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“ From the rising of the sun eren unto the going down of the same vs Same shall be great among the Gentiles; and in every place incense shall be offered unto My Name, and a Pure Offering : for My Name shall be great among the heathen, saith the LORD of hosts."-VALACHI i. 11.
« This do in remembrance of Me."-LCKE XXü. 19.
• “ He that eateth Me, even he shall live by Ve."-Johx vi. 57.
“In the midst of the throne, and of the four living creatures, and in the midst of the elders, stood a Lamb, as it had been slain.”—REVELATION v. 6.
INTRODUCTION TO THE LITURGY.
Is the ancient Church of England, as in all other branches of latter word appears to have been derived from classical Greek the Western Church, the Celebration of the Holy Communion, through the Septuagint. seltoupyía originally signified the and the Office for its celebration were designated by the common public duties, or office, of any sectoupyós, or public officer, and name of “Missa ),” the true technical meaning of which word especially of those persons who had to undertake the principal is probably the “Offering,” and which assumed the form of care and expense of public entertainments. In the Septuagint, "Mass” in the vernacular tongue. This name was retained in the use of the word was restricted to the public Service of the 1549, the title of the Office in the Prayer Book of that date Sanctuary [Numb. iv. 12. 26. 1 Chron. xxvi. 30]; and in the New being, “The Supper of the Lord, and the Holy Communion, Testament it passes on to the Christian Divine Service, which, commonly called the Mass ;" but it was dropped in 1552, has not during that age, and until the destruction of the Jewish system, since appeared in the Prayer Book, and has been generally disused consisted almost entirely of the celebration of the Holy Commu. in the Church of England as a name either for the Office or the nion. In the Primitive Church, “ The Liturgy” meant both the Rite: the latter being most frequently called the Holy Commu- Office and the Rite itself, just as “ Mass" did in the Mediaval nion, or the Holy Eucharist, and the Office being conveniently Church; but in more recent times it has been restricted to the distinguished by the Primitive name of “ The iturgy.” This
Office alone 3.
THE HISTORY OF THE LITURGY. Like the rest of the Prayer Book, the English Liturgy is an But as the words with which our Lord “blessed” the elements, inheritance from former ages. It was principally translated, in the and with which He “gave thanks,” are not recorded, it can only first instance, from the Ordinarium Missæ, and Canon Missæ of be concluded that He left them to the inspired memory of His the Salisbury Use, which had been the chief rule of Divine Ser. Apostles ; to whom, at the proper time, the Holy Spirit was to vice in the Church of England, from A.D. 1085 to A.D. 1549, a call all things to remembrance that our Lord had taught them period of nearly five hundred years. The Mass of the Salisbury for the work which they had to do. It may well have been, also, Rite (as well as of other English rites, such as those of York, that further details respecting the celebration of this principal Hereford, Bangor, and Lincoln) was a revised form of a more rite of the Church were among those “things pertaining to the ancient Service, which had been in some very slight degree kingdom of God” which our Lord communicated to the Apostles influenced by the Roman under St. Augustine and his successors, during the forty days between His Resurrection and Ascension. but which substantially represented the Liturgy used also in the There is, however, no strong evidence that the Apostles adopted, Churches of France and Spain : and this Liturgy was derived or handed down, one uniform system of celebrating the Holy from the great Patriarchate of Ephesus, which was founded by Communion, except in respect to these central features of the rite. the Apostle St. Paul, and ruled by the Apostle St. John for many Proclus, Patriarch of Constantinople in the fifth century, asserts fears before his death? To understand this independent primi. that the Apostles arranged a Liturgy before they parted for their tive origin of the English Liturgy, it will be necessary to trace out several fields of labour (see Bona, Rer. Liturg. I. v. 3], and a shortly the course of liturgical history from the first.
