that, since the commencement of his “ That this Committee desire to convey engagement, he had acquired a consider- to his widow and fatherless children an able degree of skill in the following lan- assurance of their most sincere sympathy guages, with which he had previously under their painful bereavement, while been wholly unacquainted: the Peruvian, they at the same time commend them to Negro-English, Chippeway, and Berber Him who hath said in his Holy Word, 'A
“ That this Committee believe that Father of the fatherless, and a Judge of they are fully justified in extending to the widow, is God in his holy habitation;' all other works in which he had been en- and express their hope that by the power gaged as editor the following honourable of the Holy Spirit they may seek their testimonial, borne by their librarian, T. consolation through faith in Christ Jesus P. Platt, Esq. on the completion of the who is 'over all God blessed for ever.'”. printing of the Modern Greek Psalter : Mr. Greenfield expired on the 5th of
“Mr. Greenfield, in carrying this work November of a brain fever, during the dethrough the press, has uniformly exhibit- lirium of which, we are informed, coned,
necting his mental with his bodily suffer* I. Sound learning and critical judg- ings, and pressing his hand on the seat of
pain, he frequently exclaimed : "that they ** II. A constant perception of the duty were piercing him through and through; of faithful adherence to the very letter that he was not a Neologian," with much of the Sacred Original.
more that indicated how much distress « • III. Minute and unwearied dili- of mind he had experienced from this ungence, extending itself to the accurate founded charge. We should not advert to marking of every supplemental word in- the circumstance, but for the sake of thus troduced in the translation, and to the recording his latest testimony to the abcareful arrangement of stops and accents.' horrence he everentertained towards those
“ That this Committee cannot suffer to unscriptural sentiments which had been so pass wholly unnoticed, some of the extra- unjustly charged upon him. His dying official labours of Mr. Greenfield. They breath, even in his unconscious state, fully remember, with delight, that it was his attested what he had already said in a letvaluable defence of the Mahratta Version ter which he addressed to the editor of of the New Testament, against the criti- the Record newspaper.cisms advanced in the Asiatic Journal for “ To the charge that I hold Infidel, September, 1829, that first brought him Neologian, or Socinian sentiments
, I under the notice of the Committee. Of the plead not guilty; and declare that I utterMahratta language, he had had no previously abominate and reject, from my inmost knowledge, nor yet of some of the other soul, all and every one of these dogmas
. languages referred to in the work; and I believe the Scriptures to have been when it is stated, that the pamphlet ap- written by the authors, and at the periods, peared within five weeks of his directing universally ascribed to them; that they his attention to the subject, no stronger have been preserved entire and uncorproof could be afforded of the remarkable rupted to the present time; that they contalent with which he was endowed for tain a true relation of matters of fact, acquiring languages. His reply to various both natural and supernatural
, ordinary strictures on the Surinam or Negro-En- and miraculous; that they are Divinely glish Version was another memorial of inspired Writings, being written by • holy his diligence as well as of his good will men of God, who spake as they were to the Society. While, more recently, his moved by the Holy Ghost;' and that, observations, which have appeared in the being the word of God, they are the only Asiatic Journal, in reply to the criticisms rule of faith and obedience. I believe that of Col. Vans Kennedy on his defence of there are three persons in the Godhead, the Mahratta Version, may be appealed the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost
, to as confirming the opinion entertained and that these three are the one, true, and of his high talents and sound learning ; eternal God, the same in essence, and while a posthumous memorial has yet to equal in power and glory; in the fall of appear in the same journal, through the man, the total corruption of his nature, kindness of the Editor, in which a defence and his consequent lost and guilty state; of the Arabic Version will be found.
in the Deity, incarnation, and atonement