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The past tenses and the tenses of the conditional require the imper. fect or pluperfect of the subjunctive. J'ai douté qu'il le fit.

I doubted | his doing it. Je douterais Š qu'il l'eût fait. I would doubts his having done it

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The infinitive may be used as subject or as object. Parler trop est imprudent. To speak too much is imprudent. Je veux vous rendre ce service. I will render you that service. Je le ferai pour vous obliger.

I will do it to oblige you. The past tense of the infinitive is used after the preposition après, whereas, in English, the present or compound participle is used. Après avoir dit cela il sortit. After saying that he went out.

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Some verbs are transitive in English and intransitive or neuter in French; and again, some verbs are transitive or active in French, which are intransitive in English. User de quelque chose.

To use a thing Abuser de quelque chose. To abuse a thing. Douter de quelque chose.

To doubt a thing. Jouir de quelque chose.

To enjoy a thing. Convenir à quelqu'un.

To suit somebody. Obéir à quelqu'un.

To obey somebody. Plaire à quelqu'un.

To please somebody. Répondre à quelqu'un.

To answer somebody.
Ressembler à quelqu'un.

To resemble somebody.
And
Demander quelque chose. To ask for something.
Désirer quelque chose.

To wish for something.
Payer quelque chose.

To pay for something. Devoir quelque chose.

To owe for something. Écouter quelqu'un.

To listen to somebody. Regarder quelqu'un.

To look at somebody.

Some verbs require a different preposition in French than they do in English. Penser à, to think of.

Rire de, to laugh at. The following are some of the verbs which govern the infinitive directly (see Twentieth Lesson, 2): Aimer mieux, to like Entendre, to hear. Savoir, to know how.

better. Compter, to intend. Faire, to get. Voir, to see. Croire, to believe. Pouvoir, to be able. Vouloir, to be willing.

The following are some of the verbs which require à before the dependent infinitive (see Twenty-second Lesson): Aimer, to like. Donner, to give. Parvenir, to succeed (in). S'amuser, to amuse Employer, to employ. Penser, to think.

one's self. Apprendre, to learn. Inviter, to invite. Perdre, to lose. Chercher, to seek. Mettre, to put. Se plaire, to delight (in).

The following are some of the verbs which require de before the dependent infinitive (see Twenty-second Lesson): Cesser, to cease. Finir, to finish.

Promettre, to promise. Conseiller, to advise. Négliger, to neglect. Refuser, to refuse. Se dépêcher, to make Oublier, to forget. Rire, to laugh.

haste. Dire, to tell.

Permettre, to permit. Tâcher, to endeavor. Some verbs require different prepositions, according to the sense in which they are used, tarder à, to delay; tarder de, (impers.) to long; venir, to come; venir à, to happen; venir de, to come from, to have just. I tarde bien à venir.

He is long in coming. I me tarde de le voir.

I long to see him. Je viens travailler.

I come to work. S'il vient à mourir.

If he happens to die. Je viens de le voir.

I have just seen him. *APPARTENIR, TO BELONG. ÊTRE À, TO BELONG. A qui appartient cette maison ? To whom does that house belong?

Etre à is used in the sense of appartenir,

À qui est cela ?
O'est à moi.
À qui sont ces gants ?
Ils sont à ma tante; or
Ce sont les gants de ma tante.

Whose is that?
That is mine,
Whose gloves are these ?

} They are my aunt's

Vocabulary 51. Le peuple, the people.

Garder, to keep; to guard. Le palais, the palace.

Tuer, to kill. Une troupe, a band.

Retrouver, to find (what was lost). Les troupes (plur.), the troops. Faire attendre, to keep waiting. La bataille, the battle.

S'étonner, to wonder. Un service, a service.

Vouloir du bien (à), to wish well.

Theme 51. Agreement. 1. My friend and I shall start to-morrow. 2. You or Henry will come with us. 3. The people were complaining of the conduct of the troops. 4. A band of soldiers kept the door of the palace. 5. A great many soldiers were killed in the last battle. 6. They are our friends, who invited us. 7. It is you, gentlemen, who refused to come.

