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to conquer. But in so far as the war is of His name is called the Word of God,' aš a providential character, the enemies are being that divine person whose office it is the aggressors. The beast and the kings to reveal the mind of God to men, and of the earth, and their armies, 'gather to- whose victories are accomplished by means gether to make war against him and his of the gospel. The armies of heaven on army,' ver. 19. The idea conveyed by white horses' are the friends of Christ who this language is, that while he who sitteth go forth in their respective stations, and upon the white borse and his army are lay themselves out to promote his kingdom. going forth to spread the everlasting gospel'The sharp sword that goeth out of his in the world, the beast and his allies will mouth,' is his truth, which is not only the gather together to oppose its progress, and means of saving believers, but of punishwill perish in the attempt.

ing unbelievers. By his word they shall “There is no necessity for supposing the be judged at the last day, and his threatenarmies of Christ will have literally to fightings will fall upon them even in the present with those of the beast and the kings: but world. Those who are not destroyed by while they are following him in spreading his judgments on the Antichristian party, the gospel, He, as the King of kings and will be despoiled of their power, and Lord of lords, may work the utter over- ruled as with a rod of iron. • And he throw of their adversaries, by setting them treadeth the wine-press of the fierceness at variance with one another. We have and wrath of Aimighty God'-The vine of seen this accomplished in part already in the earth being ripe for destruction, like the antipathies and wars which have raged grapes cast into a press, he will tread them between Infidelity and Popery; and such in bis anger, and trample them in his fury. may be the progress of things, till, like two And he hath on his vesture and on his thighi furious beasts of prey, they shall both be a name written, KING OF KINGS AND destroyed. The account itself agrees with LORD OF LORDS. In this there is this supposition: for though the armies of something especially appropriate, as it rethe beast are said to have gathered to spects those kings who have opposed his gether against the armies of him that sat gospel, and lorded it over the consciences upon the horse, yet there is no mention of of his subjects. He has long sustained this any being engaged in their overthrow but name in right, but henceforward he will he himself. It is he that 'smites the na- sustain it in fact. tions,'treads the wine-press,' and has his * And now comes on the decisive battle,

vesture dipt in blood.' It is remarkable, the battle of Armageddon, the great day too, that in the corresponding prophecy of of God Almighty, the supper of the great Isa. Ixiii. 1-15. he is said to have trodden God! Terrible things in righteousness the wine-press' ALONE, and of the people have occurred in our times; but by the THERE WAS NONE WITH HIM.

strong language used to express this event “ These remarks may suffice for the it seems as if it would surpass every thing general meaning of the prophecy. Let us which has gone before it. It is unlikely now attend to a few of the particulars. that it should consist of a single battle, but

“ It is a joyful sight to see the Son of rather of a war, or succession of battles, God riding forth upon the white horse. though doubtless one must be the last. It He will not wait for the fall of the Anti- | is proclaimed by an angel standing in the christian powers ere he extends his spi- sun,' whose voice would of course be heard ritual kingdom. The flight of the evan. from the rising to the going down thereof. gelical angel was prior to the fall of Ba- | The mode in which he announces it is by bylon; such is still the order of things; an invitation to the fowls of heaven to and it is in opposing this great and good come as to a supper, to feast upon the work that the enemies of the gospel will carcases of all ranks and degrees of men bring destruction upon themselves. who shall be found on the Antichristian

“The character given to this divine side. The beast, and the kings of the earth warrior must not be overlooked. He is who make common cause with him, being "faithful and true,' as performing all his gathered together with their armies to engagements to God, and fulfilling all his make war against him that sitteth upon promises to men. ' In righteousness he the horse, and against his army, will now doth judge and make war. The cause in be utterly overthrown. Those powers which he is engaged is just, and all his which shall be found supporting the Papal measures are in harmony with it. “His hierarchy, together with the false proeyes were as a flame of fire,' burning phet,' or the hierarchy itself, after a corwith holy indignation against his enemies. rupt and bloody reign of 1260 years, will And on his head were many crowns,' be taken and cast alive into a lake of denoting his great power, and numerous fire, burning with brimstone.' conquests.