passage from a Homily of St. Chrysostom [Ad Cor. xxvii. 7], in When our Blessed Lord instituted the Sacrament of the Holy which he says, “Consider, when the Apostles partook of that Communion, and commanded it to be perpetually celebrated, He holy supper, what they did ? Did they not betake themselves to ised the words, “This do in remembrance of Me," and thus im- prayers and hymns ?” has been supposed to signify the same posed a certain form upon the Apostles as the one which they settled character of the Liturgy which they used. On the other were to use in its celebration, and which would ever after be con- hand, St. Gregory appears to say [Ep. lxiii.], that the Apostles sidered as essential by them, and the rest of the Church, as was used only the Lord's Prayer in consecrating the holy oblation; the form given by Christ for Holy Baptisın. This essential and although it is certain his words must not be taken strictly, nucleas of the Liturgy consisted of at least Benediction, the they may be considered to show that the Apostolic form of Liturgy breaking of the Bread, the giving of thanks, and the taking of was not originally a long one. Bona considers that the diversity the Cup into the hands, as is seen from the Gospel narrative in the evidence may be reconciled by supposing that the Apostles Matt. xxvi. 22. Mark xiv. 22. Luke xxii. 19]; and also from used a short form (containing only the essential part of the rite), the special revelation made to St. Paul (1 Cor. xi. 23, 24]. when danger or other urgent circumstances gave them time for
no more; and that when time permitted they used a longer form ; 1 * Missa" is a name of great antiquity, being found in an Epistle of St.
although even this longer form he believes must have been short, Ambrose to his sister Marcellina (Opera ii. 853, Bened, ed.). Many expla
compared with the Liturgies afterwards used, on account of the tations of the word have been given, but that of Cardinal Bona seems the difficulties which Christians experienced in celebrating Divine Ent reasonable, viz. that it is derived from the words “Ite missa est," with
Service during the age of persecutions. Several early liturgical hich the congregation is dismissed by the deacon at the conclusion of the service, and which are equivalent to the “Let us depart in peace
commentators allege that the development of the Liturgy was
" of the Eastem Liturgies. That the term comes from “mittendo" is equally clear, gradual; and the truth seems to be expressed by one of them 2nd as early as Micrologus we find the explanation " In festivis diebus, when he says, that the Lord Himself instituted the rite in the e nista est, dicitur, quia tunc generalis conventus celebrari solet, qui per
simple manner narrated in the Gospel, that the Apostles added Lujusmodi denuntiationem licentiam discendi accipere solet" (xlvi.).
some things to it (as, for example, the Lord's Prayer), and that Thomas Aquinas explains the word as meaning that the sacrifice of the Ey Eucharist has been sent up to God by the ministration of an 92 89, art. iv.] : and as foreite, “ do this," is well known to have a techni. 3 Inexact writers sometimes designate the whole of the Offices used in 2. association with sacrifice, so doubtless has "missa."
Divine Service by the name of “the Liturgy," but it is much more proper, ? See pp. xvii, xviii, of the Historical Introduction,
as well as convenient, to limit the use of the word as above.
then some of their successors appointed Epistles and Gospels to whose Catechetical Lectures (preached in the latter half of the be read; others, hymns to be sung; and others, again, made fourth century) are expressly on the subject of the Holy Euchasuch additions to the Liturgy from time to time as they con- rist, and describe the Service minutely. In the Apostolical Considered suitable for contributing to the glory of God in the holy stitutions, written in the third century, there is a Liturgy, or Sacrament'. The Gospels and Epistles were certainly not written synopsis of one, which has been called by the name of St. Clement, until a Liturgy had been in use for many years, in some form. but appears to be that of St. James; and with the latter also
The ancient Liturgies which remain, show, nevertheless, so agrees the description of the celebration of the Eucharist which much general agreement as to bring conviction to the mind that is given by Justin Martyr, who was a native of Samaria (within they were all of them originally derived from some common the Patriarchate of Antioch), and died about sixty years only source; and the same kind of synthetic criticism which traces after St. John. From this evidence it appears almost certain, back all known languages to three original forms of speech, can that the Liturgy of St. James which is used by the Monophysites, also trace back the multitude of differing Liturgies which are and that which is used on the feast of St. James by the orthodox used by the various Churches of East and West to a few,—that Church of Jerusalem, are versions of the primitive Liturgy which is to say, four or five,-normal types, all of which have certain was used for the celebration of the Holy Communion in Judæa strong features of agreement with each other, pointing to a and the surrounding countries in the age which immediately derivation from the same liturgical fountain. That there is any followed that of the Apostles. From it St. Basil's Liturgy was difference at all in