Use of the Tenses. 8. How long have you been here? 9. I have been here since Saturday. 10. I have been waiting two hours for my brother. 11. I have lost my grammar. 12. Yesterday I found it among the books which you returned to me. 13. Last winter we were in Paris. 14. One day I received a letter which called me back to New York; my father was sick. 15. As soon as I had learned this news, I came back to the United States. 16. I shall start when my brother comes. 17. I will start to-day, if he comes. 18. I do not know whether he will come.

Conditional Mode. 19. He would come, if he could. 20. He would have come yesterday, if it had not rained. 21. I would render you that service, if it (ce) were in (en) my power. 22. I would have done so already.

Imperative Mode. 23. Do not keep me waiting long. 24. Let us render ourselves agreeable to those of whom we have need.

Subjunctive Mode. 25. I am glad that you have come. 26. I am sorry that your brother is sick. 27. I wonder that he has not written

to me.

28. I doubt whether (que) he knows that you are here. 29. I do not think that he knows it. 30. It is time for us to go away). 31. I must first finish what I am doing. 32. The professor wished me to write my exercise before I left.

Government. 33. Do you doubt that? 34. I do not doubt it. 35. You enjoy great advantages; do not abuse them. 36. Try to please your teachers : they wish you well. 37. I owe you for these boots; I will pay you for them as soon as I receive my money. 38. Whose penknife is this? 39. It is mine. 40. That store belongs to my uncle. 41. He is long in coming. 42. I long to see him. 43. He has just arrived. 44. I knew that it was he, because he resembles your father.

FIFTY-SECOND LESSON.

THE PARTICIPLE.

The principal uses of the participles, present and past, have been explained in the Twenty-first Lesson.

The present participle may be used without en:

1. To state a determinative or explanatory circumstance, with reference to the subject or object of the verb. Un jeune homme connaissant ses A young man knowing his own

intérêts, ne négligera pas ses interest, will not neglect his études.

studies. J'ai vu cet homme tenant un I have seen that man holding a livre à la main.

book in his hand.

2. To state a conclusive circumstance, in an absolute manner. La paix étant conclue, les armées Peace being concluded, the armies se retirèrent.

withdrew.

THE ADVERB.

Davantage, plus, more. Davantage can have no dependent words following it; but is preferable to plus at the end of a sentence.

Si, 80; tant, so much, denote extension; aussi, as, 80; autant, as much, so much, denote comparison.

REM. Si may be used for aussi, and tant for autant, in negative sentences.

Plutôt, plus tôt. Plutôt means rather; and plus tôt, sooner.
Tout à coup, means suddenly; and tout d'un coup, all in one stroke.
De suite means in succession; and tout de suite, immediately.

Adverbs are generally placed immediately after the verb. When the verb is in a compound tense, the adverb is placed between the auxiliary verb and the past participle. Adverbs of several syllables and adverbial phrases are placed after the participle. Adverbs denoting time absolute, as: hier, aujourd'hui, demain, etc., may be placed before the subject; but no adverb can be placed between the subject and the verb.

Adverbs of comparison are repeated with each word which they modify. Adverbs of quantity need not be repeated; but the preposition de must precede each noun which the adverb limits.

THE NEGATIVE PARTICLE NE.

The particle ne is required before a verb in the subjunctive mode :

1. After verbs that express fear or apprehension, when they are used affirmatively.

2. After the verbs empêcher, to prevent, to hinder, and prendre garde, to beware ; to take care (not).

3. After désespérer, to despair; disconvenir, to disown, to deny; douter, to doubt ; nier, to deny, when they are used negatively.

4. After the conjunctions à moins que, unless ; de crainte que, de peur que, for fear that.

5. Ne is also required before the verb in the second member of a comparative sentence, when the first member is affirmative. Il est plus riche qu'on ne le pense. He is richer than people think. Il parle autrement qu'il ne pense. He speaks otherwise than he

thinks.

THE PREPOSITION. À, dans, en, in. À directs the mind to the locality; dans, points to the inside of it; en and the noun which it precedes, form a kind of adverbial phrase. Il est au magasin, he is at the store. Il est dans le magasin, he is in the store. Le café est en magasin, the coffee is stored.

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