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and beautiful structure of things, of the creatures seem to have but so wisely adapted for final causes, one sense, or two at the most : exalts our idea of the contriver, touch and taste. Ought such an while the unity of design which animal to conclude against the expervades the whole shews him to istence of odours, sounds, and be one.

The great motions in the colours ? To another species is system, performed with the same given the sense of smelling. This facility as the least, evince his al- is an advance in the knowledge of mighty power which gave motion the powers and properties of nato the earth and the celestial bodies ture: but if this favoured' animal with equal ease as to the minutest should infer from its superiority particles. The simplicity of the over the class last described, that laws that prevail in the world, the it perceived every thing which was admirable disposition of things in perceptible in nature, it is known order to attain the best ends, and to us, ihough perhaps not suspected the beauty


where adorns by the animal itself, that it prothe works of nature, infinitely su- ceeded upon a false and presumpperior to the utmost efforts of art, tuous estimate of its faculties. To suggest his consummate wisdom ; another is added the sense of while the usefulness of the whole hearing, which lets in a class of scheme, so excellently adapted to sensations entirely unconceived by the purposes of the intelligent the animal before spoken of; not beings that possess it, together only distinct, but remote from any with the internal disposition and which it ever experienced, and moral structure of these beings greatly superior to them. Yet this themselves, shew his unbounded last animal has no more ground for goodness. These are arguments believing that its senses compresufficiently open to the views and hend all things, and all properties capacities of the unlearned, while of things which exist, than might they, at the same time, acquire have been claimed by the tribes of new strength and lustre from the animals beneath it; for we know discoveries of the learned. The that it is still possible to possess operations of the Deity, and his another sense, that of sight, which interposition in the affairs of the shall disclose to the percipient a universe, shew that as he originally new world. This fifth sense makes formed, so he still continues to the animal what the human animal govern it, and the depth of his is; but to infer that possibility counsels, even in conducting the stops here, that either this fifth is material universe, of which a great the last sense, or that the five part surpasses our knowledge, is comprehend all existence, is just calculated to inspire an inward as unwarrantable a conclusion as veneration of that great Being, that which might have been made and to dispose us to receive what by any of the different species revelation may further teach us which possessed fewer, or even by concerning Him.

that, if such there be, which posBut, no man hath seen God sessed only one. The conclusion at any time.” And this, says a of the one-sense animal, and the late eminent writer, makes the great conclusion of the five-sense animal difficulty; but it is a difficulty stand upon the same authority. which chiefly arises from our not There may be more and other senses duly estimating the state of our than those which we have; senses faculties. The Deity is the object suited to the perception of the of none of our senses; but then powers, properties, and substance we should reflect what limited ca- of spirits. These may belong to pacities animal senses are. Many higher orders of rational agents;


15 for there is not the smallest reason, the characters of divinity are less to suppose that we are the highest, evident ? Do we not find such or that the scale of creation stops characters in the works of creawith us.

See Mr. Maclaurin's tion? The heavens declare the Account of Sir Isaac Newton's glory of God, and the firmament Discoveries, and Dr. Paley's Na- sheweth forth bis handywork. The tural Theology

invisible things of God, even his eternal power and Godhead, are

clearly to be learned from the ANALOGY

things that he hath made. In the

universal frame of nature may be A SOURCE OF EVIDENCE.

read the power, the wisdom, and

the goodness of the Author of In all human productions of the nature. If the works of creation same brand, we find a certain simi- by being what they are, discover litude, by means of which a critical whose they are, why should it be observer may, in most cases, de thought a thing incredible that the termine the author, without


word of God should manifest itself further information. The lines and to be his, by its own intrinsic colourings of a picture may possess light, and beauty, and majesty ? such peculiar characteristics, as to Is it improbable that men should perpetuate the name and credit of know the scriptures to be the word the artist without any written eu- of God, in a way analogous to logy; insomuch that performances that in which they know the world seen in different countries shall be to be his work? Can we distinconfidently and justly attributed to guish the face, the voice, the writthe same author. The proportions ings of one man from those of anof a building may discover who is other ? Does a lamb know the the architect, with more truth and voice of its dam? Can sheep disprecision than a name graven in tinguish the voice of their shepstone. An author's style shall be as herd from that of a stranger? And certain a criterion for distinguishing why, then, may there not be such the productions of his pen as the an impress of God on his word, very features of his face are to ascer- as that all whom the god of this tain the identity of his person while world hath not blinded, can disliving. And this observation ex- tinguish it by that impress from tends also to moral conduct; for, every human composition, even as notwithstanding the great variety when the sun is risen, we need no of modes of action, mankind ad further evidence to convince us here to national principles, con- that it is day. sidered as collective bodies; and each man to his own principles considered as an individual. Hence

