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Theme 50. 1. You do not know what troubles me. 2. I cannot tell it to you 3. I think of it all the time. 4 I cannot speak of it with any one. 5. I know that you have trouble, which grieres me. & If I can be use ful to you, tell me of it it to me i. Speak to me of your trouble. & Speak of it to me without reserve. 9. Every one is master in his owo boase. 10. The gentleman is here who sold you the horse. 11. Tell him to come back next week. 12. I know the lads of whom you speak. 13. She is a person, whose qualities of heart and mind we ad.

a mire. 14. There is the agent whose address you ask for. 15. It is the same who rented us the house in which we live. 16. We do not pity him who pities nobody. 17. I do not esteem her who loves flattery better than truth.

FIFTY-FIRST LESSON.

THE VERB. — AGREEMENT OF THE VERB AND ITS SUBJECT. 1. A verb agrees in person and number with its subject. When the subject is composed of two or more pouns or pronouns in the singular, the verb is put in the plural; and when the nouns or pronouns are of different persons, the verb agrees with the first person in preference to the second, and with the second in preference to the third. Mon frère et moi (nous) vien- My brother and I will come.

drons.

When the words forming the subject are connected by ou, and are of the third person, the verb agrees with the last; but when they are of different persons, the verb is put in the plural and agrees with the person who has the precedence. Lui ou son frère viendra. He or his brother will come. Lui ou moi viendrons.

He or I will coine. A verb having a collective noun in the singular for its subject, is put in the singular. Le peuple était mécontent The people were dissatisfied.

When the collective noun is followed by de and another noun, the verb agrees with the noun to which the action refers.

Une foule d'enfants encombrait A crowd of children obstructed the la rue.

street. Une foule d'enfants couraient A crowd of children ran through dans la rue.

the street.

It is we.

The verb être having ce for its subject, is put in the plural only when it is followed by a noun or pronoun in the third person plural: Ce sont eux. It is they. C'est nous.

A verb having a relative pronoun for its subject, agrees with the antecedent of the relative pronoun. Moi, qui suis votre ami.

I, who am your friend

2.

USE OF THE TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE.

The present tense is used to express what exists or takes place at the present time. Je lis.

I am reading. Je lis tous les jours.

I read every day,

The present tense may be used to express a proximate future.

I leave to-morrow.

Je pars demain.

The present tense is used to express a state or action which has been going on for some time, and is still continuing in the present. In this case the perfect tense is used in English. Je suis ici depuis lundi.

I have been here since Monday. Combien de temps y a-t-il que How long have you lived here?

vous demeurez ici ? Il y a trois ans que je demeure ici. I have lived here three years.

The imperfect tense used to express what existed, or what was going on, in past time. Je lisais quand vous êtes entré. I was reading when you came in. Je lisais beaucoup autrefois. I used to read a great deal.

a

&

The past indefinite tense represents the state or action as completed either now or long since. J'ai vu votre oncle.

I saw (or have seen) your uncle. Je l'ai vu il y a un an.

I saw him a year ago. The past definite tense is used to express what occurred in a tims entirely elapsed, and of which the present day forms no parts Jo vis votre oncle l'an dernier. I saw your uncle last year.

REM. It is equally correct in such cases to use the past indefinite tense, and to say: J'ai vu votre oncle l'an dernier. In conversation, this tense is almost always preferred to the past definite.

The pluperfect tense denotes that an action or event had taken place at, or before, some past time mentioned. Vous étiez parti quand je suis You had started when I arrived.

arrivé.

The past anterior tense is used to express the earlier of two actions immediately succeeding each other, when the latter action is expressed by a verb in the past definite tense. Je partis aussitôt que je me fus I started as soon as I had risen.

levé.

The future tenses are used to express what will take place in future time.

The future tenses are used in French, though not in English, after adverbs of time, when the action is placed in the future. Je partirai quand j'aurai fini mes I will start when I have finished affaires.

my business.

Rem. The future tenses are not used after the conjunction si, it; but they may be used after si, whether. Je partirai, s'il vient.

I will leave, if he comes. Je ne sais s'il viendra ou non. I do not know whether he will

come or not.

3.

USE OF THE CONDITIONAL MODE. The conditional mode is used to express what would take place, or would have taken place, if a certain conditiúr were, or had been, fulalled. The condition, when expressed, is introduced by the conjunction si, if, with a verb in the imperfect or pluperfect tense of the indicative mood. Je le ferais, si je pouvais. I would do it, if I could. se l'aurais fait, si j'avais pu. I would have done it, if I had been

able. Il aurait pu le faire, s'il avait He could have done it, if he would.

voulu.

REM. The conditional mode is not used after si, if; but may be used after si, whether. Je ne sais s'il viendrait, si je I do not know whether he would l'invitais.

come, if I should invite him.

4.

USE OF THE IMPERATIVE MODE.

The imperative mode is used in French, as in English, to exhort or to command. Rendez-moi heureux.

Make me happy. Ne me rendez pas malheureux. Do not make me ushappy. Rendons-nous utiles aux autres. Let us render ourselves useful to

others.

The third person of the imperative is supplied by the third person of the present tense of the subjunctive mode. Qu'il le fasse, et qu'ils en rient. Let him do it, and let them laugh.

Verbs ending in the second person singular of the imperative in e, as parle, pense, offre, and also the imperative va, add, for the sake of euphony, the letter s before en and y. Parlo de cela. Parles-en. Speak of that. Speak of it. Pense à cela. Penses-y.

Think of that. Think of it Va à la maison. Vary

Go home.

Go there.

5.

USE OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. The subjunctive mode is used in dependent sentences :

(1.) After verbs and phrases that express pleasure, pain, surprise will, desire, command, doubt, fear, etc. Je suis bien aise que vous ayez I am glad that you succeedod.

réussi.
I s'étonne que nous soyons ici.

He wonders that we are bere.
I désire que nous partions. He wishes us to leave.
Je doute qu'il le sache.

I doubt his knowing it.

(2.) After interrogative and negative sentences which imply doubt. Croyez-vous qu'il le sache ? Do you believe that he knows it? Je ne pense pas qu'il le sache. I do not think that he knows it.

(3.) After impersonal verbs. Il est temps que vous partiez. Il faut qu'il le fasse.

It is time for you to leave.
He must do it.

(4.) In a relative sentence that limits one of the following words : le plus, le moins, le mieux, le meilleur, le pire, le moindre, le seul, le premier, le dernier, etc. Vous êtes le premier qui l'ait su. You are the first who knew it. Le seul qui puisse le faire. The only one who can do it.

(5.) In a relative sentence limiting a word of an indefinite sense. Je cherche quelqu'un qui le sache. I seek some one who knows it. Il y a peu d'hommes qui le There are few men who know it.

sachent,

(6.) After certain conjunctions. (See Fifty-second Lesson.)

The tense of the verb, when it is in the subjunctive mode, depends on the tense of the governing verb.

The present and future tenses require the present or past tense of the subjunctive. Je doute

I doubt | his doing it. Je douterai qu'il l'ait fait.

I shall doubts his having done it.

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