"And he had a name written “ It was remarked on chap. xvii. 7. that that no man knew but himself;' for after the corruption of the church is ascribed to all that is known of the glory of his cha- her alliance with the secular beast; and it racter it passeth knowledge. The ‘vesture is no less remarkable that the overthrow dipt in blood' refers to what has been said of the secular beast is ascribed to its of the destruction of his enemies by means alliance with the church. It was“ because of wars kindled by their own malignity, 1 of the great words that the little horn spake REVIEW OF BISHOP MORSLEY'S NINË, SERMONS, 813 against the Most High that the beast on will not fail to notice a succession of whose head it grew should be slain, and distinguished characters who have his body destroyed, and given to the burn- done honour to the community to ing flame.' Dan, vii. il. ments consider this, and tremble at such wrecked mariners in Virgil,

Let govern. which they belonged. Like the shipalliances.

“ It is true that neither political nor Apparent rari nantes in gurgite vasto, ecclesiastical bodies as such, can be lite- One great man after another pops up rally cast into a place of torment, as in his head as in a vast whirlpot :-org dividual unbelievers that compose them will be: they may however be cast into probably, to adopt a more pertinent perdition so as never to rise any more, similitude, we might say, that thick which may be the whole of what is in- case resembles the state of things tended. As the Christian church in her among the Jews at the period of our Millennial glory is described in language Lord's advent-when, amidst the geapplicable to individual believers (ver. 8.) neral prevalence of corruption of so the Antichristian church is represented manners, a deluge of erroneous gentias a hardened sinner, arrested in a course ments, and much contempt of the of wickedness, and sent to his own place.

Finally. It is supposed that after this way of truth, a few individuals were terrible overthrow there will be a rem- found, even among the Pharisees, nant, like the scattered remains of a de

6 who waited for the lation of feated army, who shall still be on the side Israel.” Bishop Horsley deserves to of Antichrist: but that they shall be 'slain be ranked in this honourable class. To by the sword of him that sitteth upon the extensive erudition he united the exhorse, which sword proceedeth out of his cellencies of an enlightened mind, mouth. As the battle above described is the same as that of Armageddon under the great acuteness of intellect, singular sixth vial, so the sword proceeding out of dexterity in the management

of an Christ's mouth corresponds with the spi- argument, and, what is better than all ritual judgments under the seventh vial. the rest, an attachment to the discria They who have escaped the temporal minating doctrines of genuine Chriscalamities of the former, will, except they tianity. His controversy with Dr. tepent, fall under the spiritual judgments Priestley is one of the most masterly of the latter. The threatenings of Christ's pieces of polemics that our language word will overtake them. Their hearts can boast, and the services which ia will fail within them, as did the words of that instance he rendered to the chrisNabal when told of the words of David. tian church will embalm his name, Like him they will be smitten of God and die; and having no successors to stand up

and hand it down with deserved rea in their place, their cause will die with neration to distant ages. No student them."

of the present day, who would be [To be concluded in our next.] armed against the errors of the times

in which we live, ought to be without

that publication ! Nine Sermons on the Nature of the

The volume before us is a posthu. Evidence by which the fact of our

mous work; and though the editor Lord's Resurrection is established; has thought it necessary to bespeak and on various other subjects. To the candour of the public in behalf which is prefixed a Dissertation on

of the picces which it contains, on the Prophecies of the Messiah dis- the ground of their not having repersed among the Heathen. By ceived the finishing touch from the Sam. HORSLEY, LL.D. F.R.S. f.a.s. author's .pen, they certainly are no Late Lord Bishop of St. Asaph. ways calculated to disparagé his meLondon. Longman & Co. pp. 360. mory: The “ Dissertation on the 8vọ. 10s. 6. bds. 1815.

Prophecies of the Messiah dispersed

among the Heathen,” occupies more THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND, notwith- than a hundred pages of the volume, standing its antichristian constitution, and is one of the most interesting may fairly lay claim to the honour of tracts that has for a long time fallen having produced some very eininent into our hands. We shall therefore men, both as writers and preachers

. endeavour to make our readers acNor were these restricted solely to quainted with the Bishop's argument, the times of the Reformation ; for which is conducted with his usual whoever impartially reviews the his- ability; and though from its very tory of this sect of professed Chris- nature it be incapable of demonstraa tians during the last two centuries, tion, we shall be much inistaken if VOL, I.

