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READINESS in employing the verb in all of its forms is well understood to be indispensable to anything like fluency in the use of the French language. This readiness can be attained only by constant and systematic drill. The ordinary practice of reciting the moods and tenses consecutively does not secure it, because any one person and number suggests the following one, and thus the work becomes a routine, and does not give the independence essential to rapid expression.

Inasmuch as each verb is conjugated affirmatively, negatively, interrogatively, and negatively-interrogatively, the number of changes in arrangement is so great that the task of familiarizing the student with them presents obstacles somewhat difficult to

The purpose of this pamphlet is to offer a means by which the necessary constant and systematic drill may be secured by an outlay of ten or fifteen minutes of each recitation hour. It is to be employed after a verb has been studied till all of its forms

can be given fairly well in their order. This drill supplements that work and results in enabling the student to employ without hesitation any form of the verb he may wish to use in speaking or writing

The English of nearly every possible arrangement of Avoir' is here given, and the order is such that no similar forms are successive. It has been found best to give about twenty forms to be practiced for each recitation. Of course the number will depend upon the proficiency and industry of the pupils.


In class, the teacher should strive to obtain instant and unhesitating rendering into French when the English is pronounced.

After some familiarity with Avoir has been gained, any other verb may be practiced by substituting its forms for those of Avoir. For example, if the study be upon to write or to go away, the first form will be,“ Thou shouldst not have written," or “ Thou shouldst not have gone away,” in place of, “ Thou shouldst not have had," and so on.

A few weeks of this drill will develop fluency in using the verb, greater ease in pronunciation, and an interest in forming sentences and in expression of thought that it is very hard to arouse while the pupil is struggling with unreadiness as to modes and tenses.

This daily drill should be continued until there is such facility in the use of the different forms of any verb that it is no longer necessary.

Success with this as with everything else will depend very much upon the enthusiasm and persistence of the teacher.



1. Thou shouldst not have

had. (Substitute “ Thou
shouldst not have writ-
ten,” “ Thou shouldst not

have gone away,” etc.)
2. You would not have. (Sub-

stitute, etc.) 3. They should not have had. 4. I would not have had. 5. Would I have? 6. You had. 7. They have. 8. You have not had. 9. Hadst thou? 10. Had he had ?

11. Will they not have?
12. They would not have.
13. Have you not?
14. That we might not have.
15. Wilt thou not have ?
16. That you might not have.
17. We have not.
18. That thou mightst not have.
19. Thou wilt have.
20. Have I not?
21. To have had.
22. I have not.
23. I should have had.
24. Thou wilt not have,
25. He had not.

26. They have had. 27. He should not have had. 28. Hast thou not had ? 29. You have. 30. Wouldst thou not have? 31. We shall not have had. 32. Would he have? 33. We should not have had. 34. They will not have. 35. That he might have had. 36. That we might not have had. 37. That they may not have

had. 38. That you might have had. 39. Thou hadst not. 40. Will he have had? 41. They have not. 42. Not to have. 43. We had. 44. Have you? 45. You had had. 46. Had he not had ? 47. They will have. 48. Had we not had ? 49. Will he not have? 50. Had I not had ? 51. That thou mightst have. 52. That I may have had. 53. Have not (thou). 54. That thou mightst have

had. 55. That I might have. 56. He has. 57. That I might not have had. 58. We have not had. · 59. Have we not? 60. You had not had.

61. I had. 62. We would have had. 63. Thou hast. 64. Has he had ? 65. I shall have had. 66. Have they? 67. Wilt thou not have had ? 68. We had had. 69. He would have had. 70. Have (you). 71. You would have had. 72. Would I not have ? 73. Thou wouldst have. 74. Have (thou). 75. That he may have had. 76. That he may not have. 77. Thou hast not had. 78. Have you had ? 79. He will not have had. 80. Thou wouldst have had. 81. That they may have had. 82. That you may have had. 83. Had they? 84. Hadst thou not had ? 85. Wouldst thou have had ? 86. Thou wilt have had. 87. Shall we have? 88. Not to have had. 89. You would have. 90. Should you have had? 91. Had he not? 92. That they might not have. 93. That I might not have. 94. He will not have. 95. Would we not have? 96. They have not had. 97. I had not.

may have..

98. Will you not have? 99. He had not had. 100. That we may not have. 101. We shall have. 102. Had we? 103. That we may have. 104. Thou wilt not have had. 105. Have I not had ? 106. You will not have had. 107. We have had. 108. Thou hadst not had. 109. You have had. 110. That you might not have

had. 111. They had had. 112. That we may have had. 113. That he may have. 114. That he might not have

had. 115. Hadst thou not? 116. I shall not have had. 117. We would not have. 118. Hast thou had ? 119. Shall we not have ? 120. Should they not have had ? 121. Would I not have had ? 122. Hast thou not? 123. That thou mayst have had. 124. Should you not have had? 125. Would you not have? 126. That thou mayst not have

had. 127. Shall I not have had? 128. I have not had. 129. He had had. 130. He would not have. 131. Having had.

132. I would not have. 133. That I 134. He will have had. 135. Had they not? 136. Have not (you). 137. That we may not have

had. 138. They will have had. 139. That he might not have. 140. Would they not have? 141. Would they have? 142. That thou mightst not

have had. 143. We had not. 144. Thou hadst had. 145. Has be not? 146. Had I had ? 147. Hast thou? 148. They had. 149. Shall we not have had ? 150. That he may not have

had. 151. Shall I have had ? 152. You should not have had. 153. That you may not have. 154. Would he not have? 155. Have we had? 156. That they might have. 157. That we might have. 158. Had you? 159. We have. 160. We will have. 161. That we might have had. 162. Will they have had ? 163. He had. 164. Have they had ? 165. Have we?

166. Not having had. 167. That they may have. 168. Has he not had ? 169. That they may not have

had. 170, Wouldst thou not have

had ? 171. Have you not had ? 172. Had you not had ? 173. Would they have had ? 174. I shall have. 175. Will he not have had ? 176. We shall have had, 177. Will he have? 178. That they might not have

had. 179. That I might have had. 180. Thou wouldst not have. 181. Had he? 182. I would have. 183. That you might have. 184. Will you not have had ? 185. Had I? 186. Has he? 187. Shall I not have? 188. I have. 189. Have I? 190. I had not had. 191. I shall not have. 192. You had not. 193. Wouldst thou have? 194. That thou mayst have. 195. That I may not have. 196. We have not had. 197. They would have. 198. Would I have had ? 199. Have we not had ?

200. They had not had. 201. He has had. 202. Will they not have had! 203. They had not. 204. Will they have? 205. That they might have had. 206. Thou hast had. 207. Shall we have had ? 208. Had you had ? 209. Have I had ? 210. Shall I have? 211. We would have. 212. We shall not have. 213. Had they not had ? 214. I had had. 215. Had we not? 216. They would have had. 217. Would you have? 218. He has not had. 219. Would he have had? 220. Wilt thou have? 221. You will have. 222. I have had. 223. Thou hast not. 224. Wilt thou have had ? 225. That I may not have had. 226. Would we have? 227. You will not have. 228. Had you not? 229. They will not have had. 230. That you may have. 231. He has not. 232. Would he not have had? 233. Had they had ? 234. Have they not had ? 235. Hadst thou? 236. To have.

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