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with verbs, as subject, direct object, or indirect object, * of the verb. They are:

(1.) THE PRONOUNS USED AS SUBJECTS AND AS OBJECTS.

SINGULAR,

AS SUBJEOT. AS DIRECT OBJEOT. AS INDIRECT OBJEOT. je (j'), I. me (m'), me. me (m'), to me,

tu, thou. te (t'), thee. te (t'), to thee. 3d pers. masc. il, he; it le (l'), him; it. lui, to him.

fem. elle, she; it. la (l'), her; it. lui, to her.

1st pers. 2d pers.

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(2.)

PRONOUNS USED AS OBJECTS ONLY. Se (s'), himself, herself, itself, themselves, one's self (direot or indirect object).

En, some or any, of it, of them (indirect object).
Y, to it, to them (indirect object).
Le (l'), it, so invariable).

8.

REMARKS AND EXAMPLES.

I know you.

The objective pronouns are placed before the verb, except when the verb is in the imperative mode. Je connais.

I know or I do know.
Je vous connais.
Je ne vous connais pas.

I do not know you.
Je parle.

I speak, I do speak. Je lui parle.

I speak to him. Je ne lui parle pas.

I do not speak to him. * See Lotroduction. pp. 17, 18

When the verb is in the imperative mode, and used affiraatively, the objective pronouns stand after the verb. Parlez-lui.

Speak to him. But when the sentence is negative, the pronouns precede tne verb.

Ne lui parlez pas.

Do not speak to him.

Vocabulary 11. Je parle, I speak; I do speak; I Je connais, I know; I do know. am speaking

Il connaît, he knows. Il parle, he speaks; he does speak; Je vois ; il voit, I see; he sees. he is speaking

Un cannarade, a comrade; un caJe donne, I give.

marade de classe, a class-mate I donne, he gives.

Un dictionnaire, a dictionary. Je prête, I lend.

Une fleur, a flower, Il prête, he lends.

Une pêche, a peach. J'apporte, I bring

Les ciseaux, the scissors. Il apporte, he brings.

A présent, at present. J'appelle, I call.

Tous les jours, every day. I appelle, he calls.

Bien, well.

Exercise 11.

(In this Exercise, the pronouns representing the indirect objects are in italic.) 1. Je vous connais. 2. Je vous appelle.

3. Je vous donne ces fleurs. 4. Il me connaît. 5. Il me parle. 6. Jo te vois. 7. Je t'appelle. 8. Je te prête ce livre. 9. Il nous voit. 10. Il nous appelle. 11. Il nous apporte des pêches. 12. Je vois votre camarade de classe. 13. Je le connais bien. 14. Je lui ai prêté un livre. 15. Je connais votre voisine. 16. Je la vois tous les jours. 17. Je lui ai parlé ce matin.

18. Je connais ces hommes. 19. Je les connais bien. 20. Je leur ai vendu un cheval, 21. Avez-vous mon dictionnaire. 22. Je l'ai eu. 23. Je ne l'ai pas à présent. 24. Charles l'a. 25. Il ne l'a pas. 26. Nous l'avons. 27. Où sont mes ciseaux ; les avez-vous ? 28. Je ne les ai pas. 29. Vos camarades les ont. 30. Nous ne les avons pas. 31. Qui les a ?

Theme 11.

1. I know you. 2. I do not speak to you. 3. He sees me. 4. He has given me these peaches 5. I see thee. 6. I give thee these flowers. 7. He calls us. 8. He speaks to us. 9. I know your class-mate. 10. I often* see him. 11. I have lent him my dictionary. 12. I know your cousin Mary. 13. I see her every day. 14. I often* lend her books. 15. I have had your pencil. 16. I have given it to your brother. 17. He has it. 18. He has it not now. 19. Julia has had

20. I have them not now. 21. Louisa has them. 22. She has them not. 23. Have you them? 24. We have them not. 25. The children have them.

your scissors.

TWELFTH LESSON.

CONJUNCTIVE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. (CONTINUED.)—SE; EN; Y; LE.

1. Se is the reflective pronount of the third person, singu. lar and plural, either as direct, or indirect, object of the verb: himself, herself, itself, themselves, one's self, or to himself, etc.

The reflective pronouns of the first and second persons

* Place the adverb after the verb.

+ Reflective pronouns are so called because they receive the reflective action of the verb, as : I see myself. They are a subdivision of the personal pronouns.

are, in form, the same as the objective pronouns given in the preceding lesson. Me, myself, to myself.

Nous, ourselves, to ourselves. Te, thyself, to thyself.

Vous, to yourself, to yourselves.

The reflective pronouns are used in the conjugation of pronominal verbs, as:

Se laver.
Je me lave.
Il se lave.
Vous lavez-vous ?

To wash one's self.
I wash myself.
He washes himself.
Do you wash yourself?

2. En, SOME or ANY; OF IT; OF THEM (indirect object).

The pronoun en expresses a part or quantity of the substance represented by the noun to which it refers: some or any of it, of them; of it, of them. It is used :

(1.) To represent a noun taken in the partitive or the indefinite sense, as : J'ai du papier; en avez-vous ? I have paper; have you some ? J'en ai.

I have (some of it). J'en ai encore.

I still have some. Je n'en ai plus.

I have not any more. J'ai des amis; vous en avez aussi. I have friends; you have some too. J'ai un livre; en avez-vous un ? I have a book; have you one ? Je n'en ai pas.

I have not.

a

(2.) To represent a noun taken in a definite sense, as : U parle de cette affaire; il en He speaks of that business; he parle.

speaks of it.

REM. In this latter sense, en is seldom used with reference to persons, de lui, d'elle, d'eux, d'elles being used instead.

8.

Y, TO IT; TO THEM (indirect object). The

pronoun y expresses the relation of the preposition (to): to it, to them. Pensez-vous à cette affaire ? Do you think of (to) that business? I'y pense.

I think of it (in French to it)

EN AND Y AS ADVERBS.

En and y are also used as adverbs, with reference to a place that has been previously mentioned : en, from it, from there; y, there, to it, at it, in it. Avez-vous été à la poste ? Have you been to the post-office ? J'en viens.

I come from it. J'y vais.

I am going to it. Mon frère y est.

My brother is there.

8.

THE INVARIABLE PRONOUN LE. The invariable pronoun le, equivalent to it or so, is used to represent an adjective or a sentence. Etes-vous content ? Je le suis. Are you satisfied ? I am (80). Il est malade; vous le savez. He is sick; you know it.

Vocabulary 12. Je lave, I wash.

Je pense, I think. Vous lavez, you wash.

Vous pensez, you think. Je flatte, I flatter.

Maman, mamma. Vous flattez, you flatter.

Je vais ; il va, I go; he goes. Je blâme, I blame.

Je viens; il vient, I come; he Vous blâmez, you blame. Je trompe, I deceive.

Je sais; il sait, I know; he knows. Vous trompez, you deceive. J'ai besoin de, I have need of. J'amuse, I amuse.

Un couteau, a knife. Vous amusez, you amuse.

Une fourchette, a fork.

comes.

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