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Telemachus, the son of Ulysses. 14. Our dancing-master was a soldier formerly. 15. Have you bought letter paper? 16. Is there a rocking. chair in your room? 17. The tea-canister is in the dining-room. 18. There is a steam-mill in this neighborhood.

An, année; jour, journée, etc., 4. 19. I was a whole year in Paris. 20. I go there almost every year. 21. I see you pass here twice a day. 22. You did not see me pass here yesterday; for I stayed the whole day at home. 23. I neverf go out in the morning ; I study the whole morning. 24. I go out almost every evening. 25. I usuallyt spend the evening in company.

FORTY-EIGHTH LESSON.

THE ARTICLE.— USE OF THE ARTICLE BEFORE COMMON NOUNS.

1. The article used before a common noun that denotes a particu. lar person, place or thing, as : Le livre que je lis.

The book which I am reading. Le mois dernier.

Last month. La semaine prochaine.

Next week.

The article is used before nouns taken in a general sense, as : L'homme est mortel.

Man is mortal. Nous admirons le courage.

We admire courage. L'or est précieux.

Gold is precious.
The article, combined with the preposition de, is used before nouns
that are taken in a partitive sense, as :
J'ai du papier.
Il possède du courage.

He possesses courage.
To this rule there are three exceptions. (See Fourth Lesson.)

(1.) The article is omitted after pas, or any other negative word, as: Je n'ai pas de pain.

I have no bread.

I have paper.

+ Put the adverb after the verb.

REM. The article is, however, used after a negative word, when the sense of the noun is restricted by some other words, as : Je n'ai pas du pain comme le I have no bread like yours.

vôtre.

(2.) The article is omitted when the noun is preceded by an adjec tive, as : J'ai de bon papier.

I have good paper. REM. The article is not omitted when the adjective stands after the noun : du papier blanc, white paper. When the noun is omitted, tho rule for the suppression or use of the article is the same as if the noun were expressed : Avez-vous de bon papier ? J'en ai de bon. Avezvous du papier blanc ? J'en ai du blanc.

(3.) The article is omitted when the noun is governed by the preposition de, as the indirect object of a preceding word, as : J'ai besoin de livres.

I have need of books. Beaucoup de courage.

Much courage. REM. The article is, however, used after bien, much; many; and after la plupart, most. Bien de la peine.

Much trouble. La plupart des hommes.

Most men.

The article is used before the noun that denotes the unit of weight or measure, by which anything is bought or sold, and before nouns expressing fractional quantities when their sense is limited. Vingt sous la livre.

Twenty cents a pound. Deux dollars le mètre.

Two dollars a meter. La moitié des marchandises. One half of the goods.

The article is used, instead of the possessive adjective, before the parts of the body and the qualities of the mind. The construction of the sentence is so arranged that the part refers to the subject of the verb. I m'a donnné la main.

He

gave me his hand. Ello a la bouche potito.

Her mouth is small.

When an operation is performed upon a person, the part acted upon is the direct, and the person the indirect, object of the verb. Vous leur avez ouvert les yeux. You opened their eyes.

When a person performs an act upon a part of himself, the pronomi. nal form of the verb is used. I s'est fait mal à la main.

He hurts his hand. The article is not used before nouns placed in apposition with, or explanatory of, preceding nouns. Télémaque, fils d'Ulysse. Telemachus, the son of Ulysses.

The article is not used before nouns that qualify, or describe preceding nouns. Un maître de danse.

A dancing-master.
Un homme à cheveux blancs. A man with white hair

The article is, however, used before a descriptive noun, and before a noun that expresses the use or destination of an object, when the sense is definite. L'homme aux cheveux blancs. The man with the white hair. La boîte aux lettres.

The letter-box. Le pot au lait.

The milk-pot. The article is not used after the preposition en, nor after the conjune tion ni, before a noun that is taken in an indefinite or partitive sense. En automne.

In autumn. Il est venu en voiture.

He came in a carriage. U n'a ni argent ni amis.

