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En, à, to or in. The preposition en is used before the names of countries of the feminine gender; and the preposition à and the article, before the names of countries of the masculine gender. En France, to or in France. Au Mexique, to or in Mexico.
When dans and en are used with reference to time, dans precedes the epoch at which, and en the period in which, anything is to be, or can be, done. Je pars dans deux heures, I start in two hours. Je peux finir cet ouvrage en deux heures, I can finish that work in two hours.
De, avec, chez, with. De expresses result or consequence; avec has the meaning of together with, by means of ; chez has reference to one's country, one's home. Qu'avez-vous fait de mon canif? What have you done with my penknife? (Where is it?) Qu'avez-vous fait avec mon canif ? What have you done with my penknife? (What use have you made of it?) Chez les Romains c'était la coutume. Among the Romans it was the custom.
De, than. After plus and moins, de is used before a numeral adjective, and not que: plus de vingt, more than twenty; moins de dix, less than ten.
Avant, devant, before. Avant denotes priority, devant, position. Il est venu avant moi. Il s'est placé devant moi.
Entre, parmi, among. Entre is used distributively; parmi means in the middle of. Entre nous, among us. Parmi le peuple, among the people.
Vers, envers, towards. Vers is used to express physical direction, and envers to express moral direction. Vers le nord, towards the north. Poli envers tout le monde, polite towards everybody.
The prepositions à, de, en, sans, are repeated before each word.
Certain conjunctions are always followed by the subjunctive mode The following are some of them, which are of frequent use. Afin que, in order that.
De crainte que,
for fear; lest A moins que, (Rem.) unless.
De peur que,
(Rem.) Avant que, before.
Au cas or en cas que in case. Bien que, although.
Pour que, in order that.
Pourvu que, provided.
Sans que, without. Quoique, although.
Supposé que, suppose. REM. À moins que, de crainte que, de peur que, require ne before the verb.
After the conjunction que, the verb is put in the indicative or the subjunctive, according as the preceding proposition may require.
The conjunction cannot be omitted ; but instead of repeating any of the compound conjunctions, que is used in their place, and governs the verb in the same manner as the conjunction for which it stands.
Que, used to avoid the conjunction si, if, governs the subjunctive mode, although si requires the verb in the indicative. Si vous venez et que je ne sois pas au logis, attendez-moi. If you come and (if) I am not in, wait for me.
Que, in exclamatory sentences, is used for comme and for combien. Que c'est beau!
How beautiful that is ! Que vous êtes bon!
How good you are ! Que de bonté vous avez! How much kindness you have!
Et is used to join similar parts of an affirmative proposition; ni to join similar parts of a negative proposition. Il ressemble à son frère, et de He resembles his brother, both in visage et de caractère.
face and disposition. Il ne ressemble pas à son frère, He does not resemble his brother,
ni de visage ni de caractère. either in face or disposition.
Ni is used in connection with non plus (either, in a negative sense. Il ne veut pas le faire, ni moi non plus. He will not do it, nor I either. Mon frère ne veut pas le faire non plus. My brother will not do it cither.
Vocabulary 52. La parole, the word.
Inviter, to invite. La difficulté, the difficulty. *Secourir quelqu'un, to come to Un principe, a principle.
one's assistance. Le Canada, Canada.
*Offrir (de), to offer (for). En voiture, in a carriage. Renoncer (à), to renounce. Dans l'embarras, in difficulty. Je vous en prie, pray.
Present Part. 1. Our friends seeing that we were in difficulty, came promptly to our assistance. 2. On coming in, I saw the professor hold. ing your copy-book in his hand. 3. He read your exercise, and having read it he said, this is the best exercise I have seen to-day.
Adverbs. 4. I offered you fifty.dollars for your boat; and I will not give any more for it (en). 5. Do not laugh so loud. 6. Do not speak so much. 7. I would rather die than renounce my principles. 8. He had no sooner pronounced these words than he went out. 9. Your friend has been absent three days in succession. 10. I will go to him immediately. ' 11. I often see him, but I seldom speak to him. 12. I never had any difficulties with him.
The Particle Ne. 13. I fear that he may be sick. 14. I will prevent his going out. 15. Take care that he does not hear you. 16. I do not doubt his being sick. 17. I shall not go there, unless he invites me personally (lui-même). 18. His conduct is much better than it was formerly.
Prepositions. 19. My father is in his office; my mother is in her room; and my sister has gone out in a carriage. 20. My uncle was in France last year, and he has gone to Mexico now. 21. I will go to Canada in a fortnight. 22. I wrote this exercise in, forty minutes. 23. What have you done with my grammar; I cannot find it anywhere? 24. What have you done with my gold pen; it is quite spoiled ? 25. I have more than ten pens; but not one is good. 26. I shall not go out before noon. 27. There is a carriage before the door. 28. I will come towards evening. 29. Pray, be polite towards everybody.
Conjunctions. 30. If you see my brother before he goes to the office, give him this letter. 31. I send it to him (in order) that he may comprehend the situation of that business. 32. Provided you do your duty, all will be well. 33. If you have to leave, and cannot come to see me, write to me. 34. How kind you are! 35. How many fine things one seus in Paris ! 36. He will never believe that story. 37. I cannot believe it either. 38. My father does not believe that he has done it, or that he ever will do it.
-} a son-in-law.
a daughter-in-law, Un beau-frère, a brother-in-law. Une belle-soeur, a sister-in-law. Un parent, a relation, m. Une parente, a relation, f. Un proche parent, a near relation. Un parent éloigné, a distant relation. Un cousin germain, a first-cousin, m. Une cousine germaine, a first-cousin, f. Ua tuteur, a guardian.
Un pupille, a ward, m.
Une femme, f a wife.
La cheville, the ankle.
cour, the heart.
Un serrurier, a locksmith.
tion in the chest.