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USE OF THE CONDITIONAL MODE. The conditional mode is used to express what would take place, or would have taken place, if a certain conditiúr were, or had been, fulkilled. The condition, when expressed, is introduced by the conjunction si, if, with a verb in the imperfect or pluperfect tense of the indicative mood. Je le ferais, si je pouvais. I would do it, if I could. se l'aurais fait, si j'avais pu. I would have done it, if I had been

able. Il aurait pu le faire, s'il avait He could have done it, if he would.


REM. The conditional mode is not used after si, if ; but may be used after si, whether. Je ne sais s'il viendrait, si je I do not know whether he would l'invitais.

come, if I should invite him.


The imperative mode is used in French, as in English, to exhort or to command. Rendez-moi heureux.

Make me happy. Ne me rendez pas malheureux. Do not make me unhappy. Rendons-nous utiles aux autres. Let us render ourselves useful to


The third person of the imperative is supplied by the third persor. of the present tense of the subjunctive mode. Qu'il le fasse, et qu'ils en rient. Let him do it, and let them laugh.

Verbs ending in the second person singular of the imperative in e, as parle, pense, offre, and also the imperative va, add, for the sake of euphony, the letter s before en and y. Parle de cela. Parles-en. Speak of that.

Speak of it. Ponso à cela. Penses-y.

Think of that. Think of it Va a la maison. Vary.

Go home. Go there.


USE OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. The subjunctive mode is used in dependent sentences :

(1.) After verbs and phrases that express pleasure, pain, surprise will, desire, command, doubt, fear, etc. Je suis bien aise que vous ayez I am glad that you succeeded.

s'étonne que nous soyons ici.

He wonders that we are bere.
Il désire que nous partions. He wishes us to leave.
Je doute qu'il le sache.

I doubt his knowing it.

(2.) After interrogative and negative sentences which imply doubt. Croyez-vous qu'il le sache ? Do you believe that he knows it! Je ne pense pas qu'il le sache. do not think that he knows it.

(3.) After impersonal verbs. Il est temps que vous partiez. Il faut qu'il le fasse.

It is time for you to leave
He must do it.

(4.) In a relative sentence that limits one of the following words : le plus, le moins, le mieux, le meilleur, le pire, le moindre, le seul, le premier, le dernier, etc. Vous êtes le premier qui l'ait su. You are the first who knew it. Le seul qui puisse le faire. The only one who can do it.

(5.) In a relative sentence limiting a word of an indefinite sense. Je cherche quelqu'un qui le sache. I seek some one who knows it. Il y a peu d'hommes qui le There are few men who know it.


(6.) After certain conjunctions. (See Fifty-second Lesson.)

The tense of the verb, when it is in the subjunctive mode, depends on the tense of the governing verb.

The present and future tenses require the present or past tense of the subjunctive. Je doute qu'il le fasse. I doubt his doing it. Je douterai

I shall doubt s his having done it.


The past tenses and the tenses of the conditional require the impere fect or pluperfect of the subjunctive. J'ai douté qu'il le fit.

I doubted | his doing it. Je douterais qu'il l'eût fait. I would doubts his having done it


USE OF THE INFINITIVE. The infinitive may be used as subject or as object. Parler trop est imprudent. To speak too much is imprudent. Je veux vous rendre ce service. I will render you that service. Je le ferai pour vous obliger.

I will do it to oblige you. The past tense of the infinitive is used after the preposition après, whereas, in English, the present or compound participle is used. Après avoir dit cela il sortit. After saying that he went out.


GOVERNMENT OF VERBS, Some verbs are transitive in English and intransitive or neuter in French; and again, some verbs are transitive or active in French, which are intransitive in English. User de quelque chose.

To use a thing. Abuser de quelque chose. To abuse a thing. Douter de quelque chose. To doubt a thing. Jouir de quelque chose.

To enjoy a thing. Convenir à quelqu'un.

To suit somebody. Obéir à quelqu'un.

To obey somebody. Plaire à quelqu'un.