He has neither money nor friends

2

USE OF THE ARTICLE BEFORE PROPER NOUNS.

The article is used before proper names of countries, provinces, seas, rivers, and mountains. La France est un beau pays.

France is a beautiful country. The article is not used before the name of a country, when it is pre ceded by the preposition en, in, to. Il est en France,

He is in France. Il va en Angleterre.

He goes to England.

The article is not used before the name of a country of the feminine gender when it is preceded by the preposition de, in the sense of from Il vient d'Allemagne.

He comes from Germany.

But:
Ovient du Mexique.

He comes from Mexico.

The article is not used in connection with the preposition de, when the name of a country forms part of a title, or serves to qualify a preceding noun, as : Le roi de Prusse.

The king of Prussia. Du fromage d'Angleterre. English cheese.

In other cases the article is used with the preposition de, as : Le climat de la France.

The climate of France.

The article is used before proper names of persons, when they are preceded by a title or an adjective. Le Président Jackson.

President Jackson. Le petit Henri.

Little Henry. The article is not used before the names of the months and of the days of the week. [See Ninth Lesson (bis).]

Vocabulary 48. L'Europe, f., Europe.

L'hiver, winter; en hiver, ir La France, France.

winter.
L'Angleterre, f., England. Le climat, the climate.
L'Allemagne, f., Germany. La gelée, the frost.
Un empereur, an emperor. ·

Le succès, success.
Un monarque, a monarch. L'oisiveté, f. idleness.
Le printemps, spring; au prin- L'amitié, f. friendship.
temps, in spring.

Un signe, a sign; en signo de, as L'été, summer; en été, in sum

a sign of.

Le sort, the lot. L'automne, autumn; en automne, Un cheveu, a hair; les cheveux, in autumn

the hair.

mer.

Un coil, an eye; les yeux, the s'approcher (de), to como near. eyes.

Blanc, fem. blanche, white. La main, the hand.

Noir, black. Le bras, the arm.

Vert, green. Le pied, the foot.

Bleu, blue. 'La moitié, the half.

Brun, brown. Le quart, the quarter.

Blond, fair; ligbt; flaxen. Créer, to create.

Mécontent (de), dissatisfied (with). Proclamer, to proclaim.

Puissant, powerful. Flâner, to loiter.

Uni, united.

Exercise 48

The Article before Common Nouns, 1 and 2. 1. Mon père est allé à Boston le mois dernier. 2. Il reviendra la semaine prochaine. 3. Dieu a créé le ciel et la terre en six jours. 4. L'automne est une saison plus agréable que l'hiver. 5. On admire le courage, mais la prudence est tout aussi nécessaire au succès. 6. Avez-vous du satin blanc comme celui-ci ? 7. Nous n'avons pas de satin comme celui-là. 8. Nous en avons du blanc et du noir, mais d'une qualité différente. 9. Bien des gens passent leur temps dans l'oisiveté. 10. La plupart des hommes se plaignent de la fortune. 11. Nous payons la viande vingt sous la livre. 12. Cette soie blancbe coûte trois dollars le mètre. 13. J'ai perdu le quart de mes plantes par la gelée. 14. Il m'a offert la main en signe d'amitié. 15. Elle a les cheveux blonds. 16. J'ai froid aux pieds. 17. Vous m'avez ouvert les yeux.

18. Je me suis fait mal au bras. 19. Un vieillard à cheveux blancs, qui tenait un livre à la main, s'est approché de

20. Ce monsieur aux cheveux blancs est le grand-père de la petite Henriette.

The Article before Proper Names, 3. 21. La France est plus grande que l'Angleterre. 22. Le climat de la France est préférable à celui de l'Angleterre. 23. Le roi de Prusse fut proclamé empereur d'Allemagne. 24. Mon frère est en France, et j'irai en Angleterre au printemps. 25. Le Président Grant était en ville hier. 26. Je n'étudie pas beaucoup en été. 27. Nous reviendrons à la ville en automne 28. Il fait bien froid ici en hiver.

nous.

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