2 s

they do not agree with us in thinking terated fragments of the patriarchal prothat he has placed it in a light in the phecies and records, and that put it out highest degree probable.

of doubt, that of much of the prophetic In stating the argument, the Bishop part the Messiah was the specific subject. remarks, that the expectation of an book as it is represented by heathen

“ From the general argument of the extraordinary person who should

writers, it is very evident that it could be arise in Judea, and be the instru- no forgery of heathen priesteraft; for this ment of great improvements in the reason, that it was exceedingly unfavourmanners and condition of mankind, able to that system of idolatrous superstiwas almost if not altogether universal tion, which it was the great concern and at the time of our Saviour's birth, interest of the beathen priesthood to proand had been gradually spreading and pagate and support; and this was progaining strength for some time be-bably the true reason that the Roman fore--and that this was effected by a of two of the Augural College, and kept

Senate committed the book to the custody collection of very early prophecies, it from the inspection of the vulgar by the which were committed to writing in severest laws. Now this extraordinary a very early age, and were actually fact, that it was little for the interests of existing in many parts of the world, idolatry that the contents of the Cumæan though little known till the extirpa- oracles should be divulged, we learn from tion of Paganism by the propagation a dispute which was keenly agitated at of the gospel. The argument there- Rome, between the friends of Julius fore is divided into two parts. First, Cæsar and the leader of the republican to prove the fact from historical party; in the coure of which a member of

the Augural College in the beat of argu, evidence, that the Gentile world in ment let the secret out. the darkest ages was in possession, “Julius Cæsar, you know, attained the not of vague and traditional, but of height of his power within a few years explicit written prophecies of Christ before our Saviour's birth : little was -and, having established the fact, he wanting to his greatness but the title of a then proceeds to prove that these king of which he 'was ambitious. The written prophecies were the remains difficulty was to bring the Senate to confer of divine oracles of the patriarchal it;

for, without their sanction it was un

safe to assume it. One of his adherents ages that is, prior to the writings of thought of an expedient not unlikely to the Hebrew prophets, and wholly dis- succeed. He produced a prophecy from tinct from them.

the Cumæan Sibyl of a king who was to The learned author. enters upon arise at this time, whose monarchy was to his task by a reference to the well be universal, and whose government would known Sibylline oracles, concerning be necessary and essential to the happiwhich it may be proper to lay before ness of the world. The artful statesman the reader his own account.

knew, that if he could once create a

general persuasion upon the credit of this First, For the fact that the Gentile prophecy, that universal monarchy was world in the darkest ages was possessed of to be established, and that the state of the explicit written prophecies of Christ, I world required it, the difficulty would not shall found the proof of it on the contents be great to prove, that Cæsar was the of a very extraordinary book, which was person of his times best qualified to wield preserved at Rome under the name of the the sceptre. oracles of the Camæan Sibyl, which was “ The republican party took the alarm. held in such veneration that it was de- Tully was at that time its chief support, posited in a stone chest in the temple of and his great abilities were called forth Jupiter in the capitol, and committed to to oppose this stratagem of the dictator's the care of two persons expressly ap- faction. In his opposition to it he brings pointed to that office.

no charge of falsification against those * Among heathen writers, I believe, it who alleged this prophecy. He denies not would be in vain to seek for any quotations that a prophecy to this effect was actually of particular passages from the Sibylline contained in the Sibylline books, to which oracles. They never made any. For, to as a member of the Augural College he produce the words of the Sibylline text, had free access, and when he allowed the would have been dangerous violation of a existence of the prophecy, he was a better law, by which the publication of any part politician than to make the application of of these writings was made a capital of it to Cæsar the point of controversy, and fence. We have however such represen- to risk the success of his opposition to the tations of the general argument of the schemes of Cæsars party upon the precabook, and of the general purport of par- rious success of that particular question, ticular prophecies, as afford a strong pre-Confessing the prophecy he knew it was sumption in favour of the opinion we have impolitic to attempt to apply it to any but advanced, that it was composed of adul-a Roman, and applying it to a Roman it