these may be attributed probably to three derived, and from St. Basil's that of St. Chrysostom, which is the causes : (1) T}at the Apostles did not limit themselves or others ore used at the present day in the Eastern Church, and in Russia. solely to the use of the central and essential portion of the rite; The Liturgy of St. Mark, or of Alexandria, is known to and that while this was substantially kept uniform by them all, have been used by the orthodox Churches of North-eastern Africa each added such prayers as he saw fit. (2) That Liturgies were, down to the twelfth century, and is still nsed in several forms by to a certain extent, adapted to the circumstances of the various the Monophysites, who supplanted them. The most authentic nations among whom they were to be used, by such changes in form of it is that entitled, “The Liturgy of Mark which Cyril the non-essential portions, and such additions, as appeared desira- perfected,” and which is extant in the Coptic, or vernacular lanble to the Patriarch or Bishop. (3) That as Liturgies were not guage of Egypt, as well as in Greek, in MSS. of very ancient committed to writing until the end of the second century 3, diver- date. This Liturgy is traceable, by a chain of evidence similar to sities of expression, and even greater changes, would naturally that mentioned in the preceding paragraph, to the second century, arise, among the variety of which it would be impossible to to which date it is assigned by Bunsen. Palmer says respecting recover the exact original, and therefore to establish an authori. it, “We can ascertain with considerable certainty the words and tative uniformity.
expressions of the Alexandrian Liturgy before the Council of It may be added that the lawfulness of an authorized diversity Chalcedon, A.D. 451; and we can trace back its substance and in non-essential rites, when combined with an orthodox uniformity order to a period of far greater antiquity. In fact, there is in those which are essential, has always been recognized by the nothing unreasonable in supposing that the main order and subCatholic Church 3; and that this principle is stated in the 34th stance of the Alexandrian Liturgy, as used in the fifth century, Article of Religion of the Church of England.
may have been as old as the Apostolic age, and derived originally Of the many Liturgies which are very ancient there are several from the instructions and appointment of the blessed Evangelist 7." which undoubtedly belong to the primitire age of Christianity, The Liturgy of St. Peter, or of Rome, is found, substantially and from these all others that are known (as has been already as it is used in the Latin Church at the present day, in the Sacrasaid) have evidently branched off. They are the Liturgies which mentaries of St. Gregory (A.D. 590), Gelasius (A.D. 491], and St. go by the names of St. James, St. Mark, St. Peter, and St. John; Leo (A.D. 483], although many additions have been made to it in the first was the Liturgy of Jerusalem, the second of Alexandria, later times. The Roman Liturgy is attributed to St. Peter by the third of Rome, and the fourth of Ephesus *.
ancient liturgical commentators, who founded their opinion The Liturgy of St. James, or of Jerusalem, was that used in chiefly upon a passage in an Epistle of Innocent, Bishop of Rome Palestine and Mesopotamia, the dioceses of both which countries in the fifth century, to Decentius, Bishop of Euzubium 8. But no were included within the Patriarchate of Antioch. A singular doubt St. Innocent refers to the “Canon of the Mass" (as it has proof of its primitive antiquity is found in the fact that the been called in later ages), that part of the Office which begins Monophysite heretics, who now occupy all these dioceses, use a with the actual consecration of the Sacrament. There seems no Syriac Liturgy which they attribute to St. James, and which is reason to believe that this confident opinion of so eminent a Bishop nearly identical with that attributed to him by the orthodox, be- in the fifth century was otherwise than correct; and like the pretween whom and the Monophysites there has been no intercom- ceding Liturgies, that of Rome may reasonably be assigned to the munion since the Council of Chalcedon, which was held A.D. 451. age succeeding the Apostles. St. Gregory revised the variable Such a coincidence goes far to prove that this Liturgy is at least parts of this Liturgy, the Collects, Epistles, and Gospels ; but fourteen centuries old, and also offers some evidence that it was the only change which he made in the Ordinary and the Canon the one in use by the Churches of the Patriarchate of Antioch before the great division which arose out of the Eutychian
s Justin Martyr describes the celebration of the Holy Eucharist, about heresy. The Liturgy of St. James is also mentioned in the
A.D. 140, in the following terms :-"Upon the day called Sunday we have 32nd Canon of the Constantinopolitan Council held in Trullo, an assembly of all who live in the towns or in the country, who meet in an A.D. 691; and traces of it are to be found in the writings of appointed place; and the records of the Apostles, or the writings of the Fathers who lived or had lived within the Patriarchate of Antioch,
Apostles, are read, according as the time will permit. When the reader has
ended, then the Bishop [ó apoeOtwr) admonishes and exhorts us in a dis. and may thus be supposed to have been familiar with its words.
