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suitable information, he possess an as an article of trade, from the maunprejudiced mind; thattruth, which terials that came first to hand, and is the soul of history, be the basis of with few opportunities of knowing his narrative; and that nothing be how far his statements were, or were given on insufficient authority. We not, correct. To him, the authority. may add that, if there be one subject of Broughton, “a weak writer, and which more than any other demands very credulous man,” was as good as attention to this last bint, it is that any other; and it is plain that he was of ecclesiastical history, concerning not at all read in the history of the which it has been most justly re- christian church. To how much marked that, as detailed by the ge- credit then is his work entitled ? neral run of writers, there never was Mosheim is indeed an authority, in a more lying story propagated in the some respects, of a much higher world. Let us now examine the work order than those already mentioned ; before us in reference to each of yet a regard to the much injured these particulars, beginning with that cause of truth extorts from us the which was last mentioned.
remark, that there are few writers on In a short preface to the present the subject of ecclesiastical history edition, we are presented with some who require to be read with more judicious remarks on the inadequate caution, or who are less entitled, at authorities which were adduced by all times, to an implicit confidence. Mrs. Adams in the former editions, We do not mean by this to insinuate and on which she relied for her ac- that Mosheim was capable of intencount of numerous heretical sects tional misrepresentation, or that, like mentioned in her work. “ On ex- many catholic historians, his mind amining my authoritirs,” says Mr. was blinded by prejudice; but his Williams, “I have been induced to whole work is constructed upon prinstrike out some and moderate the cenciples that are radically wrong; and sure upon others.” He then specifies the consequence has been, that it is Broughton in particular, a writer fre- little more than a tissue of misreprequently adverted to by Mrs. Adams, sentation. This charge will no doubt and afterwards subjoins in a note,- startle many readers, but it is not
Broughton, I would observe, is hastily advanced, and we are quite a weak writer, and very credulous, prepared to justify it. Let any im. at least on this subject. He was partial reader take up Mosheim's neither choice in selecting his au- volumes, in which he professes to thorities, nor careful in examining give the history of the church of them. Hence his Dictionary of Re- Christ, and if he examine them careligions, though in 2 vols. folio, is of fully, he cannot fail to perceive that, little credit or value. I have there by the church of Christ, he invariably fore in this edition frequently super- means, the dominant party, whatever seded his authority by writers of sentiments they may have held; howbetter credit, as Lardner, Milner,&c.” ever corrupt their morals; or lax After reading these judicious re- their discipline. Thus he perpetually marks, than which nothing can be confounds the church of Rome with more true, we were not a little sur- 'the church of Christ! But even that prised on casting an eye down the is not the worst; for the reader will pages of the Dictionary, to find the find that, in his History, all those who name of Broughton so often intro- had virtue enough to hold fast the duced as an authority for the articles doctrines of Christ and his apostles, inserted, and to satisfy ourselves, we and who contended for the simplicity began to reckon up the number, but of gospel worship, are uniformly having reached to fifty we desisted ! classed in the list of heretics, and
Another of the authorities, on branded with opprobrious epithets, which are given no inconsiderable as troublers of the church !! In a number of articles in the work before protestant historian, nothing can us, is a “ Theological Dictionary," surpass the absurdity of such conpublished a few years ago in Scotland, duct as this; yet the editor of the in one volume octavo. This work, in work before us has chimed in with point of authority, is precisely upon Mosheim, and whatever the latter a par with the volumes of Broughton. has thought proper to say of the The author of
it was a Mr. Morrison, different sects and parties, the former bookseller at Perth, who compiled it bas had no hesitation to reiterate.
