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3. The outward element to be used in this ordinance (G) is water, wherein the party is to be baptized, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.
(a) Matt. xxviii. 19, 20.-Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen. Acts viii. 38.-And he commanded the chariot to stand still : and they went down both into the water, both Philip and the eunuch; and he baptized him.
4. Immersion, or dipping of the person (u) in water, is necessary to the due administration of this ordinance.
(0) Matt. iii. 16,-And Jesus, when he was baptized, went up straightway out of the water: and, lo, the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon him. John iji. 23.-And John also was baptizing in Ænon, near to Salim,
because there was much water there : and they came, and were baptized.
OF THE LORD'S SUPPER. 1. The supper of the Lord Jesus was instituted by him the same night wherein he was betrayed, to be observed in his churches, unto the end of the world, for the perpetual remembrance, and shewing forth the sacrifice of himself in his death, (A) confirmation of the faith of believers in all the benefits thereof, their spiritual nourishment, and growth in him, their further engagement in, and to all duties which they owe unto him ; (e) and to be a bond and pledge of their communion with him, and with each other.
(A) 1 Cor. xi. 23—26.- For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, That the Lord Jesus the same night in which he was betrayed took bread: And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you : this do in remembrance of me. After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup the new testament in my blood : this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord's death till he come.
(B) 1 Cor. x. 16, 17, 21.-The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ ? For we being many are one bread, and one body : for we are all partakers of that one bread. Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of devils: ye cannot be partakers of the Lord's table, and of the table of devils.
2. In this ordinance Christ is not offered up to his Father, nor any real sacrifice made at all for remission of sin, of the quick or dead, but only a memorial of that (c) one, offering up of himself, by himself
, upon the cross, once for all; and a spiritual oblation of all (D) possible praise unto God for the same. So that the popish sacrifice of the mass, as they call it, is most abominably injurious to Christ's own only sacrifice, the alone propitiation for all the sins of the elect.
(c) Heb. ix. 25, 26, 28. — Nor yet that he should offer himself often, as the high priest entereth into the holy place every year with blood of others; For then must he often have suffered since the foundation of the world : but now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many; and unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time without sin unto salvation.
(D) 1 Cor. xi. 24.–And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you : this do in remembrance of me.
Matt. xxvi. 26, 27.-And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body. And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it.
3. The Lord Jesus hath, in this ordinance, appointed his ministers to pray, and bless the elements of bread and wine, and thereby to set them apart from a common to an holy use, and to take and break the bread; to take the cup, (E) and, they communicating also themselves, to give both to the communicants.
(E) [See 11th Chap. of 1 Cor. 23rd verse to end).
4. The denial of the cup to the people, worshipping the elements, the lifting them up, or carrying them about for adoration, and reserving them for any pretended religious use, (F) are all contrary to the nature of this ordinance, and to the institution of Christ.
(F) Matt. xxvi. 26, 27, 28. — And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body. And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it; For this is my blood of the New Testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins. Chap. xv. 9.-But in vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men. Exod. xx. 4, 5.-Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them : for I the Lord thy God am & jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me.
5. The outward elements in this ordinance, duly set apart to the uses ordained by Christ, have such relation to him crucified, as that truly, although in terms used figuratively, they are sometimes called by the name of the things they represent, to wit, the (G) body and blood of Christ, albeit, in substance and nature, they still remain truly and only (1) bread and wine, as they were before.
(g) 1 Cor. xi. 27.-Wherefore whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord.
(H) 1 Cor xi. 26, 27, 28. — For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord's death till he come. Wherefore whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup.
6. That doctrine which maintains a change of the substance of bread and wine, into the substance of Christ's body and blood, commonly called transubstantiation, by consecration of a priest, or by any other way, is repugnant not to scripture (1) alone, but even to common sense and reason, overthroweth the (K) nature of the ordinance, and hath been and is the cause of manifold superstitions, yea, of gross idolatries.