REVIEW OF BISHOP HORSLEY'S NINE SERMONS. 315 had been difficult to draw it away from of his origin, his achievements, and Cæsar. He therefore takes another ground. the happy results of his appearance; --Having granted that the prophecy was - which is such, that if any person was fairly alleged by the opposite party from to hear this poem read in an exact the Šibylline books, he attempts to over- translation, omitting the names of throw the credit of the prophecy by a the heathen deities, and the allusions general attack on the credit of the books in which it was found. He affirms that to profane mythology, which occur thesė Sibylline oracles were no prophecies in a few passages; if he had not been His argument is, that in the writings of the previously apprised that it was the Sibyl no marks are to be found of phrenzy work of an heathen author, he would or disorder, which the heathens conceived without hesitation pronounce it to be to be the necessary state of every pro- a prophecy of the Messiah, or a poeng phet's mind while he prophesied, because at least upon that subject written in the prophets of their oracular temples express imitation of the style of the affected it. But these books, he says; Jewish prophets. But it deserves carried such evident marks of art and study, particularly in the regular structure particular remark that Virgil in the of the verse, as proved that it was the poem refers to the oracles of the work of a writer who had the natural use Cumæn Sibyl as the source from and possession of his faculties.

which he drew these predictions. “Let us then, says he, adhere to the And in this lay the whole force of prudent practice of our ancestors; let us his compliment to Pollio_That the keep the Sibyl in religious privacy; these child whose future greatrcss was the writings are indeed rather calculated to object of Pollio's ambition, would prove extinguish than to propagate superstition to be that personage whom the Cumæan This testimony is above all exception. Tully, as augur, bad free access to the Sibyl had announced as a deliverer of book in question. It cannot be doubted the world from physical and moral that he would improve his opportunities; evil. Having remarked the clear testifor he was a man of an exquisite taste, of mony which Virgil here furnishes, much learned curiosity; and, with these that the oracles of the Sibyl conendowments, of a very religious turn of tained a prophecy, his lordship thus mind. It is certain therefore that he proceeds, speaks upon the best information; and he is the more to be credited, as this frank The object of the Sibylline oracle, as confession fell from him in the heat of a well as the Messiah of the Jews, was to be political debate in which he took an in- of heavenly extraction-- the high offspring terested part. And from this testimony of the gods, the great seed of Jupiter. He we may conclude, that the ancient fathers, was to strike an universal peace, and to whatever judgment is to be passed upon command the whole world; and in this their pretended quotations from the Si- / universal government he was to exercise bylline books, were not mistaken in the his father's virtues. He was to abolish all general assertion, that the worship of the violence and injustice, to restore the life one true God, the doctrine of the immor- of man to its original simplicity and innotality of the soul, and of a future retribu-cence, and the condition of man to its tion, were inculcated in these writings; original happiness. He was to abolish the which it seems, in Tully's judgment (and causes of violent death; and all death, a competent judge he was) were proper considered as a curse, is violent. He was weapons to combat idolatry: and by what to kill the serpent, and purge the vegem weapons may error be more successfully table kingdom of its poisons. The blessings combated than by the truth?"

of his reign were to reach even to the Having thus discussed the subject brute creation; for the beasts of the forest of the Sibylline oracles his lordship

were to lose their savage nature, that the next adverts to the writings of Virgil. I the lion.

ox might graze in security within sight of This celebrated Roman poet flourish

“It is evident, therefore, that the Jewish ed in the court of Augustus no long prophecies and the Sibylline oracles antime before the birth of Christ. Virgil nounce the same person, and of consehad a friend of the name of Pollio, a quence, that the Sibylline oracles connobleman in Rome, to whom he ad tained a prediction of the Messiah. Nor dressed a congratulatory poem, in the is it to be wondered, that the images of year of his consulship. The poem

sacred prophecy should abound in this anticipates the birth of some child treasure of the heathen temples, if it was interested. But what is most worthy cable upon any other supposition. in whose fortunes Pollio was nearly composed of adulterated fragments of true