QUERIES. arises that opinion which one man Sir, forms of another from a line of If you will be so kind as to insert the conduct, which shall enable him to following queries in your Magazine, you

will greatly oblige judge with a high degree of pro

Your humble Servant, bability whether any specific action be justly attributed to any par

Dec. 9, 1814.


1. Can that person be a hypoThe application of these re- crite who wishes not to be one? marks is obvious. Is there a cha- 2. What means should a backracter in the works of man, which slider adopt to be restored to the indicates the author; and shall we favour of God, and the enjoyment suppose that in the works of God l of him in divine ordinances ?

ticular person.


Cheological Review.

A Charge delivered to the Clergy of establishing the national system of

the Diocese of London, at the pri- of education. mary Visitation of that Diocese, in But excusing, if possible, this meathe year 1814. By William Lord gre eulogium, probably demanded Bishop of London. Hatchard. 36. by the etiquette of office, rather than

by the rigid claims of justice, we It will probably be recollected by have the pleasure to announce that some of our readers, that the adminis- the Charge delivered by the present tration of the late bishop of London, metropolitan contains some useful though short, was chiefly distin- and important truths, and that his guished by its decided hostility to lordship’s sentiments are decidedly the Evangelical clergy, and its vigi- orthodox. He does not hesitate to lance in warding the diocese from aver his conviction, that the prothe intrusion of inethodistical here. fession of Unitarian tenets affords a sy. The friends of Dr. Povah, and convenient shelter to many, who the inhabitants of Fulham, will not would be more properly, termed easily forget the ecclesiastical disci- Deists, and who, by the boldness of pline which deprived them of their their interpolations, omissions, and pastors; nor will the candid and perversions ; by the indecency of considerate of

any denomination for their insinuations against the veracibear to lament the unreasonable in- ty of the inspired writers; by their discretion in which it originated. familiar levity on the awful mysteDr. Randolph was unhappily born a ries of religion, and their disrespectcentury too late for the high station ful reflections on the person and ache was destined to occupy; and his tions of their Saviour , are distinantediluvian notions were but ill a- guished from real Unitarians, and dapted to the commencement of the betray the true secret of the flimsy nineteenth century.

disguise which they have assumed as His reverend successor, though a a cover from the odium of avowed far more enlightened prelate, has infidelity.” He also very properly passed over, as might be expected, considers it creditable to the religithe obnoxious proceedings of the ous character of the age,

" that inlate bishop, fitted only for other re- fidelity is reduced to sue for admitgions and other times; and has very tance in the garb of Christianity." courteously ascribed the tendency of pp. 15, 16. his general administration to a com- Equally averse to the opposite exmendable endeavour to prevent“con- tremes of Puritanism, and Socinian fusion and disorder in the church; infidelity, the present bishop of Lonto replace ecclesiastical discipline on don is nearly as much alarmed at the its ancient footing; and to recover growing influence of the Evangelical the rights, and assert the legitimate clergy, as was his predecessor ; and authority of the spiritual governor.” considers that, “ deeper wounds have

wise policy” thus pursued, been inflicted on the church by the and which directed the expulsion of madness or folly of enthusiasts and one of the most eloquent of the cler- fanatics, than by the malice of her gy, for his becoming the strenuous most inveterate enemies." And and successful advocate of the Bible though he does not anticipate “ the Society, and for his decided attach- troubles excited by the Puritans” in ment to Evangelical truth ; at the former times, he thinks “ the evil to same time, that it sedulously pre- be reasonably apprehended is, a gravented the admission of men of a si- | dual diminution of attachment to the milar stamp into the diocese; consti- national church, which, in its inmetute the principal theme of the eulo- diaie effects, would abridge the gy, except, indeed, that we are in- sphere of her beneficial intiuence, formed, the late bishop of London and might lead, in its possibie conafforded his effective co-operation in sequences, to the subversion of an,