REVIEW OF A DICTIONARY OF RELIGIONS, 175 We might thus proceed through , pure doctrines of the gospel; a disthe whole of his authorities, and we senter from the established church, are afraid the greater part of them whose introduction of human invenwould be found liable to similar ob- tions into the worship of God, he and jections ; but we have not room for his friends most strenuously opposed; enlargement on this topic, and we and, in short, that he was one of the therefore proceed to shew the ap- most eminent reformers that have plication of these remarks in some risen up in the church of God, to stem of the articles which comprise the the torrent of corruption, and advo. work before us.
cate the sacred cause of divine truth! In the first page of the Dictionary, The very next article bears the title we are presented with an account of of“ Ætians,” said to be, a branch what we would expect to be a re- of Arians in the fourth century, &c.” ligious sect, under the denomination on the authority of Broughton. Now of “ Academics,” but the account here we would candidly put the quesgiven us of them is, that they were tion to the editor of the work before
an ancient philosophical sect, which us, whether he do not himself think taught in a grove near Athens, sacred it probable that this is the very same to Academus, who was one of their sect with that mentioned in the fore. heroes!” It might possibly appear going article, namely, the ÆRIANS, to some a little hypercritical to re- from which the name differs only in a mark upon the incongruity of speak- single letter. The possibility of such ing of a philosophical or religious a mistake as this, we are sure he will heroe; but we may surely be allowed not deny, when we remind him that to notice this singular derivation of in his own volume we have Fiska the term, “from a grove near Athens for Ziska, and Unitas-Fratrem in sacred to Academus,” for which we place of Unitas-Fratrum, with numeare referred to the Encyclopædia rous similar instances of typographiPerthensis, a book of little inerit, cal negligence. To strengthen our and, on subjects of this kind of still supposition, we request him to look less authority. The plain fact is, to the dates ; each party arising in that the Academics were the disciples the fourth century; and to consider of Plato, who taught in a public the doctrine imputed to the latter, building called “ The Academy,” namely, “justification by faith, withabout three quarters of a mile from out the works of the law,” which was Athens, and whose pupils were dis- certainly held by the former; and, tinguished by that name, from the though last, not least in point of evidisciples of Aristotle, who delivered dence, let him consider that Mosheim, his lectures in “ The Lyceum.” who was industrious in enumerating Hence the words of Horace, allud. the different sects, never once, so far ing to the former
as we can find, mentions the ÆTIANS. Atque inter sylvas Academi quærere
Such are the reflections that have verum.”
suggested themselves to us, on ex'Midst Academic groves to search for amining little more than a page of truth.
this book. To go through the whole In the next page of the Dictionary, volume in the same way, though we the following account is given us of are afraid there are few pages in it the ÆRIANS—"a denomination which which would not afford scope for siarose about the year 342. They were milar animadversion, would lead us so called from Ærius, a monk, and to an immeasurable extent, and thereSemi-Arian. He opposed, episco- fore we must be more general. pacy, prayers for the dead, stated One thing that has greatly excited feasts,&c.” This article is given on the our surprise in looking over the vothe authority of Mosheim ; but what lume before us, is the very
different reader would ever collect from it, measures by which the editor has that which we are persuaded would dealt out his account of various sects prove to be the truth if fairly told, and denominations. For example, let namely, that Ærius was neither a us take the Church of England, which monk nor a Semi-Arian, but the press in our own country is unquestionably byter or pastor of a christian church the leading party. The entire article at Sebastia in Pontus; that he was a (English Church) is limited to eight person of unblemished reputation; of whole lines ! We are indeed, at the great learning and extensive influence close of it, referred to the word “To! in his days remarkably zealous for the I leration,” but unfortunately we find