course that we should imitate such good examples. After that we all stand Among such are Theodoret, St. Jerome, St. Chrysostom (once a up and pray, and, as we said before, when that prayer is ended bread is priest of Antioch), and St. Cyril, Bishop of Jerusalem, two of offered, and wine and water. Then the Bishop also, according to the
authority given him loon dúvauis aute], sends up (avanÉutei, cf. missa est)
prayers and thanksgivings; and the people end the prayer with him, saying. I Gemma Animæ, i. 86. Walafrid. Strabo de Rebus Eccles. xxii.
Amen. After which, distribution is made of the consecrated elements, 2 This rule was observed from feelings founded on our Lord's words, which are also sent by the hands of the deacons to those who are absent." "Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls (Justin. Mart., Apol.) before swine." (Matt. vii. 6.) For the same reason great reserve was used 6 Analecta Ante-Nicæna iii, 106.
7 Origin. Liturg. i. 105. in speaking and writing on the subject of the Holy Eucharist, and hence 8 “Si instituta ecclesiastica, ut sunt a beatis apostolis tradita, integra little can be learned from the Fathers of the first three centuries about the vellent servare Domini sacerdotes, nulla diversitas, nulla varietas in ipsis mode in which it was celebrated.
ordinibus et consecrationibus haberetur-quis enim nesciat, aut non adver. 3 See, e. g., St. Gregory's Epistle to Augustine, p. xviii the His- tat, id quod a principe apostolorum Petro Romanæ Ecclesiæ traditum torical Introduction.
est ...?" (Labbe, Concil. ii. 1245.) Cardinal Bons remarks on a similar * To these Dr. Neale adds that of St. Thaddeus, used in Persia, and also passage from St. Isidore's writings, “Hoc de re et substantia, non de vercalled the "Liturgy of the East."
borum tenore et cæremoniis intelligendum est." (Rer. Liturg. I. vii. 5.)
mas by that addition of a few words which is noticed by the stitute that of the Roman Church. It was thus wholly disVenerable Bede (see p. 13, note]. From the Roman Liturgy in continued until the beginning of the sixteenth century, when its primitive form were derived that used by the Churches of Cardinal Ximenes endowed a college and chapel for the use of it North-western Africa, and the famous Ambrosian Rite which at Toledo, and there it still continues to be used. is used in the Church of Milan. Since the time of St. Gregory The early connexion between the Church of France and the this Liturgy has been used over a large part of the Western Church of England was so close, that there can be no reasonable Church, and is now the only one allowed by the See of Rome. doubt of the same Liturgy having been originally used in both
The Liturgy of St. John, or of St. Paul, i. e. the Ephesine countries. When St. Augustine came to England in A.D. 596, Liturgy, was the original of that which was used, probably in expecting to find it an altogether heathen land, he discovered three various forms, in Spain, France, and England during the that there was an ancient and regularly-organized Church, and earlier ages of Christianity, and the only one besides the Roman that its usages were different in many particulars from those of which obtained a footing in the Western Church. This appears any Church with which he had been previously acquainted (see to have been disused in the dioceses of which Ephesus was the p. xvii]. By the advice of St. Gregory he introduced some centre, at the time of the Council of Laodicea in Phrygia some changes into the Liturgy which he found in use; the changes time in the fourth century : the nineteenth Canon of that coming, not directly from the Roman Sacramentary of St. Council giving such directions respecting the celebration of the Gregory, but “from a sister rite, formed in the south of France Holy Communion as show that it substituted the Liturgy of St. by the joint action, probably, of St. Leo and Cassian, about two Basil and St. Chrysostom, which is still used in those dioceses. hundred years before [A.D. 420]; having a common basis, inBut
