Settling Scores: German Music, Denazification, and the Americans, 1945-1953
Univ of North Carolina Press, 8 mars 2006 - 344 pages
Classical music was central to German national identity in the early twentieth century. The preeminence of composers such as Bach and Beethoven and artists such as conductor Wilhelm Furtwangler and pianist Walter Gieseking was cited by the Nazis as justification for German expansionism and as evidence of Aryan superiority. In the minds of many Americans, further German aggression could be prevented only if the population's faith in its moral and cultural superiority was shattered. In Settling Scores, David Monod examines the attempted "denazification" of the German music world by the Music Control Branch of the Information Control Division of Military Government.
The occupying American forces barred from the stage and concert hall all former Nazi Party members and even anyone deemed to display an "authoritarian personality." They also imported European and American music. These actions, however, divided American officials and outraged German audiences and performers. Nonetheless, the long-term effects were greater than has been previously recognized, as German government officials regained local control and voluntarily limited their involvement in artistic life while promoting "new" (anti-Nazi) music.
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administration Allies Alois Hundhammer American music artists arts audience Austria Bavaria Bayreuth Berlin blacklist Böhm branch o≈cers Carlos Moseley classical music Clay committee composers concert conductor country’s critics December democratic denazification di√erent di≈cult Dieter Sattler director Division E&CR e√ect e√orts Edward Kilenyi European February Festival German Germany’s Gieseking Hans Rosbaud Harrison Kerr Heinz Tietjen Herbert von Karajan hicog Hindemith Hitler icd’s Information Control Intendanten interview January John Bitter John Evarts July June Karajan Karl Holl Kilenyi Knappertsbusch licensing McClure ment Military Government Ministry Munich Music Branch music o≈cers musicians Nazi Nazism Newell Jenkins o√ered O≈ce o≈cials occupation OMGB OMGUS opera orchestra party Pasetti Paul Hindemith perform Philharmonic political Porgy position Public A√airs reeducation reorientation Report Rosbaud September 1945 SHAEF Solti Soviets Spruchkammer Staatsoper Stuttgart Theater and Music Third Reich Tietjen tion USACA Vienna Wagner Wilhelm Furtwängler Württemberg-Baden
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