no such article in the Dictionary! To pared with the new edition of this “ Mahometans,” however, nearly se- Dictionary! Every denomination of ven pages are devoted ; with four to professing Christians is so divided the « Manicheans," and six to the and subdivided in it, as, in appear
Methodists;” no less than six pages ance, to magoify the evil of which are appropriated to the “ Friends ;" we have been complaining, in a tento the ** Hindoos,” five; and to the fold ratio; and in truth to involve
Hopkinsians," nearly four; that the whole subject in endless perwretched fanatic, Johanna Southcott, plexity. The species are confounded is honoured with a record which ex- | with the genera, and the genera with tends to two pages and a half; and the species; so that, in stead of simeven Richard Brothers has been plifying the subject to the capacities thought worthy of more attention of the young and uninformed, the than the Church of England'! whole Dictionary is little better than
But there is yet another source of a jumble of names, while, by comcomplaint which we have to make to prehending in the limited compass of the plan of this Dictionary, and it is one pocket volume, the sectarists of more distressing to our own minds all ages, and raking up again the than any thing we have yet stated; ashes of the dead, which were quietly namely, the very unnecessary multi- slumbering and ought never to have plication of articles with which it been disturbed, the work exhibits to abounds. Upon a superficial view of our mind the unpleasant idea of a the work, one might be almost tempt-charnel-house, in which, however, ed to think that the editor regarded are mingled together the bones of it as a fact that “Christ is divided,” the living, the dying, and the dead. and that he even rejoiced in contem- The whole is very incorrectly plating it! If such be the case, we printed. The editor has, at the end can only say, that his views of the of his preface, noticed three errors; matter are widely different from ours. we could easily extend the list to It was promised in ancient prophecy, three pages! And in proof of the that the Lord would“give his people truth of this assertion, we may menone heart and one way, that they tion the article “Glassites,” which, might fear him for ever, for their though it extends to only fourteen good.” Jer. xxxii. 39. And we find lines, comprises five mistakes. In the Saviour himself, in the days of page 227, at the bottom, Dr. Johahis flesh, praying for the accomplish- son's Life of Watts is called “ Johnment of this promise, as an evidence son's Life of Christ;" and we suspect to the world that he was the true a similar blunder to occur in three Messiah, John xvii. 21. It was exem- lines afterwards, with an additional plified, too, in the church at Jerusa- error in the orthography of the lem, where “the multitude of them name of Dr. Watts. And, upon the that believed were of one heart and whole, though the introductory arof one soul,” Acts iv. 32. And the ticles, and the Appendix, are valuduty of pressing after it, is enforced able, we are compelled to enter our upon Chris .ians by apostolic autho- decided protest against both the plan rity. I Cor. i. 10. Eph. iv. 3. The and execution of that part of the antichristian apostacy has indeed volume which properly constitutes been the means of dividing and scat- the Dictionary. tering the people of God, in a way We were interested in the short that must deeply affect every reflect- article “ AMERICAN Sect,” partly be- 1 ing mind, because in whatever degree cause we had some personal knowitexists, it must proportionably prove ledge of Morgan Rees, its founder, a stumbling-block to inquirers after and partly because we believe his obtruth. But admitting this to be the ject was the revival of the primitive case, it must surely be the duty of church order and worship. It may Christians to strive to diminish the interest some of our readers to be told evil rather than to augment it. Yet that he is the person alluded to by the latter is so palpably the object of the late Mr. Abraham Booth, in the the work before us, that it is un preface to his “ Defence of Pædonecessary to prove it. Mr. Evans's baptism Examined,” p. 3. as having
Sketch” has often been the subject had the conversation with the late of regret to reflecting minds, on this Dr. Edward Williams, which led to the score, yet that publication is harm- publication just mentioned, less in this point of view, when com
Religious and Literary Intelligence.
BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE the Crimea made it probable that the SOCIETY.