The i


17 establishment, the firmest support, | A Letter to his Excellency the Prince and the noblest ornament of Chris

of Talleyrand Perigord, &c. on the tianity.”—P. 18. How far his lord.

subject of the Slave Trade. By W. ship's fears are well founded, and

Wilberforce, Esq. M.P. pp. 84. how far genuine Christianity be capable of receiving any ornament Ar the moment when all England from human laws, are questions of is penetrated with horror at the fact, upon the discussion of which, thoughts of the renewal of the Slave as it would lead us far beyond what Trade, and feels ashamed that the saour limits will afford, we at present cred rights of justice and humanity forbear to enter.

should have been so easily surren“If ever the imputation of preach- dered to the avarice of continental ing morality to the neglect of gospel merchants, and the arrogance of intruth, attached to any considerable fidel politicians; we are rejoiced to proportion of the clergy,” the re- see the tried and faithful friend of verend prelate is “ firmly persuaded, Africa standing forward in her dethat there is no real foundation for fence, and pouring into the bosoms the charge at the present day;" and of Frenchmen the tears of commisecertainly none would rejoice more ration for her past misfortunes, and than ourselves, to be assured on good the pleas of truth and righteousness evidence, that such a persuasion for her future safety and protection. were well founded.

Mr. Wilberforce does this with an To the younger clergy, the bishop eloquence that is irresistible, and offers some excellent advice, both as with such a high degree of patriotic to the manner of discharging the du- and moral feeling, as to proclaim ties of the sacred office, and explain him the truest friend, and one of the ing the more abstruse and difficult brightest ornaments, of our species. points of theology: The Charge is the high ground on which these written with considerable elegance ; principles have placed him, gives to and, upon the whole, in a tone of his arguments and his character an moderation, sufficient to entitle it to elevation that must command the general applause. The following admiration of Talleyrand, if it does extract will furnish no unfavourable not utterly unman the prince," and specimen of his lordship’s style of make him tremble for himself. composition; and the sentiment con- The author begins by tracing the tained in it, is in unison with our origin of the Slave Trade, that " best feelings.

cursed plague of the human race;" “ From these considerations of domestic the vices and the miseries it inflicted prudence, our attention is now called to on the unoffending inhabitants of concerns of universal importance to the Africa. He then describes the unutChristian world. The convulsions which terable horrors of the middle pasthreatened to subvert the hallowed and ancient fabrics of religion, of social order,

sage, or during the voyage from and of civil and political liberty, are hap- their native shores to the West-Inpily allayed. The storm has ceased to dies.; and the various evils, political

In the sight of the nations assem- and moral, with which their infabled from the ends of the earth, to be the mous trafic was attended. Next fol, ministers of God's justice and the wit- lows a brief history of its abolition, nesses of his power, the pillar of usurped by a vote of the British parliament; domination, erected on the ruin of thrones with an exposure of the fallacy of and the wreck of principles, has crum- these objections which retarded the bled, at the bidding of the Almighty, into dust; and the tyranny, which made the abolition, and an exhibition of the world as 11 wilderness, and destroyed its practical good effects that have since cities (Is. xiv. 7.), exists only in recollec- resulted from it. The writer of this ţion, like the horrors of an oppressive excellent letter then urges various dream. The restoration of peace has fol- considerations, arising from the prinlowed the triumph of truth and justice ; ciples of justice and from the preand the moderation which has tempered sent state of Europe, all demanding, the glories of victory with a milder radi- for oppressed Africa, the guarantee ance, may be hailed as an auspicious pre

of her rights. sage of a settled and durable tranquility.” P. 11.

