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and profitable peace and quietness. such preacher, to read one of the And although it is every Christian homilies following in succession :" man's duty of his own devotion to first, a homily concerning the juspray at all times, yet for that the tice of God in punishing impenitent corrupt nature of man is so slothful sinners, then newly set forth, comand negligent in this his duty posed for the occasion by Nowel, [“ herein," 1603, to avoid recur- Dean of St. Paul's; second, the rence of “ his duty”], he hath need eighth homily of the First Book of by often and sundry means to be Homilies, “Of declining from God;" stirred up and put in remembrance third, the homily “ Against the Fear of his duty."
of Death ;" fourth, the homily of We pass over the directions to the Fasting; fifth, of Prayer ; sixth, of clergy about exhorting the people Alms-deeds; seventh, of Repentance. to attend the service, and also the The order for Fridays was the choice of Lessons, and other parti- common prayer, with one of the three culars, to notice an excellent sug
new collects. The first of these, says gestion in “ the order for the Wed- Strype, was “somewhat long, being nesdays,” which were the fast days, a confession of five sides and above, that “after the morning prayer ended, which I think was that which gave the curates and ministers * should some dislike to the archbishop.” His exhort the people assembled, with Grace might dislike the length, but the homily thereof made, or the like, he could not dislike the quality. to give themselves to private prayer There are passages in it which well and meditations; for which purpose embody the idea of "pleading with a pause shall be made of one quarter God," as adopted children, loved, of an hour or more, by the discretion yet chastened, and suing forgiveness of the curate, during which time and reconciliation with deep humi. such good silence shall be kept as lity, yet with filial confidence. Those may be.” The effect of this must of our readers who think with the have been very solemn; as we find good archbishop may pass it over ; it to be in the Ordination Service, but for the sake of those who have where, however, it is sometimes more leisure and patience, long as it abridged to a mere parenthesis of is, we will transcribe it. Let the half a minute. The pause con- reader judge whether we have imcluded, the Litany was to be read, proved in prayer-making since the with the addition of certain prayers days of Grindal and Elizabeth. hereafter noticed. Then the mic 'O Almighty, most just and mernistration of the holy communion, ciful God! we here acknowledge “ with a sermon, if it can be so made ourselves most unworthy to lift up by such as be authorised by the me- qur eyes unto heaven : for our contropolitan or bishop of the diocese; science doth accuse us, and our sins and they to treat of such matters do reprove us. We know also, that especially as be meet for this cause thou, God, being a just Judge, must of public prayer; or else, for want of ņeeds punish the sins of them which about “ the wholesomeness of the air.” consider and examine all our whole
transgress thy laws. And when we Was it because a doubt had arisen whether the malady was epidemic ?
life, we find nothing in ourselves Words change their popular meaning that deserveth any other thing but in the course of years, and no word has eternal damnation. But because done so more than the words curate, par- thou, O Lord, of thy unspeakable son, vicar, and the like. The curate was properly the incumbent, to whom the cure
mercy hast commanded us in all our of the parish was committed (as on the necessities to call only upon thee, and continent they still use the words curate hast also promised that thou wilt hear and vicar); what we now call the curate was the minister, or helper to him ; at
our prayers, not for any our desert least, this use of the terms occurs occa
(which is none), but for the merits. sionally, if not uniformly.