Tartar translation of the Bible would be The eleventh Annual Meeting of this favourably received there, and a Mufti Society was held at Freemason's Hall, on had already subscribed 50 rubles a year,
Wednesday, the 3d of May. At twelve to the printing. The Royal Family of o'clock, Lord TEIGNMOUTH, the president, Georgia were subscribers to the Georgian took the chair; and with the occasional Bible. In Mingrelia, Georgia, and Cirassistance of the Rev. WILLIAM DEALTRY, cassia there were half a million of men read to the Meeting the principal parts of professing Christianity, with two thousand the Report, it being found necessary, from churches, and among them not more than the great extension of the Society's exer- 260 Bibles. The zeal of the foreign tions during the year, to reserve many of priesthood was astonishing; at the meetthe details for the press. ·
ing of the St. Petershurg Bible Society His Lordship stated, that during the last in last January, there were present five year a Mr. Pinkerton had been sent by Metropolitans, and the Armenian and the Society to the Continent, and that his Catholic Primates came in their full robes intelligence was of the most satisfactory of dignity. A Moscow Bible Society had nature. Beginning with the Low Coun- been formed in conjunction with that of tries, he had found a leading Bible Society St. Petersburg; eight more were forming; in Amsterdam, the Bible greatly spread, they were spreading through all parts of and many copies of it purchased by the the empire, and the zeal of the Russians Catholics. At Rotterdam a Bible Society to possess a copy of the Bible was beyond had been established in July. In the all belief. The Committee voted £1000 duchy of Berg, at Elbersfield, a place in aid of the St. Petersburg Society remarkable for the variety of its sects, a Turning to Sweden, a Society had been Bible Society was formed. In Hanover formed in Stockholm, which had already one had been also formed, and it was felt printed 33,000 Bibles. Three Auxiliary and acknowledged as among its happiest Societies had been formed. The King effects, that it brought together, in works had given his approbation to the Society of beneficence, pastors and men of dif- on the 2d of February last; the Crown ferent opinions, Lutherans and Calvinists, Prince desiring to be considered as first who had before no opportunity of inter- Honorary Member. £500 had been voted
A most distinguished Catholic to this Society. Priest had in one instance expressed his In Norway, a Bible Society had been rejoicing at the coming of the Bible, and formed. A Society was also formed in accepted the office of Director of the Copenhagen, with the Bishop of Zealand, Society. The Duke of Cambridge had a most distinguished and learned person, permitted himself to be nominated Patron. for 'its President, and sanctioned by the At Berlin, the Prussian Bible Society had King's rescript. In the course of the been formed under an eminent nobleman, summer Zealand had been visited by order tutor to the Crown Prince; and at Dresden of the Committee:- and the visitors were a Saxon Bible Society, under the Minister received with the kindest welcome by of State who superintended religious clergy and laity; they found much Chrisaffairs. In consideration of their efforts tian feeling, but a great want of the and difficulties, grants were made by the Scriptures universally felt and expressed Bible Society here of £500 each to the throughout their difficult and dangerous Amsterdam, Hanoverian, Prussian, and journey. Returning to the north of GerSaxon Societies, of £300 to, Berg, and many, there were a Bible Society at £100 more each to Saxony and Prussia. Lubecấa Hamburgh and Altona, a BréAt St. Petersburs the Russian Bible So- men, a Dantzic, and an Erfurth; and ciety was formed under the patronage of in Switzerland, a Lausanne, a Pays the Emperor, and means were already de Vaud, and a Geneva Bible Society, all taken for printing the Bible in seven lately formed. In looking to the West, languages, 5000 Bibles and 3000 Testa- in America, zeal was active. In March, ments were already printed in the Scla- 1814, there were 38 Bible Societies; in vonian language, one, in which only March, 1815, there were 70. A vessel 60,000 copies had been printed in the carrying Bibles to the Cape of Good course of 200. years; 50,000. Georgian Hope had been taken by an American Bibles were also about to be printed. A privateer, they were at once purchased copy of the Bible in Persian, under the by the Bible Society of Massachusets, and superintendance of Sir Gore Ousely, was an intimation conveyed here that they also printing there. The intelligence from were at the disposal of the British SoVOL. I.