With great propriety does Mr. Wilberforce affirm, that to purchase human beings in one part of the world, to carry them by violence to



another part, remote from every ob- gratifications, to the commission of their ject of their human attachments, and aceustomed crimes, it was a difficult at, there sell them into perpetual sla- tempt to endeavour to divert their indusvery, is a practice self-evidently re-try into innocent channels, though there pugnant to the first principles of were some of them who had even then

discerned and lamented the fatal effects moral obligation. “ No investigati, of the Slave Trade on social improveon,” be says, “ could be necessary to ment, as well as on individual security prove that such a trade as this ought, and comfort

. Again-No sooner had we on moral grounds, to be renounced. succeeded in obtaining a law forbidding And with equal truth and proprie- British subjects to visit the unoffending ty he might have added, that such a shores of Africa, except for the purposes trade ought never to have existed. of an innocent commerce, than a society, It outrages every principle of huma- called the African Institution, was form nity ană justice, and is an eternal ed for repairing the wrongs which our

country had committed. Many of its disgrace to the nation that so long members were men of the highest rank fostered and encouraged it. If any and character; and at the head of it a of our readers suspect this lan- Prince of the House of Brunswick, reguage of being intemperate, let them spected no less for his personal qualificaperuse with calinness and 'imparti- tions, than for his illustrious descent, apality the pamphlet now before us, and peared in his natural and family characif it do not convince them of the jus- ter, that of the protector of the oppressed. tice of our charge, we are content to It is the grateful office of this benevolent

institution to watch over the actual exebe deemed calumniators.

cution of the law by which the Slave But to afford our readers the op- Trade is prohibited; to plant and foster portunity of judging, in any tolerable in that much-injured land the seeds of degree, of the contents of this most knowledge and improvement; and to exinteresting pamphlet, it will be ne- cite the honest industry, and promote the cessary to lay before them a few ex- growing civilization of her inhabitants. tracts. In the following passage, Mr. I had long flattered myself, that, whenW. is reminding the French minister ever peace should be restored between of what attempts our countrymen us in promoting this beneficent project,

Great Britain and France, you would join have been making for the ameliora. Under these impressions, no sooner did tion of the state of Africa, by the es

the day star of peace appear above the tablishment of the settlement at horizon, the welcome harbinger of returning Sierra Leone, and, still more recent- concord and amity between our too-longly, of the African Institution. hostile countries, than, .with a joyful

“Let me confess to you, Sir, that I am heart, I moved an Address to the Crown, deeply mortified and disappointed by the which received the unanimous and eager accounts I hear of the disposition, that is support of the House of Commons, a sitoo commonly manifested by your coun-milar Address being voted, with the same trymen, respecting the renewal of the zealous unanimity, in the House of Lords. Slave Trade.. I had not merely trusted, The object of both was, that, in any nethat we should meet in France with few gociation for peace, all the great Euroopponents; but I had indulged sanguine pean nations should be invited to unite hopes, that, in its spirited and intelligent with us, in taking effectual measures for population, we should find a zealous co- an immediate and universal abolition of operation in the various plans which had the African Slave Trade. I will frankly been set on foot in England for enlight-own to you, Sir, that it appeared to me ening and improving the natives of Afri- to be peculiarly congenial with the ge

For, when the nation first awoke to nius and dispositions of the French peothe real nature of the Slave Trade, and ple, to assent to such a proposition with the abolition was expected to take place, more than common cordiality. Calling a colony was settled in the river Sierra to mind your history and character; reLeone, in Africa, with a view to promote collecting, that you had been styled a naamong the natives the arts and blessings of tion of cavaliers, and that among you civilized life. That part of Africa had commerce was not even estimated at its been long the seat of an extensive Slave true value, but was accounted a degrad. Trade. Its population was greatly thin-ing and ignoble occupation; retracing, ned, and the character of that which re- also, the awful history of your revolutionmained was very unproinising. Yet we ary war, and seeing that your gallantry were not disho wtened. Schools were in- tad never been more conspicuous,your vicstituses, agriculture and industry encou- tories never more brilliant, and that, from ragar?; but itile progress could be made, a thousand causes, a military spirit had till tlie Slave Travie was extinguished. been universally diffused among you ;While the appetites of the natives were that, in whatever other particulars, there stimulated, by the offer of their wonted | fore, your former character had been


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