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4. a. A pronoun is a word that is used in the place of a noun, as . I have your book, you have mine.
6. There are personal, possessive, demonstrative, interrogative, rela tive, and indefinite pronouns.
(1.) A personal pronoun represents a person in grammar, as : I, you he, it.
(2.) A possessive pronoun denotes possession, as: mine, yours, etc.
(3.) A demonstrative pronoun points out an object, as: this one, that one.
(4.) An interrogative pronoun is used to ask a question, as: who? what?
(5.) A relative pronoun relates to a preceding noun, called the ante. cedent of the relative pronoun, as : the man who speaks; the tree that
the lady whom I admire. (6.) An indefinite pronoun does not represent any particular person or thing, as : every one, some one.
5. e. A verb is a word that expresses action or being, as : to write, to live.
6. There are five kinds of verbs : active, passive, neuter, pronominal, impersonal.
(1.) The active verb expresses an action performed by the subject and is, or may be, accompanied by a direct object; that is, a person or thing that is directly affected by the action of the verb. An active verb is transitive when it is accompanied by a direct object, as : he is writing a letter; and intransitive, when it is not, as: he is writing.
(2.) The passive verb is the reverse of the active verb; the person or thing which is the object of the active verb, is the subject of the passive verb, as : the letter is written by him.
(3.) The neuter verb expresses a state or action performed by the subject, but cannot have a direct object, as: I am, he works, he sleeps.
REM.–We know that a verb is neuter when we cannot place somebody or something after it; thus, we cannot say he sleeps somebody, he sleeps something.
(4.) The pronominal verb is always accompanied by a pronoun o' the same person and number as the subject, as : I flatter myself.
(5.) The impersonal verb is used only in the third person singular as : it rains.
6. A participle is a part of the verb which partakes of the nature of the adjective, as : fields covered with snow, glittering in the sun.
7. An adverb is a word joined to a verb, a participle, an adjective. or to another adverb, and usually expresses time, place, degree, or
8. A preposition is a word used to express some relation of different things or thoughts to each other, as: the book lies before me on the table...
9. A conjunction is a word used to connect words or sentences in construction, as : you and he are happy, because you are good.
10. An interjection is a word that denotes a sudden emotion of the mind, as : Ah! alas!
2.-PROPERTIES OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH.
1. A noun has gender to denote the sex, and number to indicate whether it means one, or more than one, person or thing.
2. The French language has only two genders: the masculine and the feminine.
3. The article and adjective agree in gender and number with the noun which they limit or describe ; that is, their form is so varied as to indicate the gender and number of the noun.
4. The pronoun agrees in gender and number with the noun which it represents.
5. A noun or pronoun is of the first person, if it represents the speaker; of the second, if it represents the person spoken to; and of the third, if it represents the person or thing spoken of.
1st person, I, me, we, us
6. A noun or pronoun is either the subject of a verb, or the objoct of a verb, or of a preposition.
7. The subject of the verb is the person or thing of which something is affirmed, as : he writes; he is the subject of the verb writes.
8. The object of the verb is the person or thing which is directly affected by the action of the verb, as : he writes a letter; letter is the object of the verb writes. The object which is thus directly governed by the verb is called the direct object, or direct regimen.
9. The object of a preposition is called an indirect object, or indirect regimen, as : he writes to me, or he writes me a letter; me is the indirect object of the verb governed by the preposition to expressed or under. stood.
10. The prepostion and its object, dependent on a verb, noun, or adjective, are called the indirect object of the verb, noun, or adjective.
11. A verb agrees with its subject, in person and number; that is, the termination of the verb is so varied as to indicate whether its subject is of the first, second, or third person, and whether it is singular or plural.
12. A verb has modes and tenses.
13. Mode is the manner in which the action or being is represənted by the verb.
14. By tense is meant the time to which the verb refers the action, whether past, present, or future.
15. Mode and Tense are indicated by modifications in the form of the verb.
16. A French verb has five modes: the infinitive, the indicative, the conditional, the imperative, and the subjunctive.
17. The infinitive expresses the action without reference to person or number, as : to write.
18. The indicative expresses the action in an absolute manner, as : I write, I have written, I shall write.
19. The conditional expresses the action conditionally, as : I would write, if I had time.
20. The imperative expresses command or exhortation, as : write.
21. The subjunctive expresses the action in a subordinate and de. pandent manner, as: I wish that you would write.
TENSES. 22. Tenses are simple or compound ; simple, when they are expressed by the verb alone, as : I write ; compound, when they are formed with an auxiliary, as : I have written.
23. Each simple tense has its corresponding compound tense, which is formed of the simple tense of the auxiliary verb and the past parti. ciple of the principal verb; thus, I have, is the simple tense, and I have had, the compound tense which corresponds with it.
24. Compound tenses always express completed action.
25. The infinitive mode has two tenses, a simple and a compound, It comprises also the participles, present, pust, and compound.
26. The indicative mode has eight tenses. 27. The conditional mode has two tenses. 28. The imperative mode has one tense. 29. The subjunctive mode has four tenses.
30. Adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections are invari. able words; that is, their forms are not varied to indicate gender, number, etc. They are sometimes called particles.
1. A sentence is an assemblage of words making complete sense.
2. Every sentence consists of two parts: the subject and the predi. cate.
3. The subject is that concerning which something is said.
5. A sentence is either (1) affirmative, (2) negative, (3) interrogative, or (4) negative and interrogative.
(1) Henry is studious.
(3) Is Henry studious ? (2) Henry is not studious. (4) Is not Henry studious ? 6. The rules which regulate the construction of sentences form that part of grammar which is called SYNTAX. They are comprised under the heads of Government, Agreement, and Position.
7. Government is the power which one word has over another, in requiring it to assume certain modifications, in order to express the relation in which the dependent word stands to the governing word.
8. Agreement is the correspondence of one word with another, in gender, number, and person.
9. Position, or Collocation, is the placing of the words in a sentence, in the order required by their mutual relations, or by usage.
10. In the sentence, Henry is writing a letter to his father (Henry, subject; is writing a letter to his father; predicate), the above three principles of syntax are illustrated in the following manner:
a. Gorernment. The subject Henry governs the verb is writing in the third person singular; the verb is writing governs the noun letter, directly, and the noun father, indirectly.
b. Agreement.—The verb is writing is in the third person singular, to agree with its subject, Henry.
c. Position.-In a declarative sentence, either affirmative or negative, the subject stands first, then the verb, next the noun which is