To please somebody. Répondre à quelqu'un.

To answer somebody.
Ressembler à quelqu'un.

To resemble somebody.
Demander quelque chose. To ask for something.
Désirer quelque chose.

To wish for something.
Payer quelque chose.


pay for something. Devoir quelque chose.

To owe for something. Écouter quelqu'un.

To listen to somebody. Regarder quelqu'un.

To look at somebody.

Some verbs require a different preposition in French than they do in English. Penser à, to think of.

Rire de, to laugh at. The following are some of the verbs which govern the infinitive directly (see Twentieth Lesson, 2): Aimer mieux, to like Entendre, to hear. Savoir, to know how.

better. Compter, to intend. Faire, to get. Voir, to see. Croire, to believe. Pouvoir, to be able. Vouloir, to be willing.

The following are some of the verbs which require à before the dependent infinitive (see Twenty-second Lesson): Aimer, to like. Donner, to give. Parvenir, to succeed (in). S'amuser, to amuse Employer, to employ. Penser, to think.

one's self. Apprendre, to learn. Inviter, to invite. Perdre, to lose. Chercher, to seek. Mettre, to put. Se plaire, to delight (in).

The following are some of the verbs which require de before the dependent infinitive (see Twenty-second Lesson): Cesser, to cease. Finir, to finish. Promettre, to promise. Conseiller, to advise. Négliger, to neglect. Refuser, to refuse. Se dépêcher, to make Oublier, to forget. Rire, to laugh.

haste. Dire, to tell.

Permettre, to permit. Tâcher, to endeavor. Some verbs require different prepositions, according to the sense in which they are used, tarder à, to delay; tarder de, (impers.) to long; venir, to come; venir à, to happen; venir de, to come from, to have just. Il tarde bien à venir.

He is long in coming. I me tarde de le voir.

I long to see him. Je viens travailler.

I come to work. S'il vient à mourir.

If he happens to die. Je viens de le voir.

I have just seen him. *APPARTENIR, TO BELONG. ÊTRE À, TO BELONG. A qui appartient cette maison ? To whom does that honse belong?

fatre à is used in the sense of appartenir.

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À qui est cela ?
O'est à moi.
À qui sont ces gants ?
Ils sont à ma tante; or
Ce sont les gants de ma tante.

Whose is that?
That is mine.
Whose gloves are theso?

} They are my aunta

Vocabulary 51. Le peuple, the people.

Garder, to keep ; to guard. Le palais, the palace.

Tuer, to kill. Une troupe, a band.

Retrouver, to find (what was lost). Les troupes (plur.), the troops. Faire attendre, to keep waiting. La bataille, the battle.

s'étonner, to wonder. Un service, a service.

Vouloir du bien (à), to wish well.

Theme 51. Agreement. 1. My friend and I shall start to-morrow. 2. You or Henry will come with us. 3. The people were complaining of the conduct of the troops. 4. A band of soldiers kept the door of the palace. 5. A great many soldiers were killed in the last battle. 6. They are our friends, who invited us. 7. It is you, gentlemen, who refused to come.

Use of the Tenses. 8. How long have you been here? 9. I have been here since Saturday. 10. I have been waiting two hours for my brother. 11. I have lost my grammar. 12. Yesterday I found it among the books which you returned to me. 13. Last winter we were in Paris. 14. One day I received a letter which called me back to New York; my father was sick. 15. As soon as I had learned this news, I came back to the United States. 16. I shall start when my brother comes. 17. I will start to-day, if he comes. 18. I do not know whether he will come.

Conditional Mode. 19. He would come, if he could. 20. He would have come yesterday, if it had not rained. 21. I would render you that service, if it (ce) were in (en) my power. 22. I would have done so already.

Imperative Mode. 23. Do not keep me waiting long. 24. Let us render ourselves agreeable to those of wbom we have need.

Subjunctive Mode. 25. I am glad that you have come. 26. I am sorry that your brother is sick. 27. I wonder that he has not written

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