ciety. They were returned again as the ciety had already put nearly 200,000 property of the American Society, with Bibles in reach of purchase by the comdue acknowledgments. In Nova Scotia mon people. A translation of the entire there was a Bible Society which had sent in Irish was arranging. 8001. home. In Antigua a Bible Society The Society had to lament the deaths of was founded on the 9th of last February. three most distinguished Members since In Jamaica there was also a Society. their last meeting. The Rev. Mr. Charles With the South of Africa, the connexion of Bala, Mr. Thornton, and Dr. Claudius of the Bible Society was extending. The Buchanan, who was translating the New Scriptures were beginning to be much Testament into Syriac, and had gone as read by the Hottentot Christians. On a far as the Acts of the Apostles. late visit to the king of Bulam, the Mis- It appeared from the Report, that the sionaries found him reading the Bible, issue of copies of the Scriptures, from with two Mussulmen, who promised to March 31, 1814, to March 31, 1815, has extend its knowledge on their return to been 126,156 Bibles, 123,776 Testaments, their own country.
making a total issued from the commenceHe should now look to the East. In the ment of the Institution to that period, of Mission of Serampore, they were trans- 516,479 Bibles, 718,779 Testaments, in all lating the Bible into twenty-five lan- 1,235,257 copies; exclusive of a very conguages, of which, twenty-one were al-siderable number circulated at the charge ready in the press. The grants of the of the Society abroad. Committee to the Corresponding Society in Bengal, now amounted to £13,000. Annual Subscriptions . . £3,272 10 6
The Receipts of the Year have been, The Calcutta Bible Society had already Donations and Life Subprinted 10,000 copies of the Bible, and had
2,429 911 received a donation of 1000 dollars from
1,406 7 8 an American Bible Society. Mr. Carey's
1,312 18 0 report was, that though they had ten
1,703 10 0 presses constantly at work, they had not a
Contributions from Auxcopy on their hands these six months, and that each was carried off eagerly the mo
iliary Societies. 61,848 119
Sale of Bibles and Testament it came from the press. The sum
ments contributed by the Committee to this ope- Sale of Reports, &c. , :
27,560 6 5
361 1 3 ration, was £8000. In Madras, the Scriptures had excited the attention of the
Tota! £99,894 15 6 people, and in one instance, three Bramins had applied for Bibles, and offered The Expenditure for the to translate them on condition of their
Year. being given. In Java, a Batavian Bible Obligations of the Society
£81,021 125 Society had been formed, July 14, 1814.
including an order In China, there had been already distributions of the New Testament and Genesis
given for Bibles and
Testaments, about . . £38,000 о о in Chinese, and there had been a particular supply given to the schools.
His Lordship read apologies from the In the United Kingdom, the Society Bishops of Salisbury and Cloyne, for ab; had advanced. In June, the Committee sence; the first having been prevented by had waited on the Emperor of Russia indispensible business--the second being and King of Prussia, and were permitted ill and confined to his bed. He closed to give them a copy of the last Report. the whole by a most affecting speech, reNotwithstanding the number of Societies commending it to the Society to persevere, already flourishing, twenty-six new ones It was not given to men to know the times were formed since 1814. The Report of God, but we had our duty to do, and concluded by recommending the prin- | that was to obey the great command which ciple of forming Auxiliary Societies; not bade the Scriptures be preached to every merely as sources of contribution, but as living creature. It might happen that from their locality better acquainted with this distribution was preparatory to some the immediate wants of the people. By mighty influx of knowledge, but the urging the value of the smaller, but re- divine will be done. He prayed the blessgular subscriptions, they interested the ing of God on the labours of the Society, lower orders in the distribution of the and that they might be found among the Bible ? this again raised their veneration glorious and the redeemed at the day that for the Bible itself; and the very act of judged all men. thus providing for the greatest of all ne- The Dean of WELLS rose to move the cessities generated a spirit of mutual kind printing of the Report, under the direcness among the people. The Bible So- tion of the Committee. That Report was ciety of Glasgow had thus obtained £904. a most striking and important document. In Ireland, the exertion was increasing What did it tell? Of successes and la. Auxiliary Societies had been formed in bours, the most extensive, the most rapid, the counties of Kildare, Kerry, Galway, the most triumphant. The first success and Longford. The Hibernian Bible So-' was that in Europe. In the Netherlands,