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Exercise 2. 1. Les verres et les tasses sont sur la table. 2. Les livres de Marie sont à la maison. 3. Les parents de Charles sont ici. 4. Le père et la mère sont à l'église. 5. Les filles sont dans la maison. 6. Les fils sont à l'école. . Ile dans le jardin. 8. Le chat est sous l'arbre. 9. Où est le cheval? 10. Les chevaux sont dans l'écurie. 11. Le chien est dans le bateau. 12. Les gâteaux sont pour les enfants.

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Theme 2. 1. The books of the child are on the table. 2. The parents are at church. 3. The sons are in the garden. 4. The daughters are in the house. 5. The boy is in the boat. 6. The dogs are in the water. %. Where are the cats ? 8. The cakes are for the girls. 9. The horse is in the stable. 10. The horses are under the trees. 11. Mary is at home, and Charles is at school.

SECOND LESSON (bis).

This second lesson (bis) is inserted, as all the lessons marked (bis) are, to com. plete a subject which is left incomplete in the preceding lesson. It is not intended that the students should study it in going through the course for the first time. They may do so afterwards, when they are reviewing.

PLURAL OF NOUNS.— EXCEPTIONS. (CONTINUED). The exceptional rule 3, contained in the preceding lesson, does not comprise all the nouns that end in al. The follow. ing nouns in al follow the general rule.

Aval, surety for payment. Cal, callosity.
Bal, ball (dancing party). Carnaval, carnival.

*

Chacal, jackal.

Nopal, nopal. Pal, pale (in heraldry).

Régal, entertainment, Plural : avals, bals, etc. Exc. 4. Seven nouns ending in ou, take x in the plural. Bijou, jewel.

Hibou,* owl. Caillou, flint.

Joujou, plaything. Chou, cabbage.

Pou, louse.
Genou, knee.

Plural : bijoux, cailloux, etc.
REM. 1. Other nouns in ou follow the general rule.

Exc. 5. A few nouns ending in ail, change ail into aux. Bail, lease.

Soupirail, air-hole. Corail, coral.

Vantail, door-flap. Email, enamel.

Ventail, ventail (of helmets). Plural : baux, coraux, etc. REM. 2. Other nouns ending in ail, follow the general rule, except ail, bétail (Exc. 6), and travail (Exc. 7).

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Exc. 6. Ail, clove of garlic, has in the plural ails or aulx. Bétail, cattle ; plural, bestiaux.

Exc. 7. The following four nouns have two plural forms, each with a different meaning:

Aieul, ancestor, plur.: aïeux;' aïeul, grandfather, plur.: aïeuls. Ciel, heaven, plur.: cieux; ciel, tester; roof of a quarry ; sky of a

picture; climate; plur.: ciels. Eil, eye, plur.: yeux; oeil in oeil de boeuf, ox-eye, plur.: cils. Travail, labor, plur: travaux; travail, minister's report; a brake

for refractory horses, plur.: travails. REM. 3. Nouns of more than one syllable ending in ant or ent, either change the final t into s, or follow the general rule : l'enfant, plur.: les enfans, or enfants, the children.

* Tbe h of hibou is aspirated : le hibou, the owl.

THIRD LESSON.

CONTRACTION OF THE ARTICLE.- NE.... Pas, NOT. 1. The definite article is subject to contraction. De and le are contracted into du; de and les, into des. A and le are contracted into au; à and les, into aux.

De and la, and de and l'; à and la, and à and 1', are not contracted.

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2.

FORMS OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE BEFORE NOUNS.

(a.) BEFORE A MASCULINE Noun.

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Le père, the father.

Les pères, the fathers. Du pèra, of or from the father. Des pères, of or from the fathers. Au père, to the father.

Aux pères, to the fathers. (b.) BEFORE A FEMININE NOUN. La mère, the mother.

Les mères, the mothers. De la mère, of or from the Des mères, of or from the mo. mother.

thers. A la mère, to the mother. Aux mères, to the mothers.

(c.) BEFORE A VOWEL. L'enfant, the child.

Les enfants, the children. De l'enfant, of or from the child. Des enfants, of the children. A l'enfant, to the child.

Aux enfants, to the children.

3.

Ne (n') .... pas, Not. Pas, not, or any other negative word accompanying a verb, requires ne (n') before the verb. When the verb is not expressed, ne is not used.

Charles n'est pas à l'école. Charles is not at school.
Les chevaux ne sont pas ici. The horses are not here.

Vocabulary 3.
Un maître, a master; a teacher. Je (J'), I.
Un professeur, a professor. J'ai, I bave
Un général, a general.

Ai-je ? have I?
Un soldat, a soldier.

Je n'ai pas, I have not.
Un mari, a husband.

N'ai-je pas ? have I not?
Un chapeau, a hat; a bonnet. Parlé, spoken.
Une orange, an orange.

Donné, given.
Un crayon, a pencil.

Prêté, lent.
Une plume, a pen; a feather. Attaché, attached.
Paul, Paul.

Eu, had.
Louise, Louisa.

Vu, seen.

Exercise 3. 1. Le fils du maître est dans l'école. 2. Les livres des enfants sont sur la table. 3. Le mari de la femme n'est pas à la maison. 4. Les mères des filles ne sont pas ici. 5. Le cheval du soldat est attaché à l'arbre. 6. Les chevaux des généraux sont dans l'écurie. 7. J'ai la plume du maître. 8. J'ai parlé au professeur. 9. J'ai donné les oranges aux enfants du professeur. 10. J'ai prêté le bateau aux fils du général. 11. Je n'ai pas eu le crayon de Paul. 12. Je n'ai pas vu le chapeau de Louise.

Theme 3. 1. The hat of the soldier is on the table. 2. The father of the girl is not at home. 3. The mother of the child is in the house. 4. The horses of the generals are under the trees. 5. The boat of the man is attached to a tree. 6. The husband and wife are not here. % I have the professor's book (the book of the professor). 8. I have not had the teacher's pen (the pen of the teacher). 9. I have spoken to the general. 10. I have given the oranges to the girls. 11. I have lent the pencil to Louisa. 12. I have not seen Paul.

FOURTH LESSON.

PARTITIVE SENSE OF THE NOUN. — PRESENT TENSE OF AVOIR,

To Have. 1. A noun is used in a partitive sense when it is, or may be, preceded, in English, by some or any, as: some or any bread, or bread.

In French, a noun used in the partitive sense is preceded by de and the definite article ; that is : du, de la, de l'or des, as: Du pain,

Bread, some or any bread. De la viande,

Meat, some or any meat. De l'eau,

Water, some or any water. Des gâteaux,

Cakes, some or any cakes.

2. OMISSION OF THE ARTICLE BEFORE A PARTITIVE NOUN.

The article is omitted, and de alone is used, before a partitive noun, in the following three cases :

(1.) After pas, or any other negative word, as: Je n'ai pas de pain,

I have no bread (not any rzad). (2.) When the noun is preceded by an adjective, as : J'ai de bon pain,

I have good bread. (3.) When the noun limits another noun, or an adverb that denotes quantity: Un verre d'eau,

A glass of water. Un morceau de gâteau,

A piece of cake. Une plume d'or,

A gold pen (a pen of gold).

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