, at a much earlier date, missionaries had gone forth from the deed, with the Roman Office, but strongly tinctured with GalliChurch of Ephesus, and had planted the standard of Christianity can characteristics derived long ago from the East, and probably at Lyons, that city thus becoming the great centre from which enriched, at the time, by fresh importations of Oriental usages !.” the Church spread itself throughout France; and as late as A.D. Thus the Liturgy of the Church of England after St. Augustine's 177, the Christians of Lyons wrote to the Churches of Asia time became a modified form of the more ancient Gallican, which respecting the martyrdoms which had occurred in that city as to itself was originally the Liturgy of the Church of Ephesus, owing those who represented their mother Church, and had therefore a its germ to St. Paul or St. John. The English Church of St. special sympathy with them. The primitive Liturgy of Ephesus Augustine's day, and long after, distinctly averred that its thus became that of France, and, probably by the missionary
customs were derived from the latter Apostle; but in many parwork of the same apostolic men, of Spain also. This Liturgy ticulars the work of St. John and St. Paul appears to have tracontinued to be used in the French Church until the time of versed the same ground, as it certainly did in the Church of Charlemagne (A.D. 742—841). It had received such additions Ephesus, and probably did in the Church of England. from the hands of Musæus, Sidonius, and St. Hilary of Poictiers, The Liturgy thus derived from the ancient Gallican, and the 23 St. Gregory had made to the Roman rite, but these additions more recent version of it which had been introduced by Cassian, er alterations did not affect the body of the Liturgy, consisting, was again revised by St. Osmund, Bishop of Salisbury, in A.D. as they did, of Introits, Collects, and other portions of the Service 1085; and it was the same Liturgy which also formed the basis belonging to that which precedes the Ordinary and Canon. of the other slightly varying Offices that were used in different
The Gallican Liturgy was partly supplanted by the Roman in Dioceses of England, and have come down to us by the names of the time of Pepin, who introduced the Roman chant and psalmody these Dioceses. The Salisbury Liturgy eventually supplanted into the Churches of France; and was altogether superseded all the others which were used by the Church of England, and by Charlemagne, who obtained the Sacramentary of St. Gregory became the principal basis of the vernacular Liturgy which has from Rome, and issued an edict that all priests should celebrate now been used for more than 300 years in all the churches of the Holy Sacrament only in the Roman manner. In Spain the the Anglican communion ?. sine Liturgy had been used in a form called the Mozarabic; but The historical particulars thus given respecting the connexion by the influence of Pope Gregory VII., Alphonso VI., King of
between ancient and modern Liturgies may be conveniently Castille and Leon, was persuaded to do as Charlemagne had reduced into one general view by a tabular form :done in France, to abolish the use of the national rite and sub
Archd. Freeman's Principles of Div. Serv. II. ii. 405.
was only adopted by the English sect of Romanists about a hundred and fifty years ago.
§ Structure of Primitive Liturgies. In all the primitive Liturgies there is a consistency of structure which shows that they were based on one common model, or else on certain fixed principles. They consist of two principal por. tions, the Pro-Anaphora and Anaphora. The Anaphora, or Oblation, is represented in the Latin Liturgies by the Canon of the Mass, and in our English Office by the part which begins with the versicle, “Lift up your hearts." The Pro-Anaphora is represented by the Ordinary of the Mass, which is all that goes before the Sursum Corda. The general structure of each of these portions of the Liturgy is as follows, the respective portions of the several parts varying, however, in different Liturgies! :
Commemoration of the Institution.
The Lord's Prayer, preceded by a prayer of preparation, and followed by the Embolismus.
Adoration, with an appointed prayer.