(1) Acts, iii. 21.-Whom the heaven must receive until the times of restitution of all things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since the world began. Luke, xxiv. 6, 39. — He is not here, but is risen: remember how he spake unto you when he was yet in Galilee. Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have.
(K) 1 Cor. xi. 24, 25.- And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you : this do in remembrance of
After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the New Testament in my blood : this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me.
7. Worthy receivers, outwardly partaking of the visible elements in this ordinance, do then also inwardly, by faith, really and indeed, yet
OF THE STATE OF MAN AFTER DEATH, ETC.
not carnally and corporally, but spiritually receive, and feed upon Christ crucified, (L) and all the benefits of his death ; the body and blood of Christ being then not corporally or carnally, but spiritually present to the faith of believers in that ordinance, as the elements themselves are to their outward senses.
(L) 1 Cor. x. 16.-The Cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ? Chap. xl. 23–26. — For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, That the Lord Jesus the same night in which he was betrayed took bread: And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you ; this do in remembrance of
After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the New Testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord's death till he come.
8. All ignorant and ungodly persons, as they are unfit to enjoy communion (M) with Christ, so are they unworthy of the Lord's table, and cannot without great sin against him while they remain such, partake of these holy mysteries, (n) or be admitted thereunto; yea, whosoever shall receive unworthily, are guilty of the body and blood of the Lord, eating and drinking judgment to themselves.
(M) 2 Cor. vi. 14, 15. - Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers : for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? and what communion hath light with darkness ? And what concord hath Chr)st with Belial? or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel?
(N) 1 Cor. xi. 29.- For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord's body. Matt. vii. 6.-Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rend you.
CHAP. XXXI. OF THE STATE OF MAN AFTER DEATH, AND OF THE RESURRECTION OF
THE DEAD. 1. The bodies of men after death return to dust, (A) and see corruption ; but their souls, which neither die nor sleep, having an immortal subsistence, immediately (B) return to God who gave them.
The souls of the righteous being then made perfect in holiness, are received into paradise, where they are with Christ, and behold the face of God in light (c) and glory, waiting for the full redemption of their bodies
and the souls of the wicked, are cast into hell ; where they remain in torment and utter darkness, reserved to (D) the judgment of the great day ; besides these two places, for souls separated from their bodies, the scripture acknowledgeth none.
(A) Gen. iii. 19.-- In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return. Acts xiii. 36.-For David, after he had served his own generation by the will of God, fell on sleep, and was laid unto his fathers, and saw corruption.
(B) Eccles. xii. 7.—Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was : and the spirit shall return unto God who gave it.
(c) Luke xxiii. 43.-And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To-day shalt thou be with me in paradise. 2 Cor. v. 1,6, 8.-- For we know that if our earthly house of this tabernacle were dissolved, we have a building of God, an house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. Therefore we are always confident, knowing that, whilst we are at home in the body, we are absent from the Lord. We are confident, I say, and willing rather to be absent from the body, and to be present with the Lord. Phil. i. 23.-For I am in a strait betwixt two, having a desire to depart, and to be with Christ; which is far better. Heb. xii. 23.-To the general assembly and church of the firstborn, wbich are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect.
(D) Jude 6, 7.-And the Àngels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains, under darkness, unto the judgment of the great day. Even as Sodom and Gomorrah, and the cities about them in like manner, giving themselves over to fornication, and going after strange flesh, are set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire. 1 Pet. iii. 9.-Not rendering evil for evil, or railing for railing: but contrariwise blessing; knowing that ye are thereunto called, that ye should inherit a blessing. Luke xvi. 23, 24.- And in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom. And he cried and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame.
2. At the last day, such of the saints as are found alive, shall not sleep, but be (E) changed; and all the dead shall be raised up with the self-same bodies, and (F) none other; although with different (6) qualities, which siiall be united again to their souls for ever.
(E) 1 Cor. xv. 51, 52.-Behold, I shew you a mystery ; We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed. 1 Thess. iv. 17.-Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord.
(F) Job xix. 26, 27.- And though after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God: Whom I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another; though my reins be consumed within me.
