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When a relative clause refers to a preceding sentence, the demon. strative pronoun ce is used as the antecedent of the relative pronoun. Elle est fort mécontente, ce qui She is very much displeased, which me désole.

grieves me.

We have seen (Lesson Eleventh) that the objective personal pronouns are placed after the verb when the verb is in the imperative mode and used affirmatively. The pronouns moi and toi are then used for me and te, except before en. Donnez-moi du papier.

Give me some paper. Donnez-m'en,

Give me some.

When the objective pronouns stand after the verb, le, la, les precede moi, toi, lui, nous, vous, leur. Donnez-le-moi.

Give it to me. Envoyez-le-lui.

Send it to him.

The personal pronouns are generally repeated with each verb.

The pronoun subject may, however, be omitted before the second and succeeding verbs, when the verbs are connected by et, ou, or ni, are all in the same tense, and all used either affirmatively or negatively. We may say : Il étudie et fait des progrès; or Il étudie et il fait des progrès. He studies and makes progress.

The relative pronouns qui, que, dont, are placed immediately after their antecedent. Le monsieur qui doit nous ac- The gentleman, who is to accomcompagner, est venu.

pany us, has come.

The relative pronoun dont must be followed by the subject of the next verb.

Je vais trouver l'agent dont vous

m'avez donné l'adresse.

I am going to the agent whose ad.

dress you gave me.

The pronoun whose, standing after a preposition and before a noun, is rendered by duquel, delaquelle, etc. Le monsieur dans la maison du The gentleman in whose bouse we quel nous demeurons.

live.

The personal pronouns he, she, him, her, followed by a relative pronoun, are rendered by a demonstrative pronoun. Celui qui travaille est plus heu- He who works is happier than he

reux que celui qui est oisif. who is idle. Je connais celle dont vous parlez. I know her of whom you speak.

REM. The relative pronouns are not omitted in the French sentence, though they may be omitted in the English sentence.

Vocabulary 50. La beauté, beauty,

Inquiéter, to trouble; to make L'esprit, m., the mind; the intel

uneasy. lect; the wit.

S'intéresser (à), to be interested (in). Le cour, the heart.

Consoler, to console; to comfort. La barbe, the beard.

Louer, to hire; to rent; to let out. Le chagrin, the grief; the trouble. Faire cas de, to value; to set a La flatterie, flattery. Un agent, an agent.

Sans réserve, without reserve. Un appartement, an apartment. Avec égard, respectfully. Au premier, on the first floor.

Gris, gray.

value upon.

Exercise 50. 1. Je sais ce qui vous inquiète. 2. Votre ami me l'a dit. 3. Nous en avons parlé. 4. J'y ai beaucoup pensé, mais je n'y puis rien faire. 5. Vos amis s'intéressent à votre sort, ce qui doit vous consoler. 6. Donnez-moi du papier à lettre. 7. Donnez-m'en une demi-douzaine de feuilles. 8. Prêtez-lui votre grammaire, si vous n'en avez pas besoin. 9. Prêtez-la-lui ; il vous la rendra tantôt. 10. On a tort de ne penser qu'à soi. 11. On a souvent besoin d'un plus petit que soi. 12. Le morisieur qui a loué l'appartement au premier, est ici. 13. C'est un monsieur à barbe grise, d'environ soixante ans. 14. Recevez-le avec égard, et donnez-lui la clef. 15. J'ai vu le peintre dont vous m'avez donné l'adresse. 16. C'est un homme dont tout le monde admire le talent. 17. Celui qui n'a jamais souffert, ne peut comprendre les maux d'autrui. 18. Je n'estime point celle qui fait plus de cas de sa beauté que de son esprit. 19. Prenez ce gâteau ; coupez-le en quatre parties égales, et donnez-en un morceau à chacun de vos frères.

