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CONDITIONAL MODE.
PRESENT.

Past.
it would thunder Il aurait tonné it would have thundered

tonnerait

SUBJUNCTIVE MODE.
PRESENT.

Past.
Qu'll tonne that it may thunder Qu'll ait tonné that it may have

(thundered LOPERSEOT.

PLUPERTZOT. Qu'll tonnát that it might thunder Qu'll ett tonné that it might have

ered REM. Verbs that express the condition of the atmosphere are impersonal.

2. FAIRE,To Do, TO MAKE, AND ÊTRE, TO BE, AS IMPERSONAL

VERBS.

Faire is used as an impersonal verb, to express the state of the weather. Quel temps fait-il ?

How is the weather? Il fait beau temps.

It is fine weather. Il fait mauvais temps.

It is bad weather. Il fait chaud; froid.

It is warm; cold. Il fait de l'orage.

It is stormy. I fait des éclairs.

It lightens.

Etre is used as an impersonal verb, to express the hour of

the day

nelle heure est-11? Dent trois beures.

What time is it?
It is three o'clock.

+ Faire is conjugated page 186.

Etre is also used as an impersonal verb in connection with the noun temps, time, and with adjectives and adverbs : il est temps, it is time ; il est bon, it is good ; il est bien, it is well.

These and other impersonal phrases, if followed by a verb in the infinitive, require the preposition de before the verb.

Il est temps de partir.
Il est bon de savoir cela.
Il est bien de faire cela.

It is time to start.
It is good to know that.
It is well to do that.

8. CONJUGATION OF THE IRREGULAR IMPERSONAL VERBS.

Y AVOIR, TO BE (IN EXISTENCE). — FALLOIR, TO BE

NECESSARY. — PLEUVOIR, To Rain.

(We give only the simple tenses, and omit the English, which the student can easily supply.)

INFINITIVE.
PRES. PART.
PAST. PART.
IND. PRES.
IND. IMP.
IND, Past DEF.
IND. FUTURE.
COND. PRES.
SUBJ. PRES.
SUBJ. LE,

Y avoir
Y ayant
Eu
Il y a (there is, there are)
Il y avait
Il y eut
Il y aura
Il y aurait
Qu'il y ait
Qu'il y eût

Falloir
(wanting)
Fallu
Il fant
Il fallait
Il fallut
Il faudra
Il faudrait
Qu'il faille
Qu'il fallêt

Pleuvoir
Pleuvant
Pla
Il pleut
Il plegvait
I pluti
Il pleuvra
Jl pleuvrait
Qu'il pleuve
Qu'il plat

FALLOIR, TO BE NECESSARY, MUST.

Falloir is either followed by a verb in the infinitive, or by que and a verb in the subjunctive mode.

When falloir (must) is construed with the infinitive, the subject of the English verb must, is, in French, the indirect object of the verb falloir.

Que me faut-il faire ?

What must I do?
Il vous faut rester tranquille. You must keep quiet.

The subject is omitted when it is of a general character; and generally, also, when the meaning is sufficiently obvious without it. Il faut travailler pour réussir. It is necessary to work in order to

to succeed. Faut-il aller à la banque? Must I go to the bank ? Il faut y aller.

You must go there. Falloir is also used in the sense of to want. Que lui faut-il ?

What does he want? Il lui faut de l'argent.

He wants money

Vocabulary 33. Tonner, to thunder.

La pluie, the rain. Neiger, to snow.

Il fait de la pluie, it rains. Grêler, to hail.

La neige, the snow. Geler, to freeze.

Le tonnerre, the thunder. Dégeler, to thaw.

Un éclair; a flash of lightning; il *Pleuvoir, to rain.

fait des éclairs, it lightens. *Savoir, to know.

La langue, the language. *Y avoir, to be.

Du monde, company: people. *Falloir, to be necessary.

Chaud, warm. Comme il faut, as it should be. Froid, cold. Se comporter, to behave.

Tranquille, quiet; stin.

Exercise 33. 1. Quel temps fait-il ? 2. Il fait beau temps ; il fait chaud. 3. Il fait mauvais temps; il pleut. 4. Il a neigé pendant la nuit; il fait froid. 5. Il grêle à présent. 6. Il gèlera cette nuit. 7. Demain il dégèlera. 8. Il tonne et il fait des éclairs. 9. Il va pleuvoir. 10. Il pleuvra beaucoup. 11. Il a plu toute la nuit. 12. Il est temps de se lever.

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13. Il est bon de savoir cela. 14. Il est utile de savoir plusieurs langues. 15. Il y avait beaucoup de monde à l'église. 16. Il y aura peu de fruit cette année. 17. Il y aurait beaucoup de monde ici, s'il ne pleuvait pas. 18. Que me faut-il faire ? 19. Il vous faut étudier. 20. Il faut rester tranquille. 21. Il faut se bien comporter pour être respecté. 22. Que faut-il à votre frère ? 23. Il lui faut de l'argent 24. J'ai tout ce qu'il me faut. 25. C'est comme il faut.

Theme 33. 1. Is it raining? 2. No, sir, it is fine weather. 3. It is warm. 4. It was (has been) cold during the night. 5. It froze (has frozen). 6. It snows now. 7. I like (the) snow better than (the) rain. 8. It hails. 9. It is going to thaw. 10. Is that thunder ? 11. Yes, it thunders and lightens. 12. It will rain soon. 13. It is time to go to bed. 14. It is well to know several languages. 15. In order to know them, it is necessary to study them. 16. There was company in the parlor, when I came in. 17. There will be many peaches this year. 18. There would not be anybody here, if it rained as it did (has done) yesterday. 19. James did not behave (has not behaved) well. 20. You must tell it to his father. 21. What do you want? 22. I want some gloves.

THIRTY-FOURTH LESSON.

IRREGULAR VERBS.

1. There are, besides the auxiliary verbs avoir and être, forty-four irregular forms of conjugation, and about two hundred and eighty irregular verbs, which are conjugated according to some one of the irregular forms or model verbs We give the irregular model verbs of the first (two), second (ten), third (eleven), and fourth (twenty-three) conjugations successively and in alphabetical order, and below eacb model, the verbs that follow its conjugation.

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PRESENT. Jo vais

Nous allons COPERT. J'allais

Nous allions PAST DET. J'allai

Nous allámes FUTURE. J'irai

Nous irons COND, PR. J'irais

Nous Irions LIPER.

Allons SUBJ. PR. Que j'aille

Que nous allions LUOPERS. Que j'allasse

Que nous allassions

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S'EN *ALLER, TO GO AWAY. S'en aller, to go away, follows the model verb aller; but its conjugation presents some additional difficulties, and is therefore given in full.

+ Only the simple tenses of the verbs are given here; the auxiliary verb, which is to be used in the formation of the compound tenses, is indicated. The student can form the compound tenses himself, and also supply the English, which be will Dow bavo no dimculty in doing.

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