(G) 1 Cor, xv. 42, 43.-So also is the resurrection of the dead. It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption : It is sown in dishonour; it is raised in glory: it is sowa in weakness; it is raised in power.
3. The bodies of the unjust shall, by the power of Christ, be raised to dishonour; the bodies of the just
, by his Spirit, unto honour, (u) and be made comformable to his own glorious body.
(8) Acts xxiv. 15.-And have hope toward God, which they themselves also allow, that there shall be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust. John v.28, 29.-Marvel not at this: for the hour is coming, in the which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice, And shall come forth; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life, and they, that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation. Phil. iii. 21. Who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body, according to the working whereby he is able even to subdue all things unto himself.
OF THE LAST JUDGMENT. 1. God hath appointed a day wherein he will judge the world in righteousness, by (A) Jesus Christ; to whom all power and judgment is given of the Father; in which day, not only the apostate angels (B) shall be judged but likewise all persons that have lived upon the earth, shall appear before the tribunal of Christ, (c) to give an account of their thoughts, words, and deeds, and to receive according to what they have done in the body, whether good or evil.
(A) Acts evil. 31.-Because he hath appointed a day, in the which he will judge the world in righteousness by that man whom he hath ordained; whereof he hath given assurance unto all men, in that he hath raised him from the dead. John v. 22, 27.-For the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgmen unto the Son: And hath given him authority to execute judgment also, because he is the son of man.
B) 1 Cor. vi. 3.- Know ye not that we shall judge angels ? how much more things that pertain to this life? Jude, 6.-And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness, unto the judgment of the great day.
(c) 2 Cor. v. 10.-For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad. Eccles. xii. 14.-For God shall bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be good, or whether it be evil. Matt. xii. 36.-—But I say unto you, That every idle word that men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in the day of judgment. Rom. xiv. 10, 12.(Also Matt. ch. xxv., v. 32 to the end).-But why dost thou judge thy brother? or why dost thou set at nought thy brother? for we shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ. So then every one of us shall give account of himself to God.
2. The end of God's appointing this day, is for the manifestation of the glory of his mercy, in the eternal salvation of the elect; (D) and of his justice, in the eternal damnation of the reprobate, who are wicked and disobedient; for then shall the righteous go into everlasting life, and receive that fulness of jcy and glory, with everlasting reward, in the presence (E) of the Lord: But the wicked, who know not God, and obey not the gospel of Jesus Christ, shall be cast into everlasting torments, and (F) punished with everlasting destruction, from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power.
(D) Rom. ix. 22, 23. — What if God willing to shew his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much long-suffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction; And that he might make known the riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy, which he had afore prepared unto glory.
(E) Matt. xxv.21,34.- His Lord said unto him, Well done, thou good and faithful servant; thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things: enter thon into the joy of thy Lord. Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. 2 Tim, iv. 8. Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day: and not to me only, but unto all them also that love his appearing.
(F) Matt. xxv. 46.-And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal. Mark, ix, 48. – Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched. 2 Thess. i. 7-10.–And to you who are troubled rest with us, when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels, In flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ: who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power; when he shall come to be glorified in his saints, and to be admired in all them that believe (because our testimony among you was believed) in that day.
3. As Christ would have us to be certainly persuaded, that there shall be a day of judgment, both (G) to deter all men from sin, and for the greater (H) consolation of the godly, in their adversity, so will he have that day unknown to men, that they may shake off all carnal security, and be always watchful, because they know not at what hour the (1) Lord will come, and may ever be prepared to say, (K) come Lord Jesus, come quickly. Amen.
(6) 2 Cor. v. 10, 11.– For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad. Knowing therefore the terror of the Lord, we persuade men; but we are made manifest unto God; and I trust also are made manifest in your consciences.
(8) 2 Thess. i. 5-7.- Which is a manifest token of the righteous judgment of God, that ye may be counted worthy of the Kingdom of God, for which ye also suffer : Seeing it is a righteous thing with God to recompense tribulation to them