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FIRST: Extraordinary Officers.

I. Temporary officers belonging only to the Apostolic period: 1. The

apostles ; 2. The prophets.

II. Officers permanently existing, but not essential to the full organiza-

tion of a church : 1. Evangelists; 2. Teachers and preachers.

SECOND: Ordinary Officers.

I. Pastor8.-1. The terms bishop, presbyter, pastor, designations of one

office; 2. The duties of pastors, preaching of the gospel, adminis-

tration of ordinances, and spiritual oversight of the church ; 3. Pas-

tors not a mediating priesthood with sacrificial and absolving powers;

4. The number of pastors in each church not fixed by Scripture ;

5. A ruling eldership, as it exists under Presbyterianism, has nei-

ther precept nor example in Scripture.

II. Deacons.—1. The office permanent in the church; 2. Deacons chosen

by the congregation and ordained by the ministry; 3. Their duty is
to administer the temporal affairs of the church; 4. Importance of
the office indicated by qualifications required; 5. Deacons not, as
under episcopacy, a third order of spiritual officers.

SECTION VIII.

ORDINATION OF CHURCH OFFICERS......

82

The scriptural form simple: 1. The ministry alone confer ordination;

2. The co-operation of other churches to be sought; 3. The form is

prayer and the laying on of hands; 4. It confers no new internal grace

or power.

The theory of apostolic succession stated; arguments against: 1. The

sacerdotal powers supposed to be transmitted were not possessed
by the apostles; 2. The Scriptures are silent as to the necessity of
such a succession; 3. Ordination in Scripture did not, in fact, ccn-
fer a new grace or power; 4. If such a succession is essential, there
is no evidence of a valid ministry on earth; 5. It is incredible that sal-
vation is made dependent on a succession so impossible to prove.

I. The mutual watch-care of the members by encouragement, counsel,

admonition, and rebuke.

II. The adjustment of private personal grievances.

III. The adjustment of differences affecting worldly affairs.
IV. Procedure in case of public offences, embracing all offences against

the faith and life required in a church member. Nature and effect of
exclusion. Discipline of a minister; peculiar, in that, 1. An accusa-
tion to be received with unusual caution; 2. As a council was had to
invest with the ministerial office, it should also be had to divest of it.

I. The number of the ordinances.

II. The administration of ordinances.

III. Obligation of the ordinances.

IV. Efficacy of the ordinances : 1. Symbols, or sensible representations of

the vital, essential truths of the gospel; 2. Symbolic acts, in which

a profession is made of personal faith in these truths.

V. Ordinances, in their form and order, not to be changed by man.

SECTION II.

THE FORM OF BAPTISM....................

118

I. THE CLASSIC USAGE OF BAPTIZO: Definitions of Conant, Anthon,

Stuart, Liddell and Scott.

II. SEPTUAGINT USAGE OF BAPTIZO: Examination of Judith xii. 7;

Sirach xxxiv. 25.

III. New TESTAMENT USAGE OF BAPTIZO: Always used with the funda-

mental idea of immersion, either literal or figurative. 1. The classic

and Septuagint usage requires this sense in the New Testament, unless

plain indications show à departure from it. 2. The lexicons of the

New Testament, both earlier and later, almost without exception,

restrict the meaning of baptizo to immersion. 3. The construction

in which baptizo is found implies the sense of immersion. 4. The

passages usually adduced as admitting a different sense do, in fact,

require the sense of immersion. Passages examined, Mark vii. 3, 4;

Luke xi. 37, 38; Acts ii. 41; Heb. ix. 10. 5. The baptisms of the

New Testament, in the circumstances attending them, prove that the

ordinance was an immersion. Instances examined: baptisms of

John in the Jordan and at Enon; the baptism of Christ; of the

eunuch; of the jailer. 6. The figurative usage of baptizo requires

immersion as the fundamental idea. Passages examined, Luke xii.

50; Matt. xx. 22, 23; Acts i. 5; Rom. vi. 3,4; 1 Cor. x. 1,2; 1 Pet. iii.

21. 7. The design of baptism, as an ordinance, indicates immersion

as the only form of administration.

IV. THE PATRISTIC USAGE OF BAPTIzo: The form of the act shown by the

following: 1. The words and circumstances found in connection with

the rite; 2. Those passages in which the force of a comparison or
argument depends on an immersion ; 3. The general opposition to

clinic baptism; 4. The testimony of all reputable historians.
V. SUBSEQUENT USAGE OF CHRISTENDOM: 1. The Greek churches; 2. The

Roman Catholic Church; 3. The German and Swiss Reformers ; 4. The
churches of Great Britain. Result of investigation: Immersion, as

the primitive form, the doctrine of a vast majority of Christendom.

VI. BAPTISM AS REPRESENTED IN ANCIENT MONUMENTS AND ART: 1. Bap-

tisteries ; 2. Mosaics and frescoes ; 3. Representations and baptisteries

in the catacombs.

VII. OBJECTIONS CONSIDERED: 1. Immersion always inconvenient, often

dangerous, and sometimes impossible; 2. Immersion, though the

scriptural form, is not essential.

VIII. DR. DALE'S THEORY: BAPTISM NEVER AN IMMERSION: 1. Statement

of the theory; 2. Examination of his fundamental positions ; 3. Ex-
amination of the theory as applied to the New Testament; 4. Exam-
ination of the theory as applied to patristio literature.

FIRST: ARGUMENTS FOR INFANT BAPTISM.

I. From the covenant of circumcision : Statement of the argument.

Reply: 1. The conclusion not contained in the premises; 2. The con-

clusion disproved by an analysis of the Abrahamic covenant; 3. Bap-

cism not the substitute of circumcision in any such sense as to render

the terms of admission to the one also the terms of admission to the

other; and this is the only point in question; 4. The Scripture pas,

sages commonly adduced for the Abrahamic covenant as a ground

of infant baptism furnish a decisive argument against it. Examina-

tion of Col. ii. 11, 12; Rom. xi. 16–24.
II. FROM SCRIPTURE PASSAGES: Examination of Matt. xix. 13–15; Acts

ii. 38, 39; 1 Cor. vii. 14; Acts xvi. 15, 32–34; 1 Cor. i. 16.

SECOND: ARGUMENTS AGAINST INFANT BAPTISM.

I. The Scriptures invariably require a personal faith in Christ as a pre-

requisite to baptism : 1. The ministerial commission; 2. Apostolic

example and teaching.

II. The character and spirit of the new dispensation requires a spiritual

church membership: The new covenant as contrasted with the Mosaic.

Jer. 31:31-34.

III. Infant baptism is useless to those who receive it: Utility conceivable

only when regarded as of saving efficacy ; but this now rejected by

evangelical Christians.

IV. Infant baptism in itself wrong, and its ultimate results evil: 1. It is

will-worship ; 2. It is the perversion of a divine ordinance; 3. Its prac-
tical tendency is to a false and fatal dependence on a mere ceremony;
4. Its results, as seen in history, are disastrous to the purity and

power of the church of God.

V. Infant baptism unknown in the first two Christian centuries : 1. Passages

cited (i) from the apostolic Fathers; (2) from the early Christian

Fathers. Results : No trace of infant baptism in first two centuries ;

tendencies to it appearing in North Africa during first half of third

century; no evidence of it elsewhere until later period. 2. It was

founded on its supposed necessity and efficacy; proof of this. 3. It

only slowly spread through the Roman Empire in third, fourth, and

fifth centuries. Proofs : (1) From catechumenical system; (2) from the

baptism of many Fathers in adult age, though of Christian parentage;

(3) from the highest historical testimony.

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