Theme 50. 1. You do not know what troubles me. 2. I cannot tell it to you 3. I think of it all the time. 4. I cannot speak of it with any one. 5. I know that you have trouble, which grieves me. 6. If I can be useful to you, tell me of it (it to me). 7. Speak to me of your trouble. 8. Speak of it to me without reserve. 9. Every one is master in his own house. 10. The gentleman is here who sold you the horse. 11. Tell him to come back next week. 12. I know the lady of whom you speak. 13. She is a person, whose qualities of heart and mind we adinire. 14. There is the agent whose address you ask for. 15. It is the same who rented us the house in which we live. 16. We do not pity him who pities nobody. 17. I do not esteem her who loves flattery better than truth.

FIFTY-FIRST LESSON.

THE VERB.— AGREEMENT OF THE VERB AND ITS SUBJECT. 1. A verb agrees in person and number with its subject. When the subject is composed of two or more nouns or pronouns in the singular, the verb is put in the plural; and when the nouns or pronouns are of different persons, the verb agrees with the first person in preference to the second, and with the second in preference to the third. Mon frère et moi (nous) vien- My brother and I will come.

drons.

When the words forming the subject are connected by ou, and are of the third person, the verb agrees with the last; but when they are of different persons, the verb is put in the plural and agrees with the person who has the precedence. Lui ou son frère viendra.

He or his brother will come. Lui ou moi viendrons.

He or I will coine. A verb having a collective noun in the singular for its subject, is put in the singular. Le peuple était mécontent The people were dissatisfied.

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When the collective noun is followed by de and another noun, the verb agrees with the noun to which the action refers.

Une foule d'enfants encombrait A crowd of children obstructed the la rue.

street. Une foule d'enfants couraient A crowd of children ran through dans la rue.

the street.

The verb être having ce for its subject, is put in the plural only when it is followed by a noun or pronoun in the third person plural : Ce sont eux. It is they. C'est nous. It is we.

A verb having a relative pronoun for its subject, agrees with tbe antecedent of the relative pronoun. Moi, qui suis votre ami.

I, who am your friend

2.

USE OF THE TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE.

The present tense is used to express what exists or takes place at the present time. Je lis.

I am reading. Je lis tous les jours.

I read every day,

The present tense may be used to express a proximate future. Je pars demain.

I leave to-morrow.

The present tense is used to express a state or action which has been going on for some time, and is still continuing in the present. In this case the perfect tense is used in English. Je suis ici depuis lundi.

I have been here since Monday. Combien de temps y a-t-il que How long have you lived here?

vous demeurez ici ? Il y a trois ans que je demeure ici. I have lived here three years.

The imperfect tense is used to express what existed, or what was going on, in past time. Je lisais quand vous êtes entré. I was reading when you camo in. Je lisais beaucoup autrefois. I used to read a great deal.

The past indefinite tense represents the state or action as completed, either now or long since. J'ai vu votre oncle.

I saw (or have seen) your uncle. Je l'ai vu il y a un an.

I saw him a year ago.

The past definite tense is used to express what occurred in a time entirely elapsed, and of which the present day forms no part. Jo vis votre oncle l'an dernier. I saw your uncle last year.

REM. It is equally correct in such cases to use the past indefinite tense, and to say: J'ai vu votre oncle l'an dernier. In conversation, this tense is almost always preferred to the past definite.

The pluperfect tense denotes that an action or event had taken place at, or before, some past time mentioned. Vous étiez parti quand je suis You had started when I arrived.

arrivé.

The past anterior tense is used to express the earlier of two actions immediately succeeding each other, when the latter action is expressed by a verb in the past definite tense. Je partis aussitôt que je me fus I started as soon as I had risen.

levé.

The future tenses are used to express what will take place in future time.

The future tenses are used in French, though not in English, after adverbs of time, when the action is placed in the future.

Je partirai quand j'aurai fini mes I will start when I have finished affaires.

my business.

REM. The future tenses are not used after the conjunction si, if ; but they may be used after si, whether. Je partirai, s'il vient.

I will leave, if he comes. Je ne sais s'il viendra ou non. I do not know whether he will

come or not.

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