Without going into very great detail it is impossible to show the elaborate character of the ceremonial, and of the responsive part of the primitive Liturgies. These details may all be found in the original languages, and also in Dr. Neale’s translation of the Primitive Liturgies; and it is sufficient here to say, that the early Christians appear to have had no thought of what is called "simplicity” in Divine Worship, their Liturgies exhibiting a complicated structure, much ceremony, and an elaborate symbolism. All of them agree in the above general characteristics, but there are variations in the order of the different parts, the chief of which are represented in the following table :
The Little Entrance, or bringing the book of the Gospels in procession to the Altar.
The Prayers after the Gospel (after these prayers the Catechumens left the Church, and only “the faithful” or baptized and confirmed persons remained).
The Great Entrance, or bringing the Elements in procession to the Altar.
§ Table showing the order in which the principal features of the Primitive Liturgies occur.
2. Lift up your hearts. 7. Prayer for the living. 2. Lift up your hearts. 2. Lift up your hearts.
8. Prayer for the departed. 3. Tersanctus.
7. Prayer for the living. 7. Prayer for the living. 1. Kiss of Peace. 4. Commemoration of In. 8. Prayer for the departed. 6. Prayer for descent of the 2. Lift up your hearts. stitution.
Holy Ghost. 5. The Oblation. 3. Tersanctus.
4. Commemoration of In. 3. Tersanctus.
stitution. 6. Prayer for descent of 4. Commemoration of In- 5. The Oblation.
4. Commemoration of In. the Holy Ghost. stitution.
stitution. 7. Prayer for the living. 5. The Oblation.
8. Prayer for the departed. 5. The Oblation. 8. Prayer for the departed. 6. Prayer for descent of 10. Union of the Consecrated 6. Prayer for descent of the
the Holy Ghost.
Holy Ghost. 9. The Lord's Prayer. 10. Union of the Consecrated 9. The Lord's Prayer.
10. Union of the Consecrated Elements.
Elements. 10. Union of the Consecrated 9. The Lord's Prayer.
1. Kiss of Peace.
9. The Lord's Prayer. Elements. 11. Communion. 11. Communion. 11. Communion.
11. Communion. 12. Thanksgiving. 12. Thanksgiving. 12. Thanksgiving.
It will be seen at once that the order of St. John, or the Ephesine Liturgy, is that which is most closely represented by our own Communion Office. The same correspondence between the two may also be traced in several particulars, in which the Liturgy of St. John differs from the other two Eastern Liturgies; especially in the provision of varying collects, and proper prefaces, and in the use of the versicle, “ Glory be to Thee, O Lord,” before the Gospel.
The Liturgy of St. John was handed down (as has been already stated) through the French Church, to which it was conveyed from Ephesus by missionaries, at a period very near to that of the Apostles themselves. The Gallican Liturgy itself is thus described by Palmer (Orig. Liturg. i. 158), “Germanus informs us, that the Liturgy began with an Anthem, followed by Gloria
Patri, after which the Deacon proclaimed silence; and a mutual salutation having passed between the priest and people, the hymn Trisagios, in imitation of the Greek rite, was sung, and was followed by Kyrie eleëson, and the song of Zacharias the prophet beginning Benedictus, after which the priest read a collect, entitled Post prophetiam, in the Gallican missals. The office so far, though ancient, cannot be traced to the most primitive ages of the Gallican Church, as doubtless the Liturgy origi. nally began with the lessons from Holy Scripture, which I now proceed to consider.
“A lesson from the prophets or Old Testament was first read, then one from the Epistles, which was succeeded by the hymn of the three children, Benedicite, and the Holy Gospel. In later times the book of the Gospels was carried in procession to the pulpit by the Deacon, who was accompanied by seven men bearing lighted tapers, and the choir sung Anthems before and after the Gospel. After the Gospel was ended, the Priest or Bishop preached, and the Deacon made prayers for the people (probably in imitation of the Greek Liturgies, where a litany of the kind
" It is almost needless to say that Dr. Neale's works on the Eastern Church and the Primitive Liturgies should be referred to by those who wish for further details.