of thy Son, our only Saviour Jesus,
Christ, whom thou hast ordained to and punishments, which thou dost be our only Mediator and Inter- now lay upon us in sundry places, cessor; we lay away all confidence do teach us to acknowledge our sins. in man, and do flee to the throne of For seeing, O Lord, that thou 'art thy only mercy, by the intercession just, yea, even justice itself, thou of thy only Son our Saviour Jesu punishest no people without deChrist. And first of all, we do most sert. Yea, even at this present, O lament and bewail, from the bottom Lord, we see thy hand terribly of our hearts, our unkindness and stretched out to plague us, and unthankfulness towards thee our punish us. But although thou Lord, considering that besides those shouldest punish us more grievously thy benefits which we enjoy as thy than thou hast done, and for one creatures, common with all mankind, plague send a hundred, if thou thou hast bestowed many and special shouldest pour upon us all those benefits upon us, which we are not thy testimonies of thy most just able in heart to conceive, much less wrath, which in times past thou in words worthily to express. Thou pouredst on thine own chosen people hast called us to the knowledge Israel ; yet shouldst thou do us of thy Gospel. Thou hast re- no wrong, neither could we deny leased us from the hard servitude but we had justly deserved the of Satan. Thou hast delivered us same. from all horrible and execrable “ But yet, O merciful Lord, thou idolatry, wherein we were utterly art our God, and we nothing but drowned, and hast brought us into dust and ashes; thou art our Creator, the most clear and comfortable light and we the work of thy hand; thou of thy blessed word, by which we art our Pastor, and we are thy flock; are taught how to serve and honour thou art our Redeemer, and we thy thee, and how to live orderly with people redeemed; thou art our Heaour neighbours, in truth and verity. venly Father, and we are thy chil. But we, most unmindful in times of dren. Wherefore punish us not, prosperity of these thy great benefits, O Lord, in thine anger, but chasten have neglected thy commandments, us in thy mercies. Regard not the have abused the knowledge of thy horror of our sins, but our unfeigned Gospel, and have followed our carnal repentance. Perfect that work which liberty, and served our own lusts, thou hast begun in us, that the whole and through our sinful life have not world may know that thou art our worshipped and honoured thee as we God and merciful Deliverer. Thy ought to have done. And now, 0 people of Israel oftentimes offended Lord, being even compelled with thy thee, and thou most justly afflictedst correction, we so most humbly con- them; but as oft as they returned fess that we have sinned, and have to thee, thou didst receive them to most grievously offended thee by mercy; and though their sins were many and sundry ways. And if never so great, yet thou always thou, O Lord, wouldest now, being turnedst thy wrath away from them, provoked with our disobedience, so and the punishment prepared for deal with us as thou mightest, and them; and that for thy covenant as we have deserved, there remain- sake, which thou madest with thy eth nothing else to be looked for, servants Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. but universal and continual plagues Thou hast made the same covenant in this world, and hereafter eternal with us, O Heavenly Father; or radeath and damnation, both of our ther a covenant of more excellency bodies and our souls. For if we and efficacy, and that, namely, would excuse ourselves, our own through the mediation of thy Son consciences would accuse us before Jesus Christ our Saviour, with whose Thee, and our own disobedience most precious blood it pleased thee and wickedness would bear witness that this covenant should be, as it against us; yea, even thy plagues were, written, sealed, and confirmed,
Whereupon, O Heavenly Father, we tinue thine, and ever praise thy holy now, casting away all confidence in Name; and by thy great mercy be ourselves, or any other creatures, do partakers of grace in this life, and flee to this most holy covenant and eternal glory in the life to come. testament wherein our Lord and Sa. Grant us these, and all other our viour Jesus Christ once offered him- humble petitions, O merciful Father, self a sacrifice for us on the cross, for thy dear Son's sake, Jesus Christ and hath reconciled us to thee for our Lord. Amen.” ever. , Look, therefore, O merciful Such was this long, but truly adLord, not upon the sins which we mirable prayer, the whole, or parts continually commit, but upon our of which were used on subsequent Mediator and Peacemaker, Jesus occasions. The other two are Christ; that by his intercession thy shorter ; but we need not quote wrath may be pacified, and we again further after this ample extract. by thy fatherly countenance relieved The “order for the general fast," and comforted. Receive us into thy which follows, acknowledges it as a heavenly defence, and govern us by national sin that there had been no thy Holy Spirit, to frame in us a fast hitherto during the queen's reign, newness of life, therein to laud and and the present solemnity was intendmagnify thy blessed Name for ever; ed to be the beginning of a more godly and to live, every one of us, accord- course. As the doctrine applies to our ing to the several states of life where- own times quite