prophecies. The thing seems inexplie of remark is the description which

Thus it appears, that the Romans at the heathen poet gives of the extra- least, in the ages of their worst idolatry, ordinary person that he expected ; ' were in possession of a book wbich they


held, though they knew not why, in reli- | known Mr. Benjamin Fawcett, of gious veneration, containing explicit pro- Kidderminster, pastor of the church phecies of Christ, “ I have now established my fact, that How often it has met the eye of

to which Mr. Williams belonged, from the first ages of profane history to the public since that time, we are the very time of our Saviour's birtḥ explicit predictions of bim were extant in

unable to say; but from a preface to the Gentile world, in books which were

the present edition we learn, that ever bolden in religious veneration, and “ time having released from any which were deposited in their temples. farther obligation to privacy, many The matter of these prophecies, and the articles which, in the opinion of agreement of the imagery of their lan- Mr. Fawcett, it was then necessary guage with what we find in the prophecies to omit,” the work now appears be. of holy writ, is I think a sufficient argu- fore the public in a very enlarged ment of their divine original.

“That they were drawn from the Jewish and improved form.” Mr. Hanbury prophecies is improbable: for the books who has undertaken the editorsbip of the Cumæan Sibyl fell into the hands of the present edition, is a greatof the Romans, if we may credit their grandson of Mr. Williams, and having historians, in a very early age, when they made bimself completely inaster of were an obscure inconsiderable people, all the systems of short-hand which without any connexions in the East, and he could obtain, he thereby qualified long before any part of the Old Testament himself for decyphering his revered was extant in the Greek language. And ancestor's papers with complete sac. yet after the first settlement of the Jews in Canaan, I am persuaded that true pro

To give additional interest to phets were nowhere to be found but in the the work, the names of the several Jewish church. These prophecies then, parties alluded to, which prudence that were current in the Gentile world in might require the compiler of the later ages, since they were neither for first edition to omit, are now genegeries of the heathen priests, nor founded rally introduced. Several biographion the Jewish prophecies, must have been cal Notes are also added, and Leiters derived from prophecies more ancient than and Extracts from the writings of the Jewish. They were fragments (muti- some of Mr. Williams's cotempolated perhaps and otherwise corrupted), raries are introduced, which serve to but they were fragments of the most ancient prophecies of the patriarchal ages." shew how highly he was esteemed by The author is thus brought to in those who personally knew him.

to culty, namely, to shew by what means

have been an amiable and pious man, fragments of the prophecies of the animated by a strong solicitude for patriarchal ages might be preserved

the spiritual welfare of his own chilamong idolatrous nations--a highly

dren and of the rising generation in interesting inquiry, and managed by general, many of whom he was made Dr. Horsley with consummạce skill; the instrument of awakening to a but as we cannot afford room to do serious concern about the salvation any thing like ustice to the subject

of their souls.

The "6

Diary” has in this place, we must beg a truce been pronounced by Messrs. Bogue with our readers till next month, and Bennett, in their History of Diswhen we hope to finish the article.

senters, one of the most useful books which a christian tradesman

can read.” Mr. Hanbury adds to this The Diary, Meditations, and Letters, eulogium-"or which can be read

of Mr. Joseph Williams, of Kidder- by a Christian in any situation of minster; with Notes Biographical life.” Though we cannot ourselves and Explanatory; to which are an- subscribe to the justice of either of nexed some original Letters, from these commendations, and think them Ministers, &c. occasioned by his both highly exaggerated, yet we are death, and an Index. A new edi- far from thinking the book of little tion, greatly enlarged by a Series of value. There is much in the exExtracts, and embellished with a ample of Mr. Williams to encourage Portrait. By B. HANBURY, a de- the faith and þope of the people of scendant of the author. London. God, and to excite their love and Taylor, Hatton Garden. 1815. zeal in his service. His last letter, PP 536. 8vo. 14s. bds.

addressed to his wife, and entitled THE work before us was first pub Dying Comforts," written from Ljehed in 1979, edited by the 'well | Windsor, Dec. 7, 1155, while upon a

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