as much as to the day unto thou, Lord, hast ordained us, in of Elizabeth, we copy the passage.godly fear and trembling before thee. “ It is most evident to them that And although we are unworthy, 0 read the Scriptures, that both in the Heavenly Father, by means of our old church under the Law, and in former foul life, to crave any thing the primitive church under the Gosof thee, yet because thou hast com- pel, the people of God had alway manded us to pray for all men, we used general fasting, both in times most humbly, here upon our knees, of common calamities, as war, famine, beseech thee save and defend thy pestilence, &c., and also when any holy church. Be merciful, O Lord, weighty matter touching the estate to all common-weals, countries, of the church or the commonwealth princes, and magistrates; and espe- was begun or intended. And it cially to this our realm, and to our cannot be denied but that in this most gracious queen and governor our time wherein many things have Elizabeth ; increase the number of been reformed according to the docgodly ministers, and endue them with trine and examples of God's word thy grace to be found faithful and and the primitive church, this part prudent in their office. Defend the of fasting and abstinence being always queen's majesty's council, and all in the Scriptures as a necessary comthat be in authority under her, or that panion joined to fervent prayer, hath serve in any place by her command- been too much neglected. Wherefore, ment in this realm. We commend for some beginning of redress therein, also to thy fatherly mercy all those it hath been thought meet to the that be in poverty, exile, imprison- queen’s majesty that in this contament, sickness, or any other kind of gious time of sickness and other adversity ; and namely (especially), troubles and unquietness, according those whom thy hand hath touched to the examples of the godly king with any contagious and dangerous Josaphat and the king of Nineveh, sickness, which we beseech thee, with others, a general fast should be O Lord, of thy mercy, when thy joined with general prayer through blessed will is, to remove from us : out her whole realm, and to be oband in the mean time grant us grace served of all her godly subjects in and true repentance, stedfast faith, manner and form following." Then and constant patience, that whether follow the directions to the following we live or die we may always con- effect.
“ All persons between the age of the same our most merciful Father, sixteen years and sixty (sick folks abhorring all wickedness and imand labourers in harvest, or other piety, and delighting in all rightegreat labours, only excepted) shall ousness and innocence, and willing eat but one only competent and mo- that we his people and children derate meal upon every Wednesday. should herein be conformed and beIn which said meal shall be used come like to our God and heavenly very sober and spare diet, without Father, that we might be also parvariety of kinds of meat, dishes, takers of his inheritance and everspices, confections, or wines, but lasting kingdom ; in his Holy Scriponly such as may serve for necessity, tures containing the perfect rule of comeliness, and health. Item, in that righteousness, and written for our meal it shall be indifferent to eat learning and direction towards his flesh or fish, so that the quantity be said kingdom, both by great threatsmall and no variety or delicacy beenings doth continually fear us from sought. Wherein every man hath all impiety and wickedness so disto answer to God if he in such pleasant to him, and also by most godly exercises contemn public order, large and gentle promises, like a or dissemble with God, pretending loving Father doth provoke and enabstinence and doing nothing less. tice to righteousness and holiness so Item, those that be of wealth and acceptable to him; and so leaveth hability, ought that day to abate nothing unessayed, no way unproved and diminish the costliness and va- whereby he may save us from perriety of their fare, and increase there- petual destruction, and bring us to with their liberality and alms towards life everlasting. To this end all the poor, that the same poor, which those threatenings of temporal pueither indeed lack food, or else that nishments and plagues, whereof the which they have is unseasonable and Scriptures are so full, are to be recause of sickness, may thereby be ferred, that we for fear of temporal relieved and charitably succoured, punishments, refraining from all unto be maintained in health. Last righteousness, might also escape of all, this day being in this manner eternal damnation, whereunto it appointed for a day of general prayer would finally bring us if we should and fasting, ought to be bestowed not by repentance turn from the by them which may forbear from same, and turn unto our God and bodily labour in prayer, study, read- most merciful Father, who would not ing or hearing of the Scriptures, or the destruction and death of sinners, good exhortations, &c. And when but rather that they should convert any dulness or weariness shall arise, and be saved. But when he perthen to be occupied in other godly ceiveth that neither gentleness can exercises; but no part thereof to be win us as his loving children, neispent in plays, pastimes, or idleness, ther fear and threatening can amend much less in lewd, wicked, or wanton us, as being most stubborn and behaviour.”
rebellious servants; at the last he A homily was composed for the performeth in deed, that which he occasion, entitled " An Homily con- hath so often threatened, and of cerning the Justice of God in pu- fatherly sufferance and mercy so nishing of impenitent Sinners, and long, upon hope of amendment, deof his Mercies towards all such as ferred, his longanimity and pain their Aflictions unfeignedly turn tience being now overcome with our unto Him. Appointed to be read stony hardness and obstinate impeniin the time of sickness.” This we tency. After this sort, we shall find presume was the identical homily by the Holy Scriptures, and histories drawn up by Dean Nowel. We sub. ecclesiastical, that he hath dealt with join a portion of it:
his people of all ages; namely, the " The most righteous God, and Israelites, whom in sundry places
in the xxvi th of Leviticus, and and rebellious; and indeed the xxviiith of Deuteronomy, as well by whole writings of the prophets, and fair promises as by menaces, he la- universally of all the Scriptures, be boureth to bring to due obedience of nothing else but like callings to true his law, which is perfect righteous- obedience, and to repentance from ness. If (saith he) thou hear the our transgressions by like promises voice of the Lord thy God, and keep and threatenings, yea, and greater his commandments, all these shall also, as by promise of life everlasting come upon thee: Thou shalt be to the faithful, obedient, penitent, blessed in the city and in the field; and contrarily of everlasting damnathe seed of thy body, the fruit of the tion and death to the stubborn, earth, the increase of thy cattle rebellious, and impenitent sinners. (Lev. xxvi.) shall be blessed, &c.' And to prosecute this matter, when • Thou shalt have seasonable wea- the Jews were monished, remother, fruitful ground, victory of the nished, prayed, threatened so oft by enemies, and after quiet peace in so many prophets, and all in vain, thy coasts ; and I will be thy loving did not the Lord at the last bring Lord and God, thy aid and defender, upon them all those evils which he and thou shalt be my beloved people: had threatened ? namely, famine, but if thou wilt not hear the voice war, and pestilence, as we may read of the Lord thy God, nor keep his at large in the Books of Judges, commandments, but despise his laws, Kings, and Chronicles; in the La&c., all these curses shall come upon mentations of Jeremiah, namely, the thee: Thou shalt be cursed in the iid, ivth, and vth chapters. And in city and in the field; thy barns, all other places of the prophets and the thy storehouses shall be cursed, the Old Testament, containing the desfruit of thy body, of thy cattle, and cription of extreme famines, horrible of thy ground shall be cursed; thou wars and captivities, and dreadful shalt be cursed going out and coming plagues, whereby God punished and in; the Lord shall send thee famine afflicted his people for their sins and necessity: He shall strike thee and rebellion against him most with agues, heats and colds, with sharply; yea, and when all this pestilences and all other evil dis- could not amend them but that they eases, yea, and with all the botches waxed worse under the rod and corand plagues of Egypt: He shall rection, did he not at the last, which make heaven over thee as it were is most horrible, utterly destroy them of brass, and the earth which thou with famine, war, and pestilence ?” treadest on as it were of iron : He We here take leave of this intershall send thee unseasonable wea- esting service, to which we have ther, &c., wars, and overthrow thee devoted a greater space than we at thine enemies' hands, and thy car- shall do to others, both because it rion shall be a prey to the birds of was the first form issued in the reign the air and the beasts of the earth, of Elizabeth, and because it served and there shall be no man to drive as a basis for various forms on simithem away :' and so forth, many lar occasions for more than a century more most horrible evils and mis- afterwards; not excepting the long chiefs written at large in those two prayer at which the good archbishop chapters, where we may see how was so much alarmed, but which lovingly on the one part he pro- with much pleasure we observe copied miseth to the obedient, and how into the forms for 1635, 1636, and terribly on the other part he threat- perhaps some others. eneth the disobedient, and how “The secretary Cecil," says Strype, largely and at length he prosecuteth“ prevailed with the Queen to send the matter, especially in the threat- her letters to the Archbishop of York, enings and menaces, most meet for to enjoin him to cause the form to be the Jews, a people ever